Skip to main content

Full text of "The jubilee history of Parramatta : in commemoration of the first half-century of municipal government, 1861-1911"

See other formats

^tllBRARYQc. .^y[■UNIVfRJ■/4 ^>;lOSANCElfj% 



"^/iHiAlNdJWV^ ^aOJIlVJJO'^ 




<ril30NVS01=<^ ■^Aa3MN(1-3WV^ 

^OFCAllF0fti>^ ^^'rttlJNIV[RS/^ ^lOSANCElCf^ 




■^/ia3AiNiimv^ '^Jt^AavaaiH^ "^t^Aavaaiii^ 




o ^^^ ■ 






"^ajAlNllJWV^ %0JITOJO'^ 




o , 










%a3AiN(imv ^OAavaani^ >&Aavaaiii^ ^J'judnvsoi^ 


o ^^^ " 

, -< 









<ri]3DNVsoi^ %a3AiNn]rt^ 



^OAavaan# <(51]dnvsoi^ "^AaJAiNii^iW 















s _ : 











, -< 




















^/iaaAiNaiwv ^^^Aavaani'^ ^<?Aavaani"^'*' 






^TiijDNvsoi^ ■^/saHAiNnaw^"' 


''^wjnvjjo^ '^^ojiivjjo^ 









g ^^ — .^ 


>;;OFCALIF0% ^OFCAllFOff^ 





• ^lllBRARYO/f 


^^'rtEUNIVERy/.'i. ^lOSANCFlfj-^ ^IIIBRARYO^^ ^lllBRARYO/ 









^OAavaani^ <rii3DNvsoi^ 















^tllBRARYQ^^ ^^^tllBRARYQc 



^.i/OdnVD-JO'*^ %313DNVS01^ "^/iadAINd-JftV^ 









■^aMiNnmv >i?Aavaaii# >&Aavaaii#- 


l-Tl ^2 




^OFCAllF0Ri(>_ ^OFCAllFOff^. 




^ \ojiivjjo^ 










c? — 






.-*;OFCAEIFO% .^0FCA1IF0% 

^ ^ 


^<?Aavaaiii'«^ ^CAavaaiii^ 





O , 










%ojnvjjo^ "^odnvj-jo^ 




"^/iajAiNiidftv ^oAavaaiii'^ 




o " 

^■smmm^ %a3AiNWWV 

^OFCAllFOff^ ^OFCAllFO^t 

''^CAavaaiH'*^ ^CAavaaiu'^ 

^ ^tllBRARYQ^^ 

' '^OJllVJJO^^ 



■<rjiaDwsoi^'^ "^/sa^AiNn-iwv^ 

^^^l•llBRARYQ^ ^^UIBRARYQc^ 

^<yojnvDjo'^ \ojiivjjo'^ 




I m 

< .>g 






.^WEUf^lVER5■//, o^lOSANCElfj. 

-n o 

c^ £9 

/ <- 

The Jubilee History 



In commemoration of the First Half-Cenlury of Municipal Government, 1861-1911. 

Edited by J. Cheyne Wharton. 

P;iiv;im;ilt;i, 3Ulu ^outli f'f'liilfs: 

Printed and Published by Thomas I). Little and Kkhaiii. Stewaut Eichakdson, nt The Cumueelaxd Aiigus 

Printing Woikf, Cliurch and llacqujine Streets. 


The r'arramatta Coiiucil; from the records 
The Water Supply 
Care of the Finances . . 
The Healthfiiluess of P;irram;il(;i .. 
The Sewerage Svstem . . 



(Authorised by the I'ouiieil.) 

. o-2'J 

The Town Hall 

ilayois of J'an-amatta ( I8(i2-]01] ) 
The Mayoral Deadlock ( 1,S73) 
Aldermen of Parramatta (UllJ) 
Conncil Clerks ( ],S(i2-Jf»H ) 





Chapter I.— The Early Days 

Labor and Capital — The First Conference 
The Depot for Convict Women 
Government House and the Governors 
The Railway and the Trams . . 
Fifty Years Ago— by T. D. Little . . 

Chapter II. — The Churches of Parramatta 

St. John 's 

All Saints' 

St. Patrick's 

St. Andrew's 

The Congregational Church . . 

The Baptist Church 

The Methodist Church — bv the Rev. G. C. Percival 

. 31-44 

. 31 






Chapter III. — Distinguished Parramattans 

Samuel Marsden 

John Macarthur 

George Fairfowl Macarthur . . 

W^ B. Clarke and W. Woolls . . 

C. L. Rumker and J. Dunlop . . 

The Father of Parramatta Journalism . . SO 

Other Good Old Parramattans . . . . . . 81 

Chapter IV. — The Oldest Grammar School in .\ustrali:i 85 104 

The King's School (1832-1011) So 

Two Scholarshij) Boards . . . . . . . . sfl 

The King's School To-day— by the Headmaster .. !)0 
What The King's School Stands For— by the Rev. 

A. H. Champion, M.A.. late Headmaster . . 92 
The Interregnum — by L. J. Trollope, Acting-Head- 
master (1863-4) .. .. .. .; ();{ 

The King's School in 1869— by Mr. .rustice Pring '.n 

Changes and Alterations — by the Headmaster . . 9.1 

Athletics at the School — by W. Stewart Corr. M.A. 98 
The King's School Old Boys' Union— bv J. H. M. 

Abbott . , .... . . ' . mi 

Chapter V.— The Public Schools of Parramatta 

Chapter VI.— Parramatta and Defence . . 

Volunteer Inf:intry 





The Mounted Forces of Australia— by Brigadier- 
Col. Burns .. .. .. __ __ 229; 

Our Men in War Time— by Lt.-Col. C. F. Cox, C.B. 113- 

C|ia|.ter \'ll.— Parramatt.'i and .\gvicnlture 

I'hai.ter \" 1 1 1.— Parramatta 's I'nlilical History— 
by ,]. Arundel 

Chapter IX. — Institutions and Charitable Socie 
tits of I'arramatta 

The District Hospital— by T. D. Little 
The Medical Institute — by Joe Button 
Ccuirt Pride of .Australia 
(lorernnu'nt Institutions 

t'hapter X. — The l';irr;imatta P.-irlc 

Chapter XI. — Athletics and Sport in Parram:itta 

Bowling — by Robert Ccddrick 

Cricket — by T. D. Little 

Football— iiy (1. B. Davey 

Racing and Hunting 

Cliiiptcr XII.— Parramatta Men of ^[;irk 

Clia|iter XIII.— The First Railway in X.S.AV.— 

Sydney to Parramatta — by Harry Rich- 
ardson. Assistant Commissioner for 

('h.-ipler .\1\'. — Tlie Progress iit I'arranjat ta. as 
e\i(lence(l liy Thrift .. .^ , ^ 

Cliaplcr .W, — Culture in l'an;imatta 

Tiie School nf Arts— by .1. Aniii.lel .. 
Music in I'arr.-iinatta — bv .Mfrcd I'.arrv 

List of I Ihistr.itions and Inde.x at end of tlie book. 




. . 122 

. . 12-»- 

. . 125- 

. . 126 



. . 133- 

. . 137 

. . 141 

. . 143 









HE EDITOR desiies to tliank very heartily tlie gentlemen who have furnished 
the signed articles that adorn the History ; also, those ladies and gentlemen 
who have been good enough to supply photographs and reminiscences of 
historical persons and landmarks and happenings. 

Thanks are also due to Ministers of the Crown, to the Mayor and Aldermen of 
Parramatta, and to the Officers of the Federal, Stale and Civic Departments for their 
courtesy in facilitating researches. 

It would be invidious to mention the name of any one of the many persons 
who have placed their valued services at the Editor's disposal. 

But his living predecessors who have written about Old Parramatta — Arch- 
deacon Gunther, Dr. Andrew Houison, Mr. W. H. Huntington and Mr. William 
Freame — will perhaps pardon the Editor for acknowledging thus publicly his 
indebtedness to their interesting publications in the columns of ''The Argus'' and 
in pamphlet form. 

Parramatta, November 27th, 1911. 



4: o 

< -■ 


< - 

S s 

< ^- 

q: _• 

< -■ 

^ 2; 

U. : 
O - 





^ -."■ S 





= 3 
2 S 







PARRAMATTA observed commendable prudence 
in the establishment of Municipal government. 
In the 40's Mnnir-ipal Cnuncils were being 
established in various parts of Australia; Adelaide 
set an example towards the end of 1840, to be fol- 
lowed by Sydney and ilelbourne in the November 
and December respectively of 1842. But the New 
South Wales municipal machinery was very defec- 
tive, and Sydne.y was the 
"awful example" to the 
thoughtful citizens of Parra- 
matta, who naturally wanted 
to see how the experiment 
would an.swer elsewhere be- 
fore they introduced it into 
their town. And it did not 
an.swer at all in Sydney. 
After seven y.'ars of it the 
l"'eople raised such an angry 
clamor against the Council's 
incompetence that a select 
committee of the Legislative 
Council iiujuired into the 
nmtter and found unanimous- 
ly that "the bod,v had en- 
tirely lost the confidence of 
the citizens and was regarded 
as an impediment to the im- 
I)rovement of the city." An 
Act was thereafter passed 
aixilishing the corporation 
and v<»sting its power in 
three Conuuissioners. This 
was in 18.'i4. and the trium- 
virate, one of whom, by the 
way, was Mi-. 6. Elliott, 
known in Parramatta as an 
active official, held sway un- 
til 1857. Ill this latter year 
the Council was re-establish- 
ed, and. though its first 

Ma.yor was Mr. (Jeorge Thornton another man well 
known in Parramatta). it had not nearl.\- got through 
its troubles, which at last culminated in iiisolveiic.v 
and the sequestration of its estate. 

The fact was that the efforts of the Aldermen were 
hampered b.y the deficient legislation, and it was not 
until 18.58 that an Act was passed which, whilst it 
made provision for dissolving, if necessary, the then 
existing district Councils, placed the control of the 

ALD. W. F. J AGO, Mayor, 1911 

areas concerned under the Municipal Cmincils to be 
elected by the ratepayers. 

The revenue of the governing bodies was to be 
derived from rates, etc., supplemented b.v a propor- 
tionate grant from the Government. It was uiuler 
this Act, which was not to be amended until 1867, 
that Parramatta was incorporated and the Borougli 
proclaimed on November 27, 1861. 

The First Council. 
It so happened that in 1897 
the late ilr. John Taylor, one 
of the first Aldermen of Par- 
ramatta, M'rote out a list of 
the members of the first 
Council. He was then the 
sole siu'vivor of that body, 
and now he too has joined 
the great majorit.v. An his- 
toric interest then attach(>s 
to this maniiscri|)t, wliich is 
pi'odiici'd ill facsimile on ano- 
ther page. The elections 
were held in December, 1861, 
and on Januar.v 2, 1862, the 
('oiincil began the years of 
useful laboi- which this Olfi- 
cial History commemoi'ates. 
All the AldcTiricii were pre- 
sent, and on the motion of 
Aldermen James Byriu>s, af- 
terwards Ma.vor and ^liiiister 
of tile Crown. Alderman 
was called to the chair. The 
important business before 
the meeting was the election 
of the first ^Maxor of Parra- 
matta, and the lioimr was 
keenly contested. Aldi'rman 
Honison moved, and Alder- 
man Taylor seconded, "That 
Alderman B,vrnes is a ]n-oper 
person to be elected !Ma.vor, " and Aldei-man 
ITarvev and Alderman Good did the like office 
for Alderman John AVilliams in similar words. 
There was a show of hands, when three were held up 
for Alderman B,yrnes and three for Alderman Wil- 
liams, the candidates themselves modestl.v refrain- 
ing from votin;"-. The Chairman gave his vote in 
favor of Alderman Williams, who was thus dnl.y 
elected. At the next meeting, after an ineffectual 







lircilesl ji.uiiilist llir ciiuliniial ion n\' tlic iiiiinilcs, iMi-. 
•Idlm Charles H;ii'kci- was ;i|)|Miiii|i'(l ('Icrk pru triii., 
a iiuiiilH'f of iiotim's oi' inntidii wcit liaiHk'd in, the 
[ilai/f 111' ]iiccting- was fixed as the Ciiiirt IIdiisc "until 


^J/fj^ /^'/ /m^^^- /Av^^ 

^^/^.a.^^ ^e^^^^y^ ^2-^^ ^^^^ '-y^{// 


Mr. John Taylijr supplied the above list, in his own handwriting, to the Editor of 'THE 

ARGUS, • in 1897. 

sDiiie (itliei- more suitable place Ije procured," and the 
('oiincil (h'l'ided that the hour of meeting should he 
4 o'ch)ek. Aldermen lost no time in ^ettin-i- to busi- 
ness. By-law.s and Improvement Committees were 
ai)poiiited on .Fanuary 7 and 13. 
On Januai-y 20 the ^Ia.\or was 
iiisli'iicted lo ask the (jovernor 
to liand over the water reser- 
voir at .\orth Hocks. The By- 
laws were considered at length 
on .January 27. and on February 
'■\ they were further considered 
antl adopteil as amended. The 
pace was evidently too hot for 
.\layoi' Williams, who resijiiied, 
and on February 17 Alderman 
r>y rnes was elected in liis stead. 
.\t I he same meetinu' the first 
.\uditoi' was a])pointcd in the 
person of .Mr. E. L. Rowiini;'. 
(In Fchniaiy L'l' Mr. Patrick 
ilayi's' lenilcr to asses.s the 
Parish of SI. .lohn for £30 was 
accejiti'd. and he aL;reed. more- 
over, to assess the i'arish of 
Field of JIais for another i:2(). 
Aldermen wei'e not eager to be 
I'icli. but they wanted mone.v for 
I 111' munici|ial services, where- 
fore, whilst J\Ir. Hayes was 
uiven two months from March 
1 wherein to the town, 
the Pai'ish of St. Jolin w'as to 
"he done with as little dela.v as 
possible." The second .\uditor. 
iMr. A. E. Dare, was appointed 
on Feln'uary 2-t, but it was not 
until .March 17 that the Council 
considered I he matter of the 
'J'oAvn Clerkship. It was decided 
llial the officer should be both 
Town Clerk and Treasurer, that 
his salai-y should l)e i;2(X) a 
year, and that his sureties 
should be himself in £200 and 
two others in t;400 each. It 
\vas movetl by >\lderman Taylor 
and seconded by Aldermau 
Payten (who had taken Alder- 
man Uood's place a month be- 
fore) that Vly. Barker should be 
appointed, as he had done all 
the clerical work l)efore and 
since ineoi'poration. but it was 
finally decided that applica- 
tions should be invited by ad- 
vertisement. .Mr. liarker was, 
however. a|)piiiiilcil at the next 
iiicctiuL;'. .March :!1. .\1 the 
same meeting (1||. Council ti'ied 
to hnrry up the (iovenunent 
about the Coinnuju Seal. It was 
wantctl for business, not orna- 
ment, but Aldermen did not, 


therL'i'ore. |)r(i[)(' to be i)ut off with an iiinvortliy 
instrument. Wherefore they demanded that the 
desiun should he forwarded "with as little delay as 
jiussible, for the Couneirs approval."' 

Three Important Matters. 

Very early in the Coiineil's history, as has been 
seen, interest was shown in what was to become cue 
of the i>rotitable assets in the town. Hunt's 
Creek Reservoir. <uid it was not much later that the 
Couneil directed its attention to another important 
point in ^Municipal affairs — the lighting of the streets. 
The Improvement Committee was instructed on April 
14 to "consider the best mode of lighting the two 
main streets of the town. viz.. George-street, from the 
wharf to the domain gates, and Church-street, from 
the i)oundary near Beckett's Bridge to the boundary 
near Bntkeii Back Bridge, and to estimate the prob- 
able cost of lamp posts, lamps, etc., and the erection 

justitied. it may be stated — the Under-Secretary add- 
ed that the Government had such contideuce in the 
Council that the permissicm to borrow the £600 had 
not been rescinded. "What other Council has ever 
had [lerniission to borrow money and has not used 
it .' And has there ever been since so sublimely trust- 
ful a Treasury ? 

The First Town Hall. 

Possibly the remarkable abstinence of the Council 
was encouraged by the fine theory that the ordinary 
revenue. Mith the Government subsidy, would nudic 
the Borough independent of the loan market. The 
rate struck was Is in the £ on "the fair average 
annual value of all lands, houses, warehouses, count- 
ing houses, shops and other buildings.'' But it is 
one thing to strike a rate, and another thing to get it 
in; and later in the year the Council was to have a 
sad experience or two in connection herewith, ilean- 


oT the same." The same year, too, saw the first of 
the Borough's financial transactions, and proliably 
this is unicjue in the history of Municipal Boroughs. 
The Council passed a resolution on April 14 asking 
Government's approval of a loan of £6U0 being ob- 
tained for permanent improvements — the construc- 
tion of three drains, the building of a bridge, and the 
making of repairs to the proposed Council Chambers. 
This approval was granted. Init the mone\- was not 
borrowed! For, when the Governor authorised in 
the following October the raising of £5000, "on the 
revenue of this Municipality for three years, for 
making streets and bridges and all incidental ex- 
penses in connection therewith," the Treasurv noted 
that the £5000 was to include the £600, authoi-ised 
but not borrowed. AVith touching faith— thoroughly 

while things proceeded briskly. Aldermen were 
tired of meeting in the Court House, and, as has been 
seen, part of the £600 loan, which was never bor- 
rowed, was to be devoted to the "pernuinent" work 
of repairing Elder House, the building which had 
been selected as the first Town Hall, and 
which is illustrated above on this page. The 
Council took it on yearly lease at £50 a 
year, from ]\Iay 12. 1862. and, as it had 
accommodation for the Town Clerk and his family 
as well as for otifiees and meeting room, the rent can, 
Imrdly be counted extravagant as things went 50 
.vears ago. It was at the j-egular meeting held here 
on May 12, that the first Town Surveyor Avas appoint- 
ed, in the person of Mr. James H. Thomas, chosen out 
of eleven api)licauts (he resigned his appointment 


))erore tlie end i>i' tlie niuiiicipfil year). The (Jinmeil 
iiDW became more fawliionable in its habits, and the 
hour of meeting was changed from 4 to 6.30 p.m., 
■which must have had its inconveniences for persons 
who had their principal evening meal at the then, and 
now, nsual liour. What did concern them was the 
slowness of the Government to hand over the North 
Rocks Reservoir to tliem. Alderman Byrnes reported 
that the Golonial Secretary had repeatedly promised 
to accede to their recpiest "at an early date.'' (The 
Colonial Secretary at the time was Mr. — afterwards 
Sir — Charles Cowper. Things Ministerial moved 

"the Domain (t)iiairi('s laud.'" Possibly willi a view 
to work this block ecoiH)micaliy and well, the Coune-il 
now definitely decided upon the engagement and pay 
of its staff of laborers. In May it had been proposed 
to employ four laborers at 5s a day, but that had 
been negatived. Now in July it was decided to 
em|il(iy two or thi'ec on d.ay wages "at 5s per day 
during tiie hours thc>- work, and that a full day's 
labor shall be computed at the hours from 7 a.m. to 
5 p.m., during the Winter, and from li a.m. to (j j).m. 
during the Sunmier." No meutiou is made of meals, 
but presumably time was allowed off for them. 


(|uickly in those days. Mr. Cowper was now at the 
head of the seventh ministi'y appointed since the 
establishment of responsible government in 1856, 
and this was the third of the five Cabinets he form- 
ed). It is worth noting as prophetic of the care the 
Council has all along taken of the Borough, that a 
strong complaint was more than once made to 
Government this year of the nuisance created by the 
drainage of the Lunatic Asylum being turned into the 
fresh water of the river. 

Sir John Robertson makes his first bow to the Par- 
ramatta (Jouneil in connection with t\w Donuiin 
Quarry. He was then Secretary for Lands, and he 
promised the Mayor to grant the Borough a block of 

The Railway and the Town, 

Now there was moi'c trouble about the lighting of 
the town. The Council clearly saw that "to prevent 
collision and danger to life and limb now liable to 
|)ersoHs coming to and from the railway station," 
thei-e should be a lamp — "a night ligiit" it was 
called — "at the corner of Argyle-street and the rail- 
way enclosure fence, close to the railway bridge." 
Eciually clearly the Council saw that, as the danger 
was created by the Railway people — the railway.? 
were, of course, then governed directly by a Minister 
— it was the Government that should ere<'t and nuiiii- 
tain this light. Sir Joini Robertson promised thre.-i 
times to come uj) and look at this site, but he never 


tiiE .TrniLEE history of i'akrajiatta. 

could spai'c tiiiif. as iiiay be learned from later 
entries in the minute l)();)k. Finally the Couneil had 
to erect the lani]) itself and maintain it. flLiW dif- 
ferent would it have been if the Kaihvavs had be;-.i 

Frederick Charles Cox, Mayor 1884. 

under expert coutrDl. fi-ec from all political and .social 
intiuence ! To-day a jiuhlic body has only to repre- 
sent its case to the Chief Commissioner for Railways. 
He receives the deputation ■with Chestertieldian 
politeness and irrants their recpiest if he finds it 
reasonable. But thing's were different 50 years ago!) 

Defaulters — their Genesis. 

The Anderson Fountain makes its first a|ipeai'ance 
this year. Dr. Anderson, a worthy and i)opular citi- 
zen, had left money in his will for the erection of a 
fountain, and public opinion in Parramatta had 
selected for the site of this fountain the piece of 
land on the western side of Church-street, in front 
of St. John's Church. But JIayor Byrnes had heard 
that Secret ai-y for Laud Robertson, the facile i)ro- 
miser of (piarries. had lieen asked to retire this piece 
of land from public property. The Council promjjtly 
decided to ask the Jlinister for the envied block, and 
as is known, the application was successful. That 
it was not iiuide too soon is evident from the subse- 
c|ueiit elaboration of the Minister's projxisal, with 
which the i-eader nuty not be worried. That was on 
July 21. and next month the second ■"quarterly 
meeting of the. Aldermen of the Town of i'arra- 
matta'' was held "for the transaction of general 
busiuess." (The first, held iu Jlay, was mainly con- 

ceriiecl in tlie votini;' of some tl'T to ,Mr. liarker for 
services rendered as Temporai'y Town Clerk for the 
three months before his regular appointment.) At 
this meeting the "rates and anu)unts on houses anil 
lands for the half year ending June 80" were an- 
iu)unced as £459 5s id. and that sum, together with 
the £ for £ Government subsidy, was the revenue of 
the Borough for the first six months of its existence. 
Yes. but it was not all revenue ; for it was sok'uudy 
announced at the same meeting that there were 119 
defaulters for house properties and 176 for landed 
[)rop'erty. If those defaulters could not he forced to 
I)ay their rates there would be a considerable hole 
in the £-159 5s -Id, and in the proportirju^ite Govern- 
ment subsidy, and the jierturbed Aldi-i-men resolved 
forthwith to obtain a legal opinion — '"the ver\' best." 
said the anxious resolution — as to how to meet the 

In those d;iys it was tlu' hal)it. perhaps the law, 
for the recorder of minutes to write at the end, 
"ad.jourued sine die."" It is. perhaps, luit to be 
wondered at that the postsei-iiit to the meeting nest 
following the sad enumeration of defaulters, was: 
"The Couneil ad.journed sine die. but with the uiuler- 
standing that the iNIayor will call them together 

Edward Pascoe Pearce. Mayor, 1902-3, 

again on Wednesday next."" The next meeting, how- 
ever, was not held on the Wednesday, but on the 
Satui'day after, August 2:i, and it was at this meet- 
ing that the Council resolved to float the £5000 loan 
to which reference has already been made. The 
lighting (juestion came up again on September 'd, 



when the Town Surveyor reported on the unsuitalile- 
ness of kerosene for street li^-htini;-, and at tlie next 
meetiny a tioiid slcp forwaiNl was anmiuin'ed wIh'Ii 
it was .slated tlial (lovcniiiieiit had at hist handed 
over the reservoir to tiie ('ouneil. As a matter of fact 
the statement was premature. The Council mi<;ht 
rest assured that the reservoir wouhl he granted to 
them, Init this assurance would not hold uood in a 
point of law. and the Conneil conse((uently devoted 
much paper and postage in re((uests to the ^Minister 
to issue the proper grant. The Minister replied as 
Ministers do, that this will he done with the usual 
despatch, the grant "will come in its ordinary 
course.'' Meanwhile, however. Aldermen made sure 
care was taken of this valuable aei|uisition to the 

and wanted to know how much 
money tlieir warraids iiad I'e- 
eovered. None! They had not 
l)een issueil. liecjuise the Com- 
mon Seal about which the 
Cduncil hail already reminded 
the (Jovernment, was not yet 
ready. A similar excuse to be 
nuide at the meeting of Octolior 
15, but a fortnight later, tlie 
Seal had arrived safely and had 
l)een duly affixed to the war- John Saunders. 

rants. But. unfortunately for Mayor 1907 

the Council, the defaulters were not so vividly im- 
press(^d liy the Seal as was exiieeted and desired 


Standing ll.ft In riglil\-H. Oberman, CoUeclor; W. M. Con. Overseer of Works; C. W. Bardsley. Sanitary Inspector. 

Sitting J. Ellis, Jun., Draftsman ; W. G. Moffilt, Accountant ; S. Davies. Town Clerk ; L. W. Saladine, Deputy Clerk ; G. G. Veitch. Junior Clerk. 

Town's assets, and regulations were from tiiin> to 
timi' made \'ny ihu management of tlie i'esrr\(iii'. 

Trouble with Defaulters. 

By this time tlie Council had decided to take strong 
measures with defaulters. Warrants of Distress were 
to be issued, it declared im Septemliei- :i. and then 
Aldei'nien came up to the meetinu' a fortnight later 

Amongst otiier m'cessary paraphernalia a Bailiff. 
Ralph -Mood, had been appointed, and he had gon,> 
round with his sealed warrants, bnl. unfortunately, 
he had not been received with the degree of warmth, 
whitdi a zt>alous officer should inspire. Certain 
defaulters had been quite rude to him. indeed, and 
there ^^•as a lot of trouble. The ^hiyor was author- 
ised to "take steps," so that tli(>re was a pretty 



ccinsidcrablc mess. Ilowover. in one caso at any rato, 
the Council seoreil, inasnuich as the goods seized hy 
the alert Bailiff for overdue rates, £2 8s lid, were 
sold for £;^ (is. It is not recorded in the niiiuites, by 
the way. that the Council's first troubles witli 
dcl'aultinii' ratepa\'i'rs were also the last. 


" Offensive Language." 
is pleasant to know tliat Aldermen 

.f the 
Parr'amatta of those days — as now — were not given 
tn foilowinL;' the example of Parliament in the matter 
of miscellaneous lano'iiage. Thus, there was a 
discussion at the quarterly meeting in November 
about confirming the minutes, and Alderman Nash 
ventured to give his opinion. Then the official recoi'd 
goes on : — 

"]\Ir. Alderman Taylor said with regard to Mv. 
Alderman Nash. 'I take Alderman Nash as no 
authority on points of order. lie l<niiws nothing 
about it.' 

"JMr. Alderman Nash appealeil to the Chair (which 
was occupied by Mr. Alderman Williams) and said 
that the expressions used were offensive. 

"The Chairman ruled .Mr. Alderman Taylor out of 
order and re(|uested him to witlidraw the exi)ressions. 

expressions nuule use of towards Alderman Nash." 
Cai-ried unanimously. The Chairnuiu requested the 

Church Streef, Parramatta, looking South, showing Town Hall. 

"Alderman Taylor would not withdraw them. Ch-rk to call Alderman Taylor, hut he would not 

whereon the Chairman re<|uesteil him to retire whilst leturu."" 

the Council considered the matter. Then the tnmlile was r.'vived at next Council, 

"Mr. Alderiiuiu Taylor having retired. :\lr. Alder- November a. (luiqiowdcr Da.w of all days. The 

man Pyc moved and :\lr. Ablerman Ilarviw seccinded, .Mayor was on ileck this time and he suh-iindy called 

that 'Alderman Tayh.i' withdraw ll Ifen.sive mi .Mderuian Tavlor to •• i-et I'act. " an<l the ai'ciised 



haviiij,' liad tlu^ offensive expressions read over to 
him sijiiiified his willingness to withdraw tlie second 
sentenee abont Alderman N.ish ("He knows nothing 
al)out it.") hnt he ilistinetly and lirmly deeiiiied to 
withdraw the other remarlc ("I talve Alderman Nash 
as no authoi'ity npon iioints of order.") The i\Iayor 
conid do no more, Imt llie aggrieved Alderman 
dechired that he would ap])ly for redress nnder the 
Mnnieipal Act. 

What a remarkably polite and sensitive body the 
Parramatta Council was in 1862 — and now — if 
animadversions on an Alderman's authority on points 
of order were regarded as offensive, by all but the 
Alderman who made them. 

The Councirs Main Objects. 

It would ln' manifestly impossible, even if it were 
desirable, to go thi-ough each of the oO years of the 
Council's histor\' and iletail the doings of each vear. 

to know every detail of the methodical work of the 

The nuun ob.ject, indeed, of dwelling so fully on 
tlu' first year's work of the Council is to emphasise 
the far-sightedness of the fathers of Jlunieipal 
Government in Parramatta. It will have been seen 
that, apart from the ordinary objects of municipal 
enterprise, which they were far from neglecting, they 
devoted jjarticular attention to certain definite enter- 
prises which had to do with the advancement of 
Parramatta. Thus we see that they considered care- 
fully — (a) The water supply of the town; (b) Its 
lighting; (c) Its health, and (d) Its finances. A 
number of other things grouped round these, and to 
them due attention was paid. To all due attention 
is being paid to-da.y, and the work done may bo 
regarded more clearly if each subject is taken 
separately, rather than if the reader were retpiired 
to read a conglomerate re-hash of the official minutes. 

Main Entrance to Parramatta Park, George Street. 

This first year has lieen treated in this wa.\'. all tin; 
salient points being noted, because its reeorils show 
how the Aldermen devoted themselves to their 
important work, and how the,\' selected particular 
lines upon which tlieir energies should be focussed. 
It would not in the least interest llii' oi'dinarv reader 


Ill the very first month of its existem-e, as has been 
noted, the Council started on the work of securing to 
citizens the control of an ample suppl.v of fresh 
water. For various reasons, which it is uot necessary 



now to enumerate, the fresh water that Hows into 
the Parramatta branch of Sydney Harbour, was not 
to tlu^ liking of citizens. An agitation was, there- 
fore, started, and early in the "tiftii's" it had lieen 
so far suecessful that a daiii liad been cnnstrueted at 
Hunt's ('reek. One of the main causes that insti- 
gated, and .justified, the eitizens to have llirir town 
inc(]r|Kirated was a desire that the watei- impounded 
at Hunt's Creek should be conducted into the town. 
They were not then aware, perhaps, that the Govern- 
ment, with the resources of the community behind 
it, could lay the necessary pipes, but that a Muni- 
(■\]m\ ('o\nieil. as the law then was, would find its 

"]Mr. Pye, " the correspondent goes on, "bought a 
I)ieee of land on Hunt's Creek, and gave the site on 
whicdi the dam is now erected. With a satisfied con- 
victiiin (if its iirni-ticMl utility ami the inealeulable 
aTid |icriM:iiicnt licndils to tc dcrivi il ti) the com- 
munity from a iiermanent supply of i)ure water, 'Sir. 
I've has devoted a large share of his time and atte:i- 
tion to an almost daily supervision of the woi-ks. 
from their commencement to completion. He secured 
the advice of the late Sir Thomas JMitchell and ]\Ir. 
Clarke, whose opinions c<)nfirmed the eligibility of 
the spot selected. The work is one of very great 
stabilitx'. There is uotbinu' of the kind in tlic culony 

Old George Street, Parramatta, shewing Government House in 1790. 

way obstructed at every slcp. licfore. however, the 
Borcuigh was ineorjior'ateil. the foundations oi tliis 
great as-set, great financially as well as from a health 
point of view, had been duly laid. In a Sydney papei' 
dated September 10th. 1857. there is a description of 
the work that had then been accomplished. A 
I'arranuitta correspondent of the jiaper. who signs 
himself "Omega." records the names of the Com- 
mittee which had charge()f the construction of the 
dam. This Committee consisted of Messrs. D. Forbes, 
J. Pye. M.P., A. Finch, Holden. and Suttor. M.W. 
and subsequently of Messrs. F- 0. Dowall and Gould. 

e((i|;il Id il . The (hi 111 is ci illsl n Icl (■( I of solid lll.'isonry ; 
il is alioiil S(l yards in the open, 1.") I'eel Ihiek iil the 
base, iiiid S feet at the top; it is 30 feel liigh from 
I lie lied of the creek. The facc of the dam ])resents 
a pei'peiidicnhir hut convex surface to the stream, 
like an arch laid pnisl rate, the slope to the foiuula- 
lion is on the bacl< or concave side. There is a 
I'.ir.ipel about 4 IVet high ahuig the water edge of 
llie sniFacc. alioiil the centi'e of which is inserted a 
maible slab, and on the slab is insci'ilie(l the name 
of Sii- William l)ei]isoii, the year in which llie 
si iMicI iii'e was coiiipleled. and the names ol' tin; 



Sll|)cr\ isi(ili,-|l ( '(ilrilliill<'i'. Till' liril dl' till' rl'rrk at. 
till' fare dl' till' ihiiii IS iipwarils of l-t I'ri't ahiivr tin' 
li'\-cl 111' till' stri'i't at till' coriirr in rrniit nl' tlu' ('inirt 
IIiiiisi'. Till.' siipiily 1)1' water wmild hi' aiiiplr for 
S\diii'y jilsii. When the jiipes are laid im, all the 
tiovernnient oftiees and institutious may lie supplied. 
Jlr. Pre has sugi;ested tliat pipes should he laid in 
the direi'lion of the main street to I'ai-i-ainal la. ami 
fiMintains ereeted at eoiivenieiit dislaiiees. rapalile ol' 
siipplyinu' water carts, eti/.. and that they should he 
laid hy deiirees aeeordin^ as the funds were avail- 
ahle. The i_lam is distant frmii the Court Ilniise 
ahout a mile and tlirei'-i|uai ters. Sdoii after comple- 
tion it was testi'd and found to throw the Avater baidc 
for Ilp\^■al■l!s of a mile and a half. In this distance 

shoiilil take |)lace. as the dam is let into the solid 
loi'k which forms the hank- on hoth sides of the 
creek, and against which it ahiits."' 

The Council's Work. 

It was this dcsirahle asset that came within tlie 
view of Parramatta when the Poroui;h was incor- 
porated, and. as the Mr. I'ye who had talvcn so 
patriotic ami hroad-iiiinded a part in its creation 
was one of the Aldermen, it Avas naturally e.xiiected 
that the L'ouiicil would rise to the occasion. And 
those ex])ectations ha\'i' heeii thorouiihly fiiltilled. 
though it was Alderman Pyriies. not Alderman Jame.s 
Pye. who moved the t'oiineil to take the first step 
in the matter — the steji that has been recorded ahove. 

Old Government House, Parramatta Park, 1911. 

are several bend.s of the creek, forming ba.sins or 
bays of considerable extent, which were first navi- 
gated by the Hon. Mr. Donaldson (the first Premier 
of New South Wales and the father of the present 
v\rehbis]iop of Brisbane) and several other gentle- 
men. The water has been analysed by Professor 
Smith, and found to he of purer ipiality than an>' in 
the neighbourhood of Parramatta. Mr. Randle was 
the contractor, and ]\Ir. Moriarty the engineer. The 
foundation is very substantial, an immensity of labor 
having been exjiended on it. It is scarcely possible 
that it could be swe|)t away hy any liody of water 
the creek would hold, or that a leak of any extent 

All the same, people then, and now, recognise that 
it is largely to James Pye that Parramatta owes the 
possession of a supply of water which has, in a double 
sense, floated the Borough into peaceful waters. 

Governor Denison is commemorated here, and 
fjovernor Denison had no more to do with the work 
than the King's jiicture had to do with the printing 
of a half-penny postage stamp. If anybody's name 
is to be renuunbered in connection with the beginning 
of this enteriu'ise it is that of James Pye. IIi> sought 
no honors in his life time, and he was content to give 
his services to the people withmit fee or reward, or 
even recoj^uitiou. None the less is it the duty of the 



citi/.nis wild li:i\c hi'iii'Hlccl. wlni ai'c to-day l)enetit- 
iiii;-, hy liis piitriotisiii, to nMiieiul)ei' — haply, to com- 
iiiciiioraU' — the good he did them. 

Since the moment i\\>- reservoir was hauded over 
to the Council by the (iovernment there has been no 
looking bacdv. True, the brilliant anticipations of 
the writer, whose description of the dam has jnst 
liecii (|ni'ti'd. have not been caiTied out to the letter. 
'1 hr Hunt's ('re(ds: Reservoir, for instance, has not 
liecn able to supply Sydnex' as well as Parramatta 
with a constant flow of fresh water, and there have 
been times when Parramatta itself has been obliged to 

in his inlercslinL; li'ltei- on the sub.jeet to '"'i'lie Cunl- 
berland Argns" a couple of months or so ago. the 
then law was dead against any such "ridiculous 
l)roposar" as the bringing of water into n town. If 
towns] 'eople wanted any water better than that 
supjilied at their tloms by initure, let them go out 
with their buckets ;uid fetch in foreign wateiM The 
law had no patience with the absurd idea ol' bringing 
the -water to the people, and, even Axiien the law 
had been taught more sense in this I'espeiM. the 
difticulties of the enterprise seemed insurmountable. 
A way through them, however, Avas found l)y iMr. 

Church Street, looking South, showing Post Office. 

call upon the Nepean to supplement the efforts of the 
local supply. That, of course, was not dreamt of in 
the early (hiys of the Parranuitta Council. Its main 
business was to get the water into the town, and it 
went al)out this business lhor(Mighly, deserving all 
the success whicli has since been attained. Mr. Pyc 
liad conveyed the fee simple of the portion of the 
Reservoir which he had ac(piired for the public 
heiH'fit, to the Pairamatta Water ( 'oiiimissiotU'rs. 
After various delays, this fee sim|)le was obtained. 
Then there was tfouble about laying th(> pipes, and 
the Council has to contest "trespass" suits. As a 
niatter of fact, as Mr. George K. Young pointed out 

(then Alderman) Young's brother, who submitted a 
scheme, prejjared by some London engineer on the 
basis of ii plan |)repared by the then Town Surveyor, 
IMr. Ralpli Richardson (father of the present Railway 
Conunissioner). Mr. Young's statement that this 
scheme was approved by the Council is supported by 
the minute book, so that amongst the persons to 
whom Parramatta owes a debt of gratitude in i-egai'd 
ti> its water suppix Ihere shonlil be enuiiKTaled .Mr. 
• ieoruc i'^ ^'oung and his brother. 

l'"or tlu' last half ceidui'y this supply of water has 
been worth more than its weiglit in gold. It was not 
sufficient for the wants of Sydney, as the Parramatta 

THE Jubilee ihstuuy of pakuamatta. 


C()rr('S|i(iii(l('iit of tlic iiii'tropolitan paper above 
(|U(it(Ml priijilicsicd. It was not even always sufficient 
f(ir till' wants of I'arraniatta. Hut it has been a 
iHiiintifiil sonree of revenue as well as of water. It 
cost much to bring' the water into the town anil to 
maintain and improve the dam and the supply; but 
all this i-ost has been more than al)undantly re-i)aid. 
In tile old days when each Municipal activity was 
undei- a separate headin"' and had its own accoiuit 
in the liank and in the Council's books, the Water 
Account used sometimes to be overflowing', whilst 
the others were in a very low state. In such cases 
tile Council wisclv borrowed from the Water 

you ma.v. construct pipes as fret'ly as possil)le for tin' 
conveyance of the water from the dam to the town; 
but if the rains do not fall, and if the dam becomes 
little better than an emi)ty cistern — what then? This 
has unhappily occurred more than once in the history 
of Parramafta. Our local supjily has failed, and we 
have been obliged to draw on the resources of the 
Nepean water suppl.y. Indeed, as po])ulation 
increased, and the demands on the local suppl\' were 
almost centupled, it liecame a (|iicsti(iii for the 
Council wiiether nv nut the Xe[)ean water supjily 
should lie substituted regularly for our own. Aldcr- 
hien wisel.v referi'i'il the ipiestioii to tiie ratepayers, 

Parramatta River, showing Protestant Orphan Home, now Rydalmere Hospital for Insane. 

Account, and everything went on swimmingly again. 
Indeed, it is hard to decide which to admire most, 
the civic patriotism of Mr. James Pye in practically 
presenting the foundations of this great asset to the 
town : the persistent efforts of the Council throughout 
its lifty years of life to make this asset of imiiiediate 
present value to citizens; or the lirilliaut linancijil 
success which has ci'owned these efforts. 

One thing was forgotten by the prophets of 1857, 
the jiossible recurrence of droughty seasons. The 
best laid scliemes of engineers, the most canii\st 
fft'oi'ts of civic legislators, are jiaralysed in the face 
of nature's eccentricities. Build the dam as well as 

who decided by a majority that the Nepean supply 
should be introduced as a permanent thing. It is 
now. But there are parts of Parramatta which it 
cannot reach, and tliese are supplied from the 
reservoir which a patriotic Alderman in-esented to 
the town, and which succeeding iiatriotic Aldermen 
ha\'e iiiipi'ovcil and preserved for the use of citizens. 


Willi a half-yearly revenue of .t4.jl) r)S -id owed by 
ratepayers, and with an equal Goverumeut subsidy, 



the ('(iiiiii-il 111' ^S^)'2 t'ciiuid itsrlt' li;iiii]i('ri-d in its 
liiianccs. A way was disi-uvered out of tlie ti'ni]iorai-y 
oiiil)arrassineiit by the opening of a eash credit with 
the Oriental Bank Corporation, an institution whieh 
then gave no signs of the weakness which was to 
lead later to its heavy and disastrous fall. Arrange- 
ments were made for an overdraft, not exceeding 
.£3000. and the money, which was 1o he used for the 
"permanent improvement of the .Municipality " was 
to be drawn by clu'iiue. signed liy tlu' Mayor aiul a 
member of the Finance Committee, and countersigned 
bv ''Town or Council Clerk'."' This accomminlatior, 

condition, and was "passiiig rich mi >J4ll a year."' 
Iiuleed, a Near later he had opi)orti'.nily of looking 
bai ]\ u|)on his aiflueiit past with regret, for then his 
salary was cut down by half, and he had. besides thi> 
ordinary duties ot his office, to serve all rate-papers 
Hiul other notices. The labor pay sheets for this 
year (1864) tell their own story. For one week in 
.March the total was £8 14s. and that included the 
salai'ies of officers. In 11111 the Council jiays some- 
thing nice £70 or £80 a week for labor aloiu'. and 
sees that it gets full value for the money, and that 
sum docs not include the sahiries of the Town Clerk 

Court House, Pari'amalt.» 

Mas. of course, independent of the £(iOO loan, author- 
ised but iu)t borrowed, and of the £5000 in which it 
was swallowed up. But the Couiu'il had to take meas- 
ures in view of the bad times and of the"rate-owers. '" 
There w'erc li'y defaulters in 1864. and accordingly were reduced "on account of the bad state 
of the funds." the Surveyor's services (at £'2 2s per 
week) were dispensed with, and the Town Clerk 
consented to a tcm|)orary reduction of his salary ''in 
eonseciuence of the eudiarrassed state of the C(nni- 
cil." There was one officer who was indispensable, 
largely in view of the 14') defaidlers. and that was 
Bailiff Ealph Mood, who literally fulfilled the poet's 

and his assistants. The Council had to incur expense. 
Bailiff Mood (whose valuable services were retained 
till 1882, when he retired) was not always able 
to get verdicts, and i-ecourse had to be made to 
members of the legal profession, who were few and 
far between in those days, and consequently 
exj)ensive. Souh- of them, iiuleed. were addicted to 
sharp jiractices. a coiulition which is. haii])ily, 
uiiluuiwii in (lur eidigliteiu'd days, when a solicitor 
is not only a gentlcnian i>y Act of Parliament, but a 
perfectly honorable person by nature. So. perhat)s, 
the Council of 18(14 was not so much shocked as the 
Council of 1!)11 would be, when it received a denuuid 



from "i^'ont. one," who shall be nameless, to he paid 
I'or some work re the proposed water sui)iily. It 
merely i)assed a resohition, "Tliat the ('oiineil, never 
having- eontraeted the debt, knows nolhinii- of it." 
and went on to the next business. All tiic same, the 
necessity foi' havini;- legal opinion on tap was plain 
to Aldermi'ii. and a1 this same meeting' Mr. William 
Roberts was appointed "Solicitor for the ]\Inniei|/al 
Council of I'arramatta," a retainer fee of £5 os being 
paid to him. He renuiined in office for some years, 
but in 1869, the resolution appointing him was res- 
cinded and Mr. J. K. Bowden entered upon his long 
and honorable control of the legal business of the 
Council. Tlis retainer fee, it is interesting to nntr, 
was 5s, but his services have resulted in greater 
benefit to Pai'ramatta — and to himself. presunud)ly — 
than the modesty of this iiiiiouiil niiglit lend ]'i'iiple 
to assume. 

Readers would carefidly sl;ip a (h'tailed relation of 
the steps which the Ciiuncil tonk at various stages in 
the discharge of its duty as the guai'diaii and pro- 
iiidler of the interests of tin- ratepayei's. and as the 
lioily rlnirgcd with the developiiumt of the progress 
of the Borough. It will ])e well, therefore, to proceed 
to a statement of the present financial condition, and 
from this it \\ill be seen that Parranuitta has reason 
to ho thanUrni to its Aldermen throughout the past 
hair ceiitniy. Ine\'ilal)l\'. im the old priin'ii>le that 

ever, was irrei)roachable. and successive Councils 
took all sorts of eare that the lU)rough should pay 
as little for the numey required as could reasoimbly 
be expected in the I'irenmstances. In 1!)()2. however. 

Macquarie Street Entrance to Parramatta Park. 

brieks cannot be nunle without straw, the Council tlie Coinu-il found 1 hat its debt amounted to {:r)r),r)()0, 

liad ;it vai-ious times to have recoui'se to the monex- on dift'ereiit accounts — general, lighting, watei- anil 

'einlei'. lie \v;is generally a ])i-i\ale person, anil he so on — due to \-;ii'ions persons and institutiiuis. ami 

lent his money, natni'ally eninigh. at as high a r;ile bearing interest at wii'ying rates, in some cases, 

ot intei'est as he eindil di'inaml. The seenrily, Innv- indeeil, np to S per cent. The eai'ital sum owing was 



rodnc'pd to £55.100 by the sale of some machinery 
wlik'h was not wanted, and then all the debts were 
consolidated into (inc. 'I'lir S:i\in<is Hank of New 
South Wales was .ulad to lake up this loan at 411. 
per cent., and to agree that part sluiuld be paid olf 
as the Council found it convenient. That was in 
11)08, and the loan was made payable in ten years. 
Full advantati'e has been taken of the above- 
mentioned provision, and to-day the Council has 
reduced its indebtedness to £52,300. The Bank has 
a gilt-edged investment, with which it would be 
sorry to part, but the Council, mindful of the £2300 
odd that it has to pay every year by way of interest, 

books to 31st December, 1910. were in the ordinary 
course audited by Messrs. Priestls'. Larcomlie ami 
I\I(U-ris. professional accoimtants of Sydney, and the 
result cannot but lie deemed satisfactory on the 
whole to Aldermen and ratepayers alike. Certainly, 
improvements were suggested, and. in one respect 
particularly, tiie advice to employ a skilled accoinit- 
ant who should relieve the Overseer of Works from 
otifice duties of that character, the Council has already 
taken action. Tlie auditors note that the expendi- 
ture on the (ieneral Fund Account for the year 
ending 31st December, 1910, was £8356 15s 3d, as 
against the revenue of £7828 14s 7d (compare this 

Church Street, Parramatta, looking South from Lennox Bridge. 

devotes (>vei-y avaihiMc poniid. nfliT due provision 
has been made for the niainten;'nce and the extension 
of Municipal seivices. lo the purchase of debentures. 
l>y a .judicious system recently introduced, credit 
lialances at the bank wnth which the Council does 
business are made to earn money, and thus the road 
is made easier to the atlaimnent of the goal, when 
the Horough will be absolutely fi'in- of debt, and will 
be able to devote to ])resent necessities the sum now 
used in ])ay!iu'nt of llie liabilities incurred in formei' 
years in lln^ cstalilislinicnt df advantages now 

In ilay of thi' pi'es<'nt year. IIMI. Ihe Council's 

revenue witli the £459 5s 4d of llic linrougirs lirst 
half-year), but they also note thai "all dislnirsenienls 
made have licen in accordance wilh law. under the 
authoi'ilN' of the Council, and duly vciuclird fur."" 
They deplore the fact that old ai'rears of rates ainoimt 
to £1947 2s, but unfortunately they fail to suggest 
any means by which the unknown owners of various 
allotnu'nts may be c(uupelled to pay up. As a nuitter 
iif fa<'l. the Council has greatly red\u-ed the length 
and amount of these arrears, and. whatever may have 
been the case in the past, care is taken now for the 
recovery of rates owing, whenever ])ossible. The 
income derived fi-om the Sanitary and Crarbage 



Service has fallen, the Auditors observe, from £1471 
10s 2cl in 1909 to £1124 18s lid in 1910, so that the 
profit has fallen from £360 in 1909 to £59 in 1910, 
but that is plainly due to the fact that the sewerage 
service is not yet fully established, and the contractor 
is still drawinj^- on the fund. The position will be 
iinj)rovetl with the imposition of a Sewerage Rate, 
though at the same time the Council is naturally 
averse to deriving from a necessary service more 
than is sufficient to pay the cost of its maintenance. 

Already this rate has been fixed, and incidentally 
a succinct statement of the position placed before 

expense is spared to keep Parramatta in the healthy 
and desirable condition to which the efforts of suc- 
cessive Aldermen, aided by its natural advantages, 
have raised the Borough. 

Care should be taken nut to confound the figures 
quoted al)ove in connection with this rate, with the 
figures for Parramatta. The following tables — for 
which we are indebted to the courtesy of Mr. J. B. 
Trivett, F.R.A.S., F.S.S., Government Statistician — 
show what really is the improved capital value of 
the Municipality, and they also show at a glance 
Parramatta 's progress in the half century, achieved 

Oak Avenue and River Scene, Parramatta Park, 

ratepayers. According to this, the amount of the 
proposed expendituie is £4533. There were no funds 
in hand available. l)ut a Government contril)ution 
to the extent of ^1361 was to be paid. Tliat leaves 
a balance of £3172, whicli was to be met (with a little 
over) by a rate of one penny in the pound on the 
improved capital value (£774.330 7s 6d) of the 
ratable property within the sewered area. 

On the whole the Auditors' official repm-f sluiws 
that the Council is keenly alive to the importance of 
Hic work it has in hand, and that no legitimate 

liy steady and uniform progress as distinct fi-om a 
meteoric projection u])on the civic screen: — 
Population. Census 1861 (Ti)wnshipl . . 5,577 

Annual Value (1862^ £23.449 

Ksliniateil popuhition, 31st l)(^ceml)er, 

1910 (Municipalitv) 13,600 

TTnimproved Capital Value. 1910 £356.614 

Improved Capital Value. 1910 £999.475 

Assessed Annual Value. 1910 £69.498 

Rates Levied, 1910 £7,832 




Xrvy chiNcly e-miiii'ctcd willi the matter cif the 
wiitcr supply is that of the health of Parramatta. 
To-tlay Parramatta is. as statisties prove, as healthy 
a town as there is in Australia, ami for this desired 
cousuniiuation citizens to-day must sincerely thank 
the IMunicipal Council. All throii<;h the fifty years 
of its existence, the Couucil has fought strenuously 
for the maintenance of ^wod conditions of living, and 
for the suppression of those offences against those 
conditions which were the result of ig-norance or 
laziness or prejudice, or a ciunliiiiat inn of all these. 

Despite all the work of the Council and the 
concrete facts of the case, which could easily have 
been ascertained from the official records, i)eople 
have taken a curiotis pleasure in asserting that 
Parramatta is not a healthy town. They have gone 
even furthei-. They have claimed that Parramatta 
is the hot-lied, the nursery, of typhoiil. It is as well 
to state this allegation clearly, before we proceed to 
examine into its truth. ]\Ieanwhil('. so that the 
refutation may immediately follow tin' allegation, 
let it be said that the statement is absolutely un- 
founded. It may be admitted, but purely for the of the argument, tliat the ('ouiicil had to 

Post Office, Church Street, Parramatta. 

It would be undesirable in a general review such as 
this, to go into the details of these offences. It nnist 
suffice to say that people generally, and Government 
institutii>ns in particular, were ajit to regard the 
ri\rr. not as as source of life and lu^alth, but as a 
convenient channel for the remtival of nuisances. The 
Council has been em]ihatic and constant in its jiro- 
tests against this misuse of a great natural advan- 
tage, beginning those protests in the very first year 
of its history and repeating them constantly, 
whenever occasion demanded, ever since. Various 
promises were made from time to time by the Sydney 
officials, and these promises were sometimes honored 
in the observance. 

contend against conditions which did not exist in any 
other centre of pupulation in New South ^V^des. 

It may be admitted, too, that the schemes adopted 
at various times for the maintenance of hi>althy con- 
ditions were not such as would commend themselves 
to a Sanitary Inspector of to-day. At h-ast. it may 
be ])leade(l in this regard that they wiTe the best 
known at the time of their adoption. 

And to-day what do we find? As n^achTs know, 
the law provides tliat e\-ery case of infectious disease 
shall be notified to tiu' authorities. Thei'c were 42 
such cases notified in 1908, 25 of them t\ phoid. 14 
scarlet fe^er, and three dijihtheria. These were cases 
of persons actually Inhinging to Parramatta, and 



there were, in addition, nine eases whieh came from 
other parts of thi' State. Obviously, these should not 
have been placed to the credit, or discredit, of Fari-a- 
matta. Hut they were! The i)ublic have to consider 
— iiut tile jiublic never does — that a central town 
like rarramatta, with its Hospital and its Asylums 
for old jjcople, attracts a population from all jjart.s 
of the State. A man gets typhoid in Katoomba, say; 
he comes down to Parramatta Hospital for treat- 
ment, and therefore, Parramatta is credited with 
another ease of ty])hoid. And in iiuMuuerable 
instances patients suifei'ing from this disease ;ire 
admitted from up the line and down the liiu'. It is 

1'2 cases for which Parramatta can be hehl in any 
way resjjonsible ai-e of dijihtheria. Jledical authori- 
ties will tell you that they are not sure of the origin 
of diphtheria, which ma.>' be due to unhealthy condi- 
tions or to the presence, unsuspected by the dis- 
tiiliuter as well as by his next door neighbour, of a 
per.sou with the germs of diphtheria in his sy.stem. 
Obviously no sanitary precautions can guard against 
the latter possibility. It is only the other day that 
an epidemic of diiilitheria made its presence felt in 
a metropolitan hosjhlal, and the only reason that 
could be assigned for the outbreak was the unsus- 
pected iiresence of these germs in a patient who was 
being treated for some other disorder. Science caiiuot 



Main Pavilion, Parramatta Park. 

not the place where a man contracts the disease that 
is credited with it. it is the place where the visitor 
is treated and cured. 

But let us go a sti^p furthei'. The numlier of cases 
of typhoid, 25 in 1908, fell to 15 in 1I)0!I ; they were 
It) in 1910, and there is not one so far in 1!)11, that 
is up to the week in September. The "hot-bed 
of typhoid!" Not one case of typhoid in ;dl the 
eight months of perhaps the trying time that 
has been ex])erienced in New South Wales! Not one, 
though the same conditions prevail as to the admis- 
sion into the Borough of persons from all jiarts of the 
State. So far there have been 12 local cases of 
infectiou.s disease and 18 imi)orted cases, and all the 

guard against an oiitbreak of diphtheria, though, 
hajjpily. it has discovered means to make the disease, 
once a sentence of death, practically innocuous. But 
typhoid! There is no typhoid in Parramatta. And 
tor this, citizens of Parramatta to-day owe thanks 
not only to present Aldermen, but to their prede- 
cessors during the past fift.y years. Constant vigil- 
ance, constant effort, has been the motto all along, 
and if it was the happy foi-tiuie of the Council of 
1909 to see the sewerage system established, none 
tile less do we owe hearty gratitude to the Aldermen 
of old tiuie, who were instant, in season and out of 
season, in lurthering the sanitary interests of the 




Notliiug that tlio Cmuu-il has doiu' duriiii;- its tit'ty 
years' exi.stenc-e rodouiuls so iiuu'h to its credit as the 
up-to-date Se\verat;e System the Borouiih now enjoys. 
From an almost insanitary town, Parramatta has 
been transformed into one of the most healthy and 
delightful suburbs around the metropolis. 

This satisfactory condition has not been achieved 
without a great deal of self-sacriticinii' labor on the 
part of past flavors. Aldermen, and Citizens. Not 
only had Ministers to be satisfied, bnt Departmental 
Officers had to be fought, and Public Works Com- 
mittees, as well as Parliaments, convinced of our 
neeessit.v. The mcmt difficult opponents of all. 
thoiigh. were those of our own household, who could 
see. no virtue in a scheme that required them to pay 
increased rates. The task of winning these over was 

in 1892, placed Ijefore the Public Works Committee, 
who approved of precipitation and filtration treat- 
ment at Clay Cliff Creek. The Departmental Offi- 
cers, however, objected, and in 1894 the Public 
Works Conniiittee again considered the ((uestion, and 
decided that the municipality could not bear the 
cost. Further aud continued pressure upon ]\linis- 
ters resulted in fresh proi)osals being placed before 
the Works Connnittee of 1897. After a searching 
en(|uiry this Conuuittee approved of a scheme which 
re(|uired the establishment of a Sewerage Farm at 
Duck River. The details of the Connnittee 's finding 
were severely criticised in the Coimcil, and a lengthy 
detailed objection to the capital, cost and Govern- 
ment contribution for Asylums, was forwarded to 
the ilinister. As a result of these representatiou.s 
two officers were sent to consult with the Council, 
and approve(l of file capital cost being reduced by 

Church Street and Post Offics, Parramatta North. 

a long and difficult oue to those Aldermen aud 
citizens who saw death, di-sease, empty houses and 
low values in insanitary' conditions. The everlasting 
river nuisance was the great lever used to force 
home to the unwilling mind the necessity and virtue 
of sanitation. With very gooil reason citizens were 
aroused to join Aldermen in iiuiunierable deputa- 
tions to the Ministers of the day to seek relief from 
the river abominations. 

Finally in 1883 an officer was .sent to rei)ort, and he 
advised that a very modest scheme of drainage and 
storm-water channels, at a cost of .€1G,000, wiuild 
meet the difficulty. This was ultimately spent, but 
the (-ouiu-il renuiiiu'd unsatisfied, and contiiuied to 
ask for nu)re. A full system of Sewerage for the 
whole town was denumded. Finalls' tiu' ipicstion was, 

.tTUOl); and, tiic amouni of the Government eonli-ilm- 
tion being satisfactorily adjusted, the way now 
seemed clear for the consummation of the great 
desideratum, but many di.sappointraeuts were yet in 
store for the Couiu-il aud citizens. An Enabling Bill 
had to be |)repared and passed through the Asseml)ly 
bef(jre anything lieyond could lie dtine. The Council 
frequently passed resolutions urging the Minister 
to take the necessary steps, but he always found a 
plausible excuse for delay. Two years passed, but 
)iothing practical was doin-. In the meantime the 
bacteriological syslein of Scwagi^ dis]iosal was 
forcing itself ujion tiu' I'avoridile attention of sani- 
tary authoi'ities. and so impressed itself upon the 
Council that in July of 1900 a resolutiiui was passed 
asking the Govenunent to take the "Sei)tic Tank 



System" into cunsitleratiuii, before proceediug' fur- 
ther with the Farm System recommended by the 
Works Committee, and accepted by the Council. 
This was done, and the Septic Tanli was substituted 
for the Farm. Previous to this, the Council had a 
lapse of confidence and feared the expenditiu-e of 
so large a sum as £59,000 odd might not be approved 
of by the ratepayers. A referendum was therefore 
ordered, and taken in October of 1898, when 349 
votes were cast for and 111 against Sewerage. This 
gave the Council heart, and for seven years after it 
never ceased to urge the Jlinister to introduce the 
Sewerage Enabling Bill. That at last lie did. and the 
House agreed to it. Tenders were, therefore, called 
for the work, and presented to the Council on the 
11th September, 1907. Before agreeing to accei)t 
one, however, it waf? decided to see if some reduction 
could not be got of interest due on storm water 

be possil)ilitics in store that were never contemplated 
when this system was adopted, high hopes being 
entertained that the gas may produce motive power 
sufficient to light the municipality with electricity. 


Ill 1792 Parramatta loomed large in the eyes and 
Ihoughts of the authorities, and there was then somo 
prosjiect of it being constituted the seat of Govern- 
ment, whilst Sytlney was to be its port. In that 
year, indeed. Parramatta was the most populous 
place in Australia, its pojiulation Ijeing 1970, whilst 
S\ dney could only muster 1170 aiul Norfolk Island 
1226. Possibly it was the knowledge of this fact, 
and his belief that he had found in Parramatta land 
infinitely more siiitabh^ for cultivation than Sydney, 

Parramatta Railway Station. 

chainiels. An agreement was finally signed by whicdi 
the Coiuicil imdertook to pay Sy^ per cent, interest 
on the outlay, and the Minister to forgo £7,511 18s 3d 
arrears of interest on the storm water channels, and 
contribute one third of the annual cost. 

Under this agreement the Government entered into 
three separate contracts for the work, Mr. Thos. 
Peters for reticulation, Stewart and Co. for septic 
tanks, and S. Zollner for machinery. The first sod 
was turned with much eclat liy the Minister, the spot 
chosen being opposite the Town Hall. Work steadily 
progressed till June, 1909, when the sewers were 
taken over by the Council, and the pumping station 
12 months later. The system has had a very fair trial 
since, and the wisdom of the Council in urging 
consideration of the septic tank system upon the 
Government fully justified. Indeed, there appear to 

that prompted Goveriuir Phillip to lay the founda- 
tions of a large Town Hall, almost on the site of the 
present building. In the same year he opened the 
Municipal IMarkets, and four years later the houses 
in Parramatta were numbered. So we may at least 
record with ])ride that, though we did not establish 
Municipal Government until the experiment had been 
tried in other localities — on the old princiiJe of "fiat 
experimentum in corpore vili" — it was in Parra- 
matta that the first Municipal Buildings were taken 
in hand. Since then large ami important adilitions 
have been made to the landed property of the 
Council, the Market Buildings, Queen's Wharf, and 
the Baths being instances. 

But the most important of all. as showing that the 
Council has a local habitation as well as a name, is 
the Town Hall. At the beginning, as has been seen, 



the Cimneil met at the Ohl Court House, not the 
I)re.seiit stnieture which stands on the site of the ohl 
Woolpaek Hotel — the honeymoon resort ''])uv excel- 
lence" of those days — ami later at Elder House, 
which was held on a tenancy of £50 a year. Aldei"- 
juen were not very easy in these quarters, and in 
1863 we find them neti'otiatinji' for the site occupicil 
b,y the old watch-house, in Church-street, north ot 
the bridge, for the purposes of a Town Hall. On 
Noveml)er 17. 1868, matters were brought to a hea.l 
b.v the receipt of a notice from the owners of Elder 
House, Mr. C. L. Rowling- and Jlrs. Fann.v Rowling, 
to the efl'ect that the.v were in a position to dispose of 
the property and that the Council wotdd very nuich 

recorded that there was not a single building to be 
obtained in I'arramatta that would be suitable for the 
purjioses of a Town Hall, which would contain, 
besides the indispensable room for Council nu'etiugs, 
offices for the despatch of business, and so forth, 
and a hall fiu- the holding of public meetings and for 
entertainments. The absence of such a building, said 
]Ma.vor Good, was one of the reasons wh.v the town 
did not "go ahead." There was no inducement for 
parties to give entertainments in Parramatta, "con- 
sequentl.v. ' ' he added, "a large sum of moue,v goes 
out of Parranuitta. to S.vdne.v particularly-." Indeed, 
the onl.v rooms availalile for meetings and concerts in 
those days were the School of Arts hall, which was 

Parramatta District Hospital. 

oblige b.y vacating the premises within six months. 
It was proposed later that the Council should buy 
the building, but it was declared b.y a large nuijarit.y 
that there was no authorit.v to use the ratejiayers' 
mone.v in this wa.v. However. the,v pulled along 
somehow, renting the building from the new pro- 
prietors, and so avoided the necessit.v of meeting in 
the "Old Gaol Green" — now Alfred Square, which 
had been secured from the (lovei-nment — or in oiu' 
or other of the streets. 

In 1870 things were getting dangrniiisl.v near an 
awkward climax, and .Mayor .bilui (iood iii-oiight llie 
matter of a Town Hall distinctly before Aldermen. 
la a long minute, in his own handwriting, it is 

out of the way. and the Red Cow Assembl.\- Rooms, 
on the site at present occupied by the Commercial 
Banking Company. So the Mayor i)roposed to build 
a Town Hall on Market-street, bordering on Alfred 
Square. He pictured to interested Aldermen "a 
noble building." Iiuleed, the miinite drops into 
liiietry. "A splendid view of the scenery,"' it claims, 
"may be had from all directions. Before us will be 
seen the wiiulings nf the Parramatta River for a 
considerable distaru-e. not to speak of the sph-ndid 
sheet of water- in the proposed dam. ami the town 
dam at tlu' side. The neighbouring hill will also be 
(listinctl.\- visible. In fact it will be the best view 
in t(nvn." Who c(nild resist this eloquence? Alder- 



men, already standins' in imagination on the noble 
terraces and ea.stin<i' their proplietie eyes over the 
landseape so tirapliically [lietured in the niiniite, 
agreed that a Town Ilall should be ereetetl at the 
corner of Church and Market streets. They were 
even so enthusiastic about the proposal that it was 
seriously suggested to oifer a £20 premium for the 
best design and specifications, with £5 for the 
runner-up. This delirious extravagance was, how- 
ever, vetoed by the common sense of those members 
of the Council to whom the inducements of scenery, 
water scenery at that, had no allurements. But, on 
paper, the scheme was plausible enough. Tlie JMayor 
reckoned that the linilding W(udd cost £2000, or £2500 
at the outside. The intoest on this latter sum would 
be £150 per annum, whilst, on the other side, tbere 
would be at least £70 per anninn as rent of rooms 
for societies and clubs, another £52 for meetings, etc., 
the saving of the £50 rent for the ehamliers then 
used, and £2 5s in rates, making a grand total of 
£174 5s. However, after the glamor of the ^Mayor's 
eloquence had worn off. the Council called the Alfi (mI 
Sciuare scheme off. and in 1872 we find them renting 
the large upstairs room in Rouse's building. 

It was not until ISSl. twenty years after the incor- 
poration of the Borough, that the city fathers foiuid 
rest under their own roof tree. In tliat ^■{'ar tlie 

Council Chambers, designed by Messrs. Mansfield 
Bros., architects, and built by Messrs. Hart and 
Lavor, were ojiened for business, and here the busi- 
ness of the Municipality has been done ever since. 
The wise old principle of having the head of the 
official staff' living close to the scene of his labors 
was maintained by the erection of the Council Clerk's 
residence, a little to the rear. In 1882 the foundation 
stone of the present Town Hall was laid, and in 1883 
it was opened for public use. Prom time to time 
since improvements have been nuide in the details, 
l)ut, generally speaking, the Town Ilall luiildings, 
well and solidl.v built, .stand to-day as they were 
constructed nearly thirty years ago, and they look 
as though they will do good work for many a long 
day to come. As an investment, the Town Hall has 
more th;ui paid interest on its construction. When 
^layor (Jood proposed his hall in I8B!) he reckoned 
on an annual return of £24 5s to the good. The 
l)oi)ulation of Parramatta then was 7000; it is now 
l.'l(i(tO. and it is safe to say that the credit to the 
profit and loss account of the Town Hall is to-day 
coiisidei-ahly more than the £48 lOs which might be 
expected from the doubling of the jiopulation. Apart 
from which is, of course, to be reckiuied the value to 
the town, not to be expressed in money terms, of 
having a spacious hall for public meetings of all 


(Incorporation, November, 1861 ; First Council Mee 

ting, 1862). 

]8G2 .1.111.- 





1S62 Feb.- 



]s;il IS92 


] 8(j(i . . 

. . JAMi'^S I'VK 

1892-1 Sil4 


1867 .. 
:868 .. 






1869 .. 




187(1 .. 








1874 .. 


1901 . . 




19(12 19(1:; 






1884 . . 


1907 . . 

. . JOHN SAUNDERS (died) 

ISSo . . 










1911 .. 



The history of the Mayors of Parramatta is mainly 
a record of good work quietly done to the best of the 
ability of each occupant of the chair. The monotony 
was broken, however, in 1873 when, owing to a 
deadlock in the Council, there was no Mavor for 

nearly two monlhs. In conseipience. municipal 
business was more or less at a standstill ; the cor- 
poration laliorers were dismissed, and contractors 
declined to carry on work without payment. 

Tlie trouble arose this way. The new Council met 



for the election of a ]\Iayor on Febrnary 10, 1873. 
The Couneil Clerk (]\Ir. Sydney Wiekhani) was in the 
chair, all the V2 aldermen were present, and a conple 
of hnndred ratepayers thronged the room. Alderman 
Coates proposed, and Alderman Parker seconded, 
that Alderman Ilngh Ta\lor be Mayor for the year; 
and Alderman Dixon moved, and Alderman Good 
seconded, that Ald(M-man C. J. Bvrnes be Mavor. In 

Charles Jcseph Byrnes. Mayor. 1870, 1875-82. 
1886-89, 1892-96. 

nominatini:' 'Sly. I'yi-ncs. 'Slv. Dixon said that lie 
would have supported the otiier candidate if it had 
not been for his extravagant policy. Alderman 
Ilngh Taylor expressed his surprise at this, for, as 
he informed the Council, ]Mr. Dixon had only lately 
been his warmest supporter in the proposal to borrow 
£3000. Tlien Alderman Byrnes asked the Chairman 
if electioneering speeches were in order, and the 
Chairman ruled — as he had to — that he could not 
prevent aldermen from addressing themselves to the 
motion as they jileased, so long as they did not 
indulgi' in ])ersonalities. Alderman John Taylor then 
took a hand and spoke for some hours in support of 
his brother's candidature. An indiscreet ratepayer 
objected to what lie was rude enough to call a waste 
of time, and Alderman Taylor invited the Chairman 
to eject him. Jlr. Wiekliam. however, thought he 
had no power to do this unless he was authorised 
by a resolution of the Council ; whereupon Alderman 
J. Taylor moved, and Alderman H. Taylor seconded, 
a motion that the police be sent for. This was duly 
carried, but, when the police arrived, the offending 
ratepayer had disappeared. At last aldermen came 
to a vote, when C voted for each candithite. 

A second special meeting was held on February 
12, when the same gentlemen were proposed, and a 
similar vote taken; with, of course, a similar 
unsatisfactory result. It was reported at the time 
that the Council Clerk intended to summon meetings 

every 48 hours until somebody was elected Mayor. 
He did not make so cruel a call as this on the civic 
patriotism of aldermen; but it was not till the l-Ith 
meeting that finality was reached. Sometimes all 
the aldermen attended, and then the voting was six 
to each candidate ; at other times only one candidate 
— "Sir. ISyrnes or Jlr. Taylor — and his supporters 
turned up, and as that did not constitute a majority 
of the Council there could not be an election. About 
half way through the affair. Alderman Byrnes pro- 
posed a compromise. He was standing for a prin- 
ciple, he said, and he would be quite satisfied if this 
principle were recognised by the election of Alder- 
man Dixon, one of his supporters. That was on 
IMarch 11, and, after another abortive special 
meeting had been held. Alderman Dixon was duly 
proposed by the Byrnes party. But the other side 
also claimed to be standing for a principle, and the 
new candidate would have got support from the 
Taylor party if he agreed to support it. If he did so 
agree, however, he would alienate his own side; so 
uiithing came of the compromise, and the candidates 
divided votes equally. There was no quorum at the 
next two meetings. Init before the succeeding meet- 
ing Alderman Williams, the first JIayor, died. He 
had been a strong supporter of Alderman B\' rues' 
candidature, and his death left his party in a 
minority. Hereupon Alderman Taylor and his five 
aldeniien r<'-|uisitioiied the Council Clerk to sunuiion 

a special meeting for ^larch L!3rd. At this meeting 
only they were present and ]Mr. Wickham took the 
chair by request. Then Alderman Trott moved, and 
Alderman Parker secoiuled. that Alderman Taylor 
lie ;\Iayor. The motion was carried luiaiiimnusly — 
and the deadlock was over. 




Aiulersou Ward. — Cecil Alexaiider Knckiiisliam 
Champion. .J.P.. .John Waua:h, J.P., James Whitmore 
Hill, J.P. 

Marsden Ward.—William Peter Noller, J.P., 
Edwin -John Brown, J. P., .James Henry Graham. J.P. 

Gore Ward.— Richard Charles Bartlett, J.P., 
Robert Henrv Del^ow, J. P., Arthur Henry CoUett, 

Forrest Ward. — .John Brown Smith, l^'rain-is .John 
Thomas, Walter Francis Jago (Mayor). 

When Parramatta was incorporated there were 
nine Aldermen for the whole Municipality. In 1868, 
however, the four wards which now exist were estab- 
lished, with three Aldermen for each ward. They 
were named after the Rev. Samuel IMarsden, Dr. 
Matthew Anderson, R.N., the Rev. W. F. Gore, and 
the Rev. R. P^orrest. Two Aldermen desired to 
commemorate Captain Cook instead of the first Head- 
master of The King's School, but the Council decided 
on division that Mr. Forrest was more deserving of 
the honoi'. .\o division was taken on the other 


John Charles Barker (18(i:2-!)). 

.John Ileiniiker Heaton (later M.P. for Canterbury, 
England, and postal reformer), Deccnil)!'!' 1869 to 
February 1870. 

Henrv Collev (1870-2). 

Sydney Wickham (1872-100.-)). 

Sydney Da vies (1905 to present day"). 

The main point to be noticed in regard to the 
Council Clerks of Parramatta is the fact that there 
have been only five of them in the 50 years of ]\Iuni- 
ci|)al Goveriniiiiit. "Slv. lleaton's was a very short 
reign, and a curious circumstance is connected there- 
with. He was a])pointed out of '23 applicants, on 
December 21, 1869, "for the remainder of the 
^lunieipal year." When the new Council assemliled 
for the despatch of business on February 11, 1870, 
he took the chair at the first meeting and declared 
Alderman C. .J. Byrnes duly elected as Mayor. But 
the point was raised that, as Mr. Heaton was neither 
Town Clerk at the time, nor Acting Town Clerk, he 
was illegally in the Chair, and his declaration of 
Alderman Byrnes' election was invalid. 

This was the famous election wliirh induced an 
Alderman (Hugh Taylor it was) to Jiii|uire: "Out 

of what fund is the beer paid for supplied to the 
agents of one of the late candidates, at the Council 
Chambers?" The Mayor replied that at the 1869 
elections, the refreshments supplied to the offieer.s 
]>residing, were paid out of the General Revenue, 
after having passed the Finance Committee, and that 
payment had not yet been made for any beer that was 
consumed at the elections just concluded. 

Mr. Heaton now thought it advisable to apply 
again for the position which he seems to have 
hitherto considered his own already. His applica- 
tion was unsuccessful, however, and Mv. Henry 
CoUey was appointed. 

On March VA, 1905, air, Sydney Wickham, who 
had then been a generation in office, was granted 
six months' leave of absence, and .Mr. Sydney Davies 
was appointed Acting Town Clerk. This appoint- 
ment was made permanent when, later in the year, 
Mr. Wi(d';liam resigned the ])osition which he had 
lield for so long, witli credit 1ii hiinsi-lf ami advantage 
to the Borough. 

John Taylor's Auction Mart. 

Jolui Taylor's Auction Mart. — .lohn Tnylur's mart stooil on 
tlio site now ofciipied by Mr. (i. T. Krby ;uid Mr. Straub. The 
fiuures in tlie picture are, nailing from tlie left: Mr, Ralpli 
Mood, Mr. .John Taylor and his son Frank, Mr. R. L. Dnnn, 
Mr. \y. ,Tone,s, Mr. T. Hellyer, solicitor, and Mr. Taylor's man, 
Blaek Frank. Frank was an American negro, whom Mr. 
Taylor brought with him from the States. He was a noted 
pugilist, and one of the finest rough-riders in the colony; a 
iirigiit, genial fellow, and tlie idol of all the boys in the town, 
lie was also a fine runner, and won several important handi- 
caps. Man_y a Parramatta boy got his first lessons in the 
' ' manly art ' ' from Blaek Frank. 







IN the lK'<;iiiiiiiifj- of the IDth century ParraiiiattM 
■was the iiiiitlel ea])ital of Australia, as eunipai'ed 
with wliat ^Ir. George Barrington — no incom- 
jiclent judge — eharaeterised as "that newly-formed 
seat of temptation. Sydney." Ten years hefore that 

the fail- fame of I'arramatta is surely to be found in 
the statement of an authority well (|rialitied to pro- 
nounee on the snb.ject. "No miseondnct." he writes, 
"was found among the eonviets; a kangaroo was 
caught there which weighed 1801!)." The eounec- 

The First Settlement at Rosehil), 1792. 

Governor Hunter stated that "a considerable town" 
had been laid out on the old settlement of Rosehill, 
and that maii3^ good buildings had been erected. 
That was in his book — "An Historical Journal of the 
Transactions at Port Jackson . . . illusti-ated 
with a map of the Coiuitry by Lieut. Dawes, and 
other Embellishments." And a further tribute to 

tion betwe(;n the capture of a heavy kangaroo and 
the behaviour of prisoners of the Crown is perhaps 
too subtle for us to understand after a dozen of 

When Governor l*hillip discovered Parraniatta he 
christened it Rosehill — after Sir George Rose, a great 
person in those days. That was the time in which 




towns ami countries and other unconsidered trifles 
■were called after i)ersons who loomed larue in the 
eyes of their immediate dependants. We in Aus- 
tralia have suft'ered many things from this tendency. 
Witness Sydney, called after an incompetent office- 
holder who cared nothin" about Australia and who 
may be regarded as absolutely the worst colonising 
"statesman" that ever lived. Witness Melbourne, 
that bears the name of a dilettante politician wdiose 
interest in Australia was a minus (|uantity. Witness 
Adelaide, the god-child of a harmless lady who prob- 
abl.y did not know where Australia is situated — and 
who certainly did not care. But it all might have 
been worse. Phillip might have called Sydney 
"Harbor-ville"; only that, hajipily. that method of 

emphasising obvious facts had not then become 
fashionable. And. if he did call this place ■"Rose- 
hill," he had at least the good taste to re-name it 
"Parramatta" when he was made acquainted with 
the fair-sDunding native name. 

The Day of Small Things. 

Settlement at first [.'rogressed slowly. I'hillip had 
selected the "Crescent" (in front of Old (irovern- 
ment House) in April. 1788. but troubles with the 
natives interfered, and it was not till November 2 
that work was properly begun. On this memoralih; 
(hiy the Governor, accompanied b.v Surveyor-General 
Alt and Captain James Campbell (afterwards first 
commandant and first magistrate of Parramatta) 

Subtaco Cottage. 

The Sydney Road Toll 

Ellisons Hotel. 

The Market Buildings. 

St. John's Parsonage. 
Old Court House. 

Subiaco Cottage. — .Just a glimpse of old Subiaco Cottage, the rLsidence of tbc priest attached to the Couveut. Form- 
erly it was the residence of Plannibal Macarthur, and the home of the Rev. G. F. Macarthur, and was known as the 
Vineyards. Dean Coffey is seen standing in front, in his clerical garb. He was a very popular priest, and it is said that 
he was ouco a famous horseman. He was a stern disciplinarian with his flock, but was beloved and revered by all 
sections of the community. 

Ellison's Hotel. — This old hotel was situated in George-street, next door to the residence of the late Mr. William 
Haggitt. It belonged to the Ellison family for generations, and was kept b.v Mr. Harry Ellison. It was known as the 
"Jolly Sailiir. ' ' Mr. George Caines was the proprietor once, and he, on receiving notice to quit, shifted opposite. He 
could not take his sign, the name of the hotel, with him, so he called his hostelry "The Jolly Sailor's return." 

St. John's Parsonage. — The old parsonage was long the residence of Samuel Marsden, the Rev. K. L. King and Arch- 
deacon Gunther. Afterwards it was leased by Mr. J. Y. Mills and renovated. H occupied a commanding position and 
stood out as one of the landmarks of the town. In later years it was known as "The Cedars." 

The Sydney Road Toll-bar. — The Sydney Road Toll-bar was situated just beyond the southern end of the liridge at 
Church street South, where the traveller branched off to the Liverpool Road or the Sydney Road. The lease of these toll- 
bars was purchased, and at night the toll-bar keeper had to be roused up to open the gates and let the traveller through. 
There was a similar toll-bar on the Western Road .just beyond the Prospect and Sherwood Council Chambers, and another 
on the Winclscir Rnad, so that a traveller with horse or vehicle could not get out of the town without paying toll. 

The Market Buildings. — This old building is still in existence. It now, in a somewhat altered style, serves as a hay and 
corn store, and is occupied by Messrs. Webb and Co., Church-street South. In the old days it stood on the site now occu- 
pied b.v the Town Hall buildings. At the rear was the public pound. All the produce of the district was once disposed 
of in this building, and horse sales took place at the rear. The group in front is Mr. John Mood.v and his famil.v. 

Old Court House. — The old Court House in days gone by not onl.v served as the Hall of Justice, but also as a place in 
which important jiublic meetings were held. It was here that the i>ublic met to hold an indignation meeting when the 
Fenian O'Farrell shot I'rince Alfred. Mr. S. Burge was Mayor at the time. It was here that the public met to petition 
the Government to hand over the about-to-be-closed civil and militarv hospital to the public. At election times the 
hustings was erected .just inside the railings, and from the platform there num.y fier.v s]ieeches have been delivered by 
such politicians as the Hon. James Byrnes, the Hon. Sir John Lackey, James Squire Faruell, Hugh Taylor and others. The 
gentleman sitting on the coping was an old identity, known by the euphonious soubriquet of "Long Bob." 



reaehed tlie place that had been chosen for landing. 
The voyage, of course, was made on the river, and 
the pioneers were acconn)anied by a dozen marines. 
Amongst the first i)nblie works were a l)attery, ren- 
dered necessary by the ill-feeling between the 
aborigines and the new arrivals, and a storehouse; 
the military being aeeommodated in tents. Next year 
the Parraniatta-road to Sydney was constructed 
through the thick l)ush, log bridges being placed 
over the creeks on the way. In the same year, bar- 
racks were built for the soldiers and a hospital for 
the sick. This last was in Macquarie-street, on the 
land now occupied by the Asylum. At that time, of 
course, it was not "Macquarie-street" — it was mere 
bush. As originally designed, Parramatta had but 
one street — George, called after the monarch known 
in the inflated language of the day as "his most 
sacred nuijest>'. Oeorge III." Church-street was 
added next year, when also the (iovernor felt him- 
self justified in erecting the first (Government 
House. Dr. Thomas Arndell. the first medical man 
who graced Parramatta, looked after the Hospital 
and the more distinguished patients; and [lut in his 
spare time at farming. A still more notable man 
in the ],>erson of John Macarthur makes his first 
ap])earance here in the same year 1791 — a year 
which also saw the first execution in this district. 
Whilst he was meditating on the responsibilities of 
his position before he left England, Phillip had come 
to the conclusion that the death penalty would never 
be necessary ; and that in itself was a remarkable 
thing for a man to say in a country which prescribed 
this penalty for some KiO ofTpences — literally, tvom 
stealing .^)s to murder. But another remarkalde thing 
that Phillip said in these same cogitations was that 
for either of two crimes, one of which was murder, 
"I should wish to confine the criminal till an opi)or- 
tunity offered of delivering him as a prisoner to the 
natives of New Zealand, and let them eat him." The 
enormity of fattening white people for a canniltal 
banq\iet does not seem to have occurred to him. That 
was Phillip's theory about capital punishment. His 
practice was shown when one James (Jhapman, con- 
victed of the heinous crime of stealing wearing 
apparel, was hanged by the neck till he was dead. 
That was on July 28, 1791. 

The Change of Name. 

The agricultural interest was tlonrisliiiig in those 
days — in comparison, at least, witii Farm Cove. Also 
the pastoral industry was beginning solidly its long 
years of prosperity and beneficence. Already the 
public spirit of Parramattans had made itself mani- 
fest, the first public meeting and the first public 
thanksgiving service having been held on June 9, 
1790. the first to congratulate the King on his recov- 
ery from illness and the second to return thanks for 
this blessing. Indeed the loyalty of Parramattans 
was as conspicuous then as it has been ever since, 
and is now. Not unfittingly it was on the King's 
Accession Day, 1791, that Governor Phillip changed 
the name of the settlement from Rosehill to Parra- 
piatta. It was on this occasion, too, that the grounds 

surrountling Government House were named 
"Cumberland Park" in honor of the prince who, it 
was at one time feared, would ascend the throne in 
18a7 on the death of William IV. He was the hero, 
it will be remembered, of the famous grou]), with the 
legend, "Look here upon this picture — and on this." 
There was a picture of the Princess Victoria, a sweet, 

if simpering, maiden of the very earliest Victorian 
age ; and there was another picture of Ernest, Didic 
of Cumberland; a ruffianly, bald-headed old gentle- 
man. The Duke died King of Hanover — and the 
Princess, sixty odd years after. Queen of England, 
Empress of India, the idol of her people in the United 
Kingdom and in her dominions beyond the seas. 

We have seen that there was a road connecting 
Parramatta with Sydney. There was also the river, 
but from the earliest clays till now the authorities 
have been so careful about preserving the morals of 
Parranuittans from the contagious influence of "that 
newly-formed seat of temptation, Sydney," that they 
have thoughtfully fixed the price of transit high. 
There were sailing packet boats, which upon occa- 
sion took 14 hours to reach Sydney, and then there 
were the horse-worked boats of which mention is 
made elsewhere. It cost a passenger a .shilling to 
get to Sydney by one of these boats in those days. 
It still does. In 180:^ one H. Kable was permitted 
to run a stage coach from Sydney to Parramatta and 
the IIawkes))ury, and lately it was recorded in "The 
Cumberland Argus" (April 22, 1911) how, lo or 17 
years later, James Watsford and A 'Beckett used to 
run coaches, the fare being 6s for the single journey. 

Meanwhili!, the town was growing in importance. 



The fonndatiiiii (if a town hall had been laid in 1792. 
which year also saw the (iju'iiini;- of the first shop in 
Pananiatta. The cntcTinisiiig proprietor was Cap- 
tain Bond, who stoeked. in a biiildinj;- at the corner of 
Church and ^Iac(piarie streets, a miscellaneous 
assortment of <roods that he had brouiiht out with 
him in his ship, the "Royal Admiral." This geutle- 

John Batman. Explorer, 

man is also known to fame as havinii' lieen the first 
publican in the town, and hardly ten years later the 
Government estalilished the first brewery. 

Mr. John Tnll. the first schoolmaster in Parra- 
matta. entered upon his duties in 1796 in a building 
erected by ^Ir. INIarsden near where St. John's now 
stands. His salary was not princely — certainly not 
by any means in proportion to the importance of his 
work and to his excellent performance of it. There 
were, of course, considerations in the way of resi- 
dence and Government stores and labor, but in 
actual money I\Ir. TuU does not seem to have 
received more than the £10 a year which Mr. Johnson 
procured for him from the English Society for Pro- 
moting Christian Knowledge (the familiar S.P.C.K.). 
This was gradually raised, and when Mr. TuU died 
in 1817 after 20 years' valua))le service the salary 
was in the neighbourhood of £60. His first official 
chief, it may be interesting to add. was Lieutenant 
Dawes, the godfather of Dawes Point and the first 
astronomer. In his educational capacity the gallant 
officer was kno'mi as "Superintendent of Schools at 
Sydney and Parramatta." 

Whilst these elaborate preparations were being 
made for the instruction of y(uuig Australia, the 
adult population was carefully looked after in Parra- 
matta at least. Foi- those citizens who were 
criminally inclined the tiovernor had thoughtfully 
provided a gaol in 1796. Or, rather, he had ordered 
each settler and housekeeper to supply every week 
10 straight logs, 9 feet long by seven inches in 

diameter: officers, civil and military, with Govern- 
ment laborers, to supply 20 such logs. The demand 
was willingly obeyed and soon Parramatta gaol — 
100 feet long — had accommodation for 30 prisoners; 
or at least 30 separate cells. It was erected on the 
bank of the river, near the military barracks. The 
log prison was strong, but unpopular, and in 1799 it 
was burnt down ; to be replaced by a more durable 
structure in 1802 on Gaol Green (Alfred Square). 
It was not until 40 years later that the present gaol 
was proclaimed, and it was opened in 1844 under 
the gaolership of JMr. John Lackey, father of the 
politician. For adults, not criminally disiiost'd but 
frivolously inclined, provision of a different kind 
was nmde in the same year. The houses were num- 
bered and the town divided into two districts. Each 
district elected annually three watchmen, whose 
instructions remind of those issued by the inunortal 
Dogberry. The watchmen of North and South 
Parramatta were to comjjreliend all vagrom men ; 
they were to call at all alehouses and bid those that 
are drunk get them to bed; they were to lay hands 
on a thief if they susi>ected him. by virtue of their 
office, to be no ti'ue man. Also, they were to dis- 
courage gaming, to enforce reverence for the Sunday 
and not to allow anxbody to stroll about idly during 
divine service. In recompense for these services, 
they received a full ration for themselves and theii' 
families, slojis upon occasion, and a half-pint of 
spirits on Sunda\s. "Slops.'' be it rememliered. does 
not mean soi![) or food for invalids; "slops" were 
ready-made clothes. In the circumstances, the 
remuneration would seem to be adequate, though 
some ma.v be inclined to suggest that, in view of the 
delicate nature of the Sunday duty, the half-pint of 
spirits might more wisely have been held over for 
consum|)tioii on .Monday. Especially would this 
precaution have been advisable in view of the fact 
that in this yeai" so much drink was available in 
Parramatta that the (rovernor found it necessary to 
institute the system of licensing public houses. It 
was in the previous year that James Squire, great- 
grandfather of Mr. Frank Farnell, late M.L.A., 
estalilished tile lirst brewery on Kissing Point, where 
he had sowed the tiist hoiis raised in Australia. His 
"Squire's I'r'ew" was soon to make for itself an 
enviable re|)ii1 at inn. 

Labor and Capital. — The First Conference. 
The Labor Difficulty. 
It might be supposed that the lalior diffieiilty did 
not exist in the old days, when privileged persons 
employed the forced labor of prisoners of the Crown, 
and connnou persons might be regarded as able and 
willing to feud for themselves. It did exist, however, 
and to such an extent that a minimum rate of wages — 
a device which we of the 20th century foolishly claim 
to be of modern date — was fixed so far back as 1796. 
Thus, carpenters were paid 5s a day and laboi'ers 3s : 
£3 was the tarifl' for clearing, and £1 for breaking 
up an acre of ground. The man who threshed a 
bushel of wheat could demand at least Is. whilst 10s 
was the price for reaping an acre of wheat. Piece- 
work was recognised for both sexes and in various 



trades. The slioemaker got 3s 6d for making a pair 
(»f moil's shoes, and Gd less for women's; the taihjr 
charged 6s for Iniildins' a eoat and the sempstress 5s 
for a gown. Women who went out to work at other 

people's houses got their Is Gd a day and "tucker," 
find the washerwoman — that was before the cheap 
f!]iinese and Japanese had spoilt the market — 
charged 3d per article, besides being foiuid in soap 

The Old Baptist Church. 
The Old Bathing House. 

The Old Baptist Church. — The old building still forms p 
tlie si.xtics the c-lmrch was closed for some roiison and it tlion 
the Sons of 'Pi in|ier;u)i-e. Standing on the left of the lian 
eiupenter and worked with Mr. George Coates, sen.), and on 
the building was taiitn over for school purposes, and it was 
School. Mr. Herbert Coates was the first pupil teacher in th 
late Mr. T. TI. Hunt, father of the present member for Sher 
William .\rdill, prisident of the Baptist Union, was among 

The Old Woolpack. — This was the leading hotel of, perha 
beautifully ke|it, it was popular as a honeymoon resort. It 
One of the old trees still remains. At the ri ar was started 
Alexander .lohnstone, Nat. and Andrew Payten and W. Fnl 
Nash, Mrs. Williams, Nat. Payten, Kdward Welilow, Smith, a 
out the length and breadth of the colony, and it could tell of 
and lost within its walls. 

The Old Bathing House. — The bathing house, used b 
altered since it was first erected. It it now known as the K 
baths built of stone. The water was pumped up from the r 
the flat now known as the amphitheatre. It was then a f 
grew in profusion. The w-ater, after being used, was run out 
It was used as a duck pond, and willow trees grew all aroun 
plenty of cheap labor in those days. 

The Australian Anns Hotel. — Tlie building known fifty 
as the Haul; of New Simlli Wales. The old sweet-water gr 
the late Mr. ('. B. Cairnes some forty years ago, when he too 
good seasons to produce over half a ton of grapes. Amongst 
MeK.".y, Andrew Payten, Robert Dunn, .1. Williams, and, la 
to the upper storey, and it is said that, for a wager, the late 
the dim past there was once a lagoon just at the rear of the h 
the days when lliey shot dui'ks in the lagoon. 

The Old Woolpack. 

The Australian Arms Hotel. 

irt of the present Baptist Tabernacle in George-street. In 
became a public hall for a time. The group outside is that of 
ner of tlie (.)rder is Mr. Samuel .lones (Mr. .Tones was a 
the right Mr. .lohn Moody, the secretary. In the year 1864 
here that the late Mr. ,1. H. Murray started the first National 
is school. The trnstee.-i were the late Mr. .James Pye and the 
brooke. Mr. T. D. Little was the first boy enrolled. Mr. 
the first boys to enter this school. 

ps, the colony, in the early days. Always well managed and 
stood on the'site now occupied' by the Police Court building, 
the first bowling green in the colony, by such enthusiasts as 
lagar. Amongst the jirominent |U-oprictors were "Bill" 
nd Edward Marshall. The old "Pack" was known through- 
many stirring e\ents. In the early days fortunes were won 

y the early Governors of Australia, has been greatly 
ound House'. In the olden days it contained several large 
iver by convicts, and the pumping station was situated on 
amous orchard, where pears, apples, cherries and mulberries 
to a pond near the lodge gate close to the bowling green, 
d it. The drains were of tunnelled brickwork. There was 

years ago as "The Australian Arms Hotel," is now known 
ape vine, which clambers round the balcony, was planted by 
k over the management of the bank. It has been known in 
the early proprietors of this once famous hotel were Mrs. 
st of all, .Tohn Creasey. A broad stairway led from the hall 
Dr. Rutter rode his little black ]iony up the stairway. In 
otel, where wild fowl abounded. Old hands used to talk of 



and blue aud starch and the other mysteries of her 

But all was not by any means settled when once 
this scale of charges liad been fixed unofficially. Both 
settlers and free laborers (the terra of course will 
not be confounded with what is known as "free 
labor" to-day) desired to have some definite agree- 
ment, and at the close of 179G this was represented 
to Governor Hunter. The matter came before him 
by way of complaint from settlers in Parramatta of 
the high wages demanded by labor; and the 
Governor struck upon a device which we of this 
generation have fondly imagined to be of our own 
manufacture. He advised the establishment of a 
system compounded of conference, arbitration, con- 

nature of the agreement arrived at was emphasised 
by the imposition of peiudties for its breach. In the 
following March the (iovernor issued a proclama- 
tion emJMxlyiiig this Parramatta agreement, aud 
readei's will be interested in studying this first 
attemi)t in Australia at fixiug a minimum rate of 
wages. What our Industrial and Arbitration Courts 
would call "the award" (of course the absence of 
iiiaxinnim hours of worii will be noted) runs: — 

£ s d 

Falling forest timber, per acre . . . 

Falling Ijrush ground, per acre . . 

Burning off open ground, per acre 

Burning brush ground, per acre. . 

Breaking up new ground, per acre 











eiliation and wages boards with comi)ulsory awards. 
In accordance herewith the First Conference between 
representatives of Capital and Labor was held in 
Parramatta in January. 1797. Students of political 
economy may not visit the scene of this historic 
meeting, for the Old Courthouse (at the corner of 
Church and Macijuarie streets) in which it was held 
has long since been pulled down. Nor are the names 
of the representative settlers and laborers handed 
down to posterity; though indeed these would have 
been at as interesting to us as some of the 
trifles which were then deemed worthy of deathless 
fame. However, official dignity was given to the 
Conference by the fact that it was presided over by 
Acting Judge-Advncale .\tkins. and the liinding 

Chipping fresh ground, per acre. . 12 

Chii)j>ing in wheat, per acre .... 7 
Breaking up stubble or corn 
ni'ound. I'^^d per rod. or jier 

a.-iv 16 

Planting Indian Corn, per acre. . <• 7 

Hilling Indian Corn, per acre ... il 7 

Reaping wheat, per acre 10 

Threshing wheat, per bushel .... 
Pulling and husking Indian corn. 

per bushel 

Splitting palings 7ft. long, per 100 3 

Splitting palings ."ift. long, per 1(111 d 2 

Splitting i)alings :!ft. long, per 100 1 

Sawinu planks, per IdO feet 7 



Ditching, 3 feet wide and 3ft deep, i s d 

per rod 10 

Carriage of wheal [ler mile per 

bushel 2 

Carriage of iiidiau eorn. neat, per 

bushel II (» 3 

Yearly wages for hilior, with 

board 10 

Wages per weel<, with provisions, 

consisting of 41b. salt pork, or 

61b. of fresh, and 211b. of 

wheat, with vegetables I) (i 

A da.y's wages witii board (I 1 

A day's wages without board ... 2 6 
A day's wages, (jovernment man 

allowed to officers or settlers 

in his own time (I 10 

Price of an axe 2 

New steeling axe (I H (i 

A new hoe II 1 :i 

A sickle U 1 (J 

Hire of a boat to carr.y grain, 

per day 5 

In I'onsidering tlie above scale one has to conij)are 
it, not with the rate of wages prevailing in Australia, 
to-day, but witb the rate of wages prevailing iu 
rural England in 1 7117. This is not the place for 
instituting sueii ii comparison, which would, how- 
ever, lie full of interest. One point only need be 
urged as showing hov\' far even then Australia was 
ahead of the mother c(uuitry in dealing with the 
great problem of wages. In 1796, whilst the Aus- 
tralian Government was arranging for a conference 
between Cai)ital and Labor for the establishment of a 
minimum wage, the English Government, finding 
that the wages lixcd by justices of the pi-ace — bv. 

that is, the employers of rural labor — were so low 
that they could not keep body and soul together, 
actually legalised the granting of out-door relief iu 
aid of wages. It would be gratifying to be able to 
add that the Parramatta Conference and its succes- 
sors attained the desired end; but, as we know, this 
was not the case. Then, as now, some employers 
paid less than the mininuira rate, taking advantage 
of the necessities of their laborers; then, as now, 
some laborers took advantage of the necessities of 
employers and charged a price for their labor which 
swept awa,v all the profit, and sometimes more. None 
the less is this Parramatta Conference of 1797 worth,y 
to be held in honi}r. 

Ccnivict lal)or ri'aJly ciilianccd Ihe difficulty which 
it was suii|)osed to solve. Tile unhappy men, for 
instance, who brok'e thi- gi'ound in Parramatta under 
the supervision of the strenuous Dodd, worked only 
because they had to, ami as little as was necessar.v to 
avoid punishment. All the fruit of their labor went 
to others, and their grim lot was not a whit lightenetl 
by the sweat of their brow. It was the same experi- 
{ nci' in America before and after the Revolution, aud 
it could truly be said of both continents that eom- 
]inlsru-y labor, of convicts as of slaves, was not half as 
l)roductive fis I'rei' labor. This first ('onferenee 
estiuuited it, as nuiy be seen, at one-thii'd, and lliat 
without reckoning the cost of supervisi<in. 

The Depot for Convict Women. 

And, if the labor of nude ])risoners of the Crown 
was thus comparatively woi'thless, the services of 
tile vvomen were equally unsatisfaetorv. Parramatta 
was the depot to which women convicts were sent 
for confinement, for employment, and for jiunish- 
iHciit : and the ill-chosen name for the place in which 
lliey were l:)dged for these three purposes — the 

The " Red Cow." 

The "Red Cow." — Tlio old liostelry, the Kod Cow. wliicli stood on tlio site now OLH'ii|>ied by the Commercial 
Bank, iu (ieoi-t;e-.street, was, fifty years ago, a most iio]nilar resort. The low building on the right was the "Cow," 
and the more pretentious building on the left, with the double gangway, was the Asseuibly Room, whei-e the "pure 
merinos" and other "respectable" sets held tlieir dances. It was known as "the long room." A notable ball was 
held there on the occasion of tlie coming of age of the late King Edward. -At the rear, and bftween the two build- 
ings mentioned, may be seen another edifice. This was known as "the bakery." It was erected b.y Mr. Patrick 
Hayes, the then landlord of the "Cow," who was in those da.vs a big contractor'. He supplied all the Government 
institutions, and in tliis bakery turned out 2.500 loaves per day. Mr. Ha.yes, when he retired from the contracting 
business, handed over the concern to Mr. .lames Kidman. Among the licensei s of the Ked Cow were Jtvs. Walker, 
Mr. Patrick Hayes, Mr. Vince Carr, and the last host was the late Mr. John Creasey. 



"Factory" — was from the earliest days a by- word 
in the cohjiiy. When Commissioner Bigge visited 
the town in 1819 he found a condition of affairs 
whieh cduld hardly be paraUeled. It was under the 
charge of Superintendent Oakes, to whose ability 
and carefulness the Commissioner bears testimony, 
but who had also to discharge the duties of Chief 
Constable of the town, besides carrying on the busi- 
ness of a baker. He (lid not reside on the premises, 
which had been under the charge of a convict 
constable for the past 15 years. The women did 
what they liked. There was certain task-work neces- 
sary in the way of picking, spinning and carding 
wool, and when this was finished, which was gener- 
ally at 1 p.m., the inmates were free for the rest of 
the day. Most of them lodged in the town, and the 
inmates were free to corrupt the new arrivals. "As 
a place of employment,'" says Bigge, "the factory 
at Parramatta was not only very defective, but very 
prejudicial." Marsden, under whose supervision 
indeed it had been built, saw its faults and had been 
instant with Governor Macquarie to erect a building 
which would serve the purpose better ; which would 
separate the women placed there for work from the 
women placed there for punishment. The Governor's 
hostility to Marsden was. however, greater even than 
his passion for building, and it was not until 1818 
that he commissioned Greenway — the architect, by 
the way, of most of the Macquarie monstrosities, 
including the Sydney ("Rum") Hospital — to pre- 

Howell's Wind and Water Mill. 

Ilowell 's wind ami water mill was sitnatoil on the site 
where now stands tlie Oasworl\S bridge. Mr. Howell was a 
big contractor, and it was liere that he ground the wheat for 
the tlonr he had to supply. He was the father of Mrs. 
ISiathaniel Payten (who is still alive). Mr. Howell had 
another mill in Parramatta North, and, while Mr. George 
Neale (father of Mr. .lames Neale) was putting up a new 
set of fans the shearlcgs gave way, and Mr. Howell w-as 
killed. He was accorded a Masouie funeral, the first ever 
held in the town. His was also the first funeral service held 
in the Macquarie-street Methodist Church (now Macquarie 
liall). Mr. T. D. Little was born in the old mill. Ills parents 
arrived in Parramatta a couple of days before he was born, 
and they took up a temporary residence in this mill, as they 
were unable to procure a house. That was in March, 18.55, 

pare a plan. Contracts were called in 1818 — three 
years after IMarstlen 's letter on the subject — and the 
work was so far advanced in 1821 that over 112 
women were lodged in it. Tiic principal building 
was planned for the aceotnmodatinn of IT'J inmates, 
most of them sleeping two in a lied; but the less 
said about the planning the better, for the architect 
had actually left out wash-houses and laundries. 
Indeed Greenway 's successor as "Colonial Archi- 
tect," ]Mr. S. M. Harris, generally condemned the 
whole affair in 182:1 The double cells built in the 
garden for the use of the refractory, were "totally 
useless"; the walls surrounding the building were 
"in a very decayed state, and the walls of the 
building itself are of the worst description of work- 
nuinship, " and the windows were so ill-fitted that 
"they cannot be opened to give the ventilation 
required, without risk of breaking the glass, and are 
therefore seldom or never openi>(l." This factory is 
nowadays put to a nobler use and forms part of the 
Hospital for Insane. 

Little good came out of it when it was devoted to 
the original purpose, and, as may easily be inuigined, 
nuich harm was done in it and by it. The women 
even \veiit so far as to engineer a "rebellion" m 
lS'.-7, and, just to lighten up the gloom naturally 
caused by a consideration of I his iiicthod of treating 
W(unen, the account of this "rebellion." written by 
a contemporary, i\lr. H. M. .Alartin, F.S.S.. may be 
inserted here. "The third class of prisoners," he 
writes, "had been denied the iiuhdgenee of tea and 
sugar as a punishment for their refractoriness ; they 
refused, therefore, to work any longer, and after 
spending two days in sulkiness, they warned the 
matron that unless their tea and sugar Avere return- 
ed, they would leave the factory. Their Ihreal was 
laughed at. but on the third morning, two htnidred 
of these viragoes attacked the workmen, took from 
them their hammers and sledges, broke open the 
huge prison doors, and. rushing into the town, com- 
mitted various -depredations. The troops were 
(U'dered out. the light company of II. .M. r)7th Hegi- 
iiieiit in advan<'e: tile women \)c:\] a i-etre;it towards 
the surrounding hills, whilst the bugles of the troops 
sounded a charge; the object being to prevent the 
facttiry ladies from taking refuge in the bush, which 
ruse, liad it succeeded, would have rendered it diffi- 
enlt to predict whether JMars or Venus wotdd have 
conquered. After various skirmishes or feints, and 
divers marchings, the drums and bugles announced 
a parley — the l)attle was considered a drawn fight — 
and a treaty was agreed to, in which it was stipu- 
lated that the fair combatants should march back, 
with all the honoi-s of war. within the walls and gates 
of the factoi-y. nil deliiniueneies forgiven, inul the 
usual allowiinei' of tea and sugar restored." 

it would lie hiiniorous, too. were it not so utterly 
deplorable and demoralising, to rememljer that the 
factory was also a marriage-mart. An emancipist, 
say, or even a free settler, who had obtained the 
necessary pertnission, would go to the factory for the 
])urpose of selecting one of the women for his wife, 
the mother of his children. The women who were 



aviiilMble ;iikI willing were driiwii up for iiispeetinii ; 
the visitor threw his liaiulkerehief or otherwise 
sijjuified his preference, and, if the lady were con- 
tent, the two were conducted to church straight 
away and married. It is said that some of these mar- 
riages turned out well. The age of miracles was not 
jjast in those days. Any way, it was a good day for 
Parramatta and for the colony wlien the factory was 
abolislu'd :nnl a wiser s\'slciii snhstitutctl. 


(ioverinn- I'liillip, as has liecii seen, built ;i (iovei'n- 
nicnt House for himself in 171)11. Situated on the top 
of Ruse Hill it at least coimnaii(ied a good view, and 
it was undoubtedly superior to the wattle and dab 
huts which lined George-street. It was a one- 
storeyed building — -14 feet bnig by 16 feet wide — 
and it M'as made of brick, laths and plaster. The 
roof fell in six years later, and then the second Gov- 
ernment House, which was palatial in comparison, 
equipped as it was with an attic storey and cellars, 
was erected on the same spot. M. Peron. described 
it as simple, elegant, and well arranged — "the prin- 
cipal ornament of Rose Hill, overlooking the town 
and the meadows, the foi'ests and the river." This 
building was considered good enough for the repre- 
sentative of Majesty until 1811), when what citizens 
know as "Old Government House" was con- 
structed from designs prepared by Lieutenant Watts, 
the amateur architect who is also responsible for the 
Old Hospital and for the Dam. 

In Old Government House, then, all the Governors 
from Phillip's time up to Denison's (1790-1861) came 
occasionally for rest and refreshment when they 
were weary with contending against what all the 
authorities seem to have regarded as the remarkable 
wickedness of Sydney. Perhaps the most freciuent 
visitor was Sir Thomas Brisliane (1821-5), who did 
not like to be too long away from his beloved obser- 
vatory. His stay was memDrable, too. in tliat, on 
the eve of his departure fi-om the colony, he was 
invited to two banquets on the same day — one of 
them tendered by the officers and the free settlers 
(the "pure merinos," as a ribald generation called 
them), and the other Ijy the emancipists, men who, 
sent out for offences of a more or less trivial charac- 
ter, had served their time or been pardoned. With 
the best intentions, Brisbane could not attend both 
banquets at the same hour on the same day; for 
men drank deep in those times, and the poor 
Governor would have seen more stars than ever 
Dunloj) catalogued if he had diviibnl his time between 
the two. Vei'y sensibly he suggested that the two 
parties of willing hosts should unite their forces and 
thus give him the pleasure of accejiting l)otli kind 
invitations. But that was too much to ask. The 
"pure merinos" would not feed with the ex-black 
sheep, and the consequence was that the Governor 

dined at the Woolpaek with the emancipists, whilst 
the other faction held high revel at the Red Cow. 

]More melancholy interest attaches to the connec- 
tion of Governors Bourke and Fitzroy with Old 
(Tovernment House. It was here that ilrs. Bourke 
(the Governor had not then been knighted) did, 
and she was buried in St. John's cemetery. The 
tablet to her memory in the church is so redolent of 
old time sentiment that it is well worth transcribing. 

It runs : — 

Sac-ved to tlie memory of 

Wife of Ma.jor-Ueiieral Richard Bourlve. C.B., Captain- 
General and Governor-iu-rhief of New iSoutli Wales 
and Van Dieman 's Land. 
Wlie died at Government House, Parramatta, ou tiie 7tli 

May, 1832, in the .54th year of her age. 
Reader — She was the most gentle and affei-tiuuate of 
God's creatures, correct in all her duties; she Ud a 
life of unassuming virtue and practical piety; she 
was a comfort and solace to her husband, the friend, 
teaclier and nurse of her children, and a blessing to 
the poor. He who places this marble to her memory 
would indeed be the most wretched of mankind did 
he not feel the Christian's hope of uu'Ctiug in a 
better worhl lior whom he has lost in tliis. 

More tragic was the coiniectiou of (Jovernor 
Fitzroy with Old Government House, lie and Lady 
Mary, his wife, were starting to drive to Sydney, 
on December 7, 1847, and by some accident the 
( rovernor had not firm liold of the reins. Something 
frightened the four horses, and they dashed wildly 


^ '■ ' 

- A 






-rf ■ \'^ 



Experiment Cottage. 

E-xptrimenl Cottage stands on the land (the first Govern- 
ment grant in Australia) given to .John Ruse. Surgeon John 
Jlarris purchased the land from Ruse, and added it to his own 
grant of 110 acres, known as Harris Pari;, The house, which 
still remains in the possession of tlie Harris family, is con- 
siderably over 100 years old. Surgeon Harris died there in 
the year 1S38. In the early fifties Thomas Harris resided 
tlu>re aiul raised horses and cattle. Harris was a 
most industrious man and at one time liad the wliole of tlie 
land from the homestead to the railway station under the 
]ilough. The estate was left by will to .John Harris, and it 
was so willed that the heir to the estate must always be a 
•John Harris. In consequence of this clause, before the land 
could be cut up and sold it was necessary to have an Enabling 
Act passed through Parliament. 



down the hill and iivci-t\irni'd the carriage on a 
stump, throwiuL;' the oi'cninints violently out. The 
Governor escaped almost luduut. but Lady ]Mavy 
Fitzroy and Lieutenant Charles Masters. A.D.C.. died 
the same day from the effect of the in.juries they had 
received. An obelisk, which was unveiled on Cen- 
tenary Day. 18SS. nuirks the spot where tlu- 
melancholy event took place. 

about the time wlien people were all agoy to sell 
everything at a sacritice and take .ship for the 
Californian El Dorado, and almost every day in the 
following year statements, more or less trustworthy, 
were being- made of the discovery of gold in various 
parts of New South Wales and Victoria. Amongst 
other consequences of this general excitement, labor 
was scarce and dear, people who had money to spend 

The Lady Mary Fitzroy Obelisk, Parramatta Park. 


The line from Sydney to Parramatta was the first 
part of the New South Wales system of railways to 
be opened. And that was on September 26, 1855. 
For some cousiilerable time before this, the people, 
led by men like ]\lr. James ilacarthur. had been dis- 
cussing the advisability of introducing railway com- 
munication, liut it was not until 1848 that the Sydney 
Railroad and Tramway Co. was formed for the 
purpose of constructing railways to Parramatta and 
Liverpool, and. later on. to Bathurst and (Joulburn. 
The ]ii-o])osal hastened slowly, and it was not until 
July 3. 1850, that the first sod was turned in tln' 
Cleveland Paddock at Redfern by Mvh. Keith 
Stewart, daughter of Governor Fitzroy, This was 

had no lack of enterprises of a more gilt-edged 
variety than railway construction to invest in. and, 
in fine, the company could not carry on the work 
with the reciuired expedition. In ]\Iarch, 1851, a 
£10.000 contract for laying the line from Ashfield to 
Haslem's Creek (now Rookwood) was given out, 
and. a cou[)le of months later, the construction of the 
line to Concord was commenced. This had soon to 
be discontinued owing to lack of lal)or. and it was 
not until August. 1852. in which month 500 railway 
laborers had arrived from Slngland. that ^Ir. W. 
Randle undertook the contract for the whole line, 
Sydney to Parramatta. There was another dilificulty. 
Of course the iron industry had not been established 
in those days, and con.sequently the contractor had 
to use wooden rails as his work progressed ; and these 



had til be iciiiMVcd every two iiioiiths. This diffiriilly 
vanished when, in .May,, the earyo of inm 
rails was iiiipiuted. At hist the line was well and 
truly laid — ini1 to Parraniatta itself. Inil to a spiil 
fnll.N' a niih' ffimi the town. l)etween tiie L)oi;tra|) 
erossini:- and the i'it.\' road, in what is iniw (Iranville. 
and on tlie i)orders of the present nuinieijiality of 
I'rosjiect and Sherwood. This was the natni'al objec- 
tion to the line in Parraniatta, and it continned in 
force until the i)resent statit)n was opened on Jul.v -i. 
1860. Added to this was the "(Mieral objection to 
any such new-fani;ied way of covering space. Ever.\-- 
body in S.vdne.v and Parraniatta hunu' back with 
lonchiiii;' uiianimit.v from inditliiinf;' in what seemed 
a foolish and hazardous enterprise, and at one time 
it looked as if the rolling stock — all the four engines, 
the 8 tirst-class and the 12 second, and 12 third-class 
coaches — would die an ignominious death l),v rusting 
out for lack of exercise. Hi)wever, a lioard of five 
was appointed to test the line in a train weighing 
]:'(! tons. Not without secret misgivings, may haj). 
tlid these mart,\'rs 1o (lut\' liid farewell to their 
homes; but fortunately no aci-ideiit punishi'd their 
temerit.y and tlie.v returned safe to Sydney. At this 
stage Governor Deiiison took his wife and family 
on a jaunt to Parraniatta and back, and. wln^ii he 
r(>pi;rtiHl all well, the peo|;li' took their courage in 
liiitli hands and rolled up to tlie railwa,y station on 
September 26, 1855, in the largest crowd that had 
ever assembled in Australia. The Governor was 
escorted to Redfern by volunteers and members of 
friendly societies; handkerchiefs fluttered, flags were 
waved and a royal salute was fired — and the first 
section of the New South Wales railways system was 
opened. Its length was 14 miles — the total mileage 
of the railways on June, 1910, was 3643. We have 
seen what the rolling stock was in 1855 ; in the middle 
of 1910. it incduded 872 engines. 718 tenders, 1420 
coaching stock, 14,527 goods vehicles, and 1028 
departmental stock. Or look at it this wa.v. During 
September 26, 1855, 2000 persons travelled to and 
fro, six trains being run each way. In the year 
1909-10 the passenger journeys on the State railwa.ys 
amounted to 53,644,271. Readers with an iiKpiiring 
and arithmetical turn of mind will jierhaps amuse 
themselves by driving the comparison to its satisfac- 
tory end. But fares were proportionately lower 
then than they are now. For the single journey, 
Governor Denison's subjects were charged 4s, 3s and 
2s respectively for 1st, 2nd, and 3rd class single 
journey. The fares ought to have come down more 
than 50 per cent, in the 56 years which have inter- 

Parraniatta is served liy two steam traiiiwa.v 
systems— the older, established in 1883 by Jlr. G. E. 
Jeanneret. runs from a junction of the Parraniatta 
and Duck Rivers, past Glay Gliff Greek", through the 
IMacarthur Estate, and so on through George-street 
to the Park Gates in O'Connell-street. It is still 
l^rivate property, belonging now to the Sydney 
Ferries, which lately purchased the Parramatta- 

Syilney ferry service; and it connects the terminus 
of this service with the heart of the town. 

The other tramway system connects Parraniatta 
\vitli the fruit district, running as far as Gastle Hill. 
When, recentl.v. the S.\(liiey tram service was changed 
from steam motor to electric traction, it was felt that 
here was an opportunit.v to introduce a convenience 
which had long lieen desired. An agitation which 
was maintained with much activity and perseverance 
b.\' residents in Parraniatta itself, and the suburbs 
whieli would be atfected b,v the line, resulted in the 
attainment of the object in view, and the first section 
of the line — from the Parraniatta railway station to 
Baulkham Hills — was opened in 1902. Since then, 
the system has been extended to Ca.stle Hill. At 
present there is only a passenger service, the railwa.v 
authorities having an unsatisfaetor\- objection to its 
extension into a goods service as well. However, 
the.\' ma.\' be gradually educated out of this, and 
fruitgrowers may in time be able to rini their jirodnce 
into market Avithout the prejudicial handling to 
wlii(di it is now subject. 

A pro])osal is on foot to construct a tr;imway 
connecting Parraniatta and Ryde, and towards the 
end of September last the Tramways Advisory Boaril 
— Mr. ¥j. Flowers (Acting Chief Secretary), chair- 
man, and Messrs. Kneeshaw and Conyers — inspected 
the suggested route and took evidence at various 
points. Such a tram would be of great benefit to 
the district, from a residential as well as from a 
commercial point of view. 

This old cottage, tlip home of .Tohu Maearthur, the father 
of the wool industry of ."i-iistralia, still stands. It was called 
Elizabeth Farm after his wife. .lust in front of the cottage 
stands an old olive tree said to have been planted b.v ('aptaiu 
Tench. It is supposed to be the first olive tree planted in 
Australia. Many other old trees exist on the estate — willows 
brought from St. Helena, cork oaks from Spain, and English 
oaks from the old laud. General Maearthur, the son of .lohn 
Maearthur, also resided here, and it was he who planted all 
the pine trees on the estate. Mr. James Neale, of Hassall- 
street, carried the young plants in a glass dish, while the 
General planted them. Henry Watson Parker, e.x-Preniier, 
also resided there. Ladv Parker, his wife, was Emnudine 
Maearthur, daughter of .lohn Maearthur. It was also the 
home of .lames Maearthur Bowman (a grandson of John's). 
Later still it was occujiicd by the Hon. Thos. Icely. It is 
still iu good repair, though considerably over 100 years old. 




As was but natural, Pan-auiatta sliarcd iu the 
general discimit'drt through the al)senee of postal 
i'aeilities iu the tirst eouple of deeades of the history 
of Australia. There was uo means of postal commu- 
nication whatever until 1810. when the post 
office was e.stablished iu Sydney. This post office 
was merely an institution for the delivery to 
addressees of letters which arrived in the metropolis, 
and there was no provision made for the forwarding 
of letters inland. There might, for instance, be a 
letter lying at the post office for a resident in Parra- 
matta, and there it would remain until he called for 
it and paid the charge — 8d for a letter from outside 
the colony and half that for a Colonial letter. If a 
coustalde or a trustworthy private individual, who 
was going to Parramatta from Sydney, happened to 
call at the office, he might be given the letter for 
carriage to its destination ; l)ut there was no re.spoii- 
sibility taken for its safe delivery. In process of 
time, however, the Government realized the incon- 
venience of this method, or want of method, and in 
1825 — two years after the proclamation of the first 
constitution — an act was passed whereby an up- 
country postal service was e.stablished. with delivery 
offices iu certain centres. One of these centres was, 
of course, Parramatta, and from all accounts the de- 
velopment was almost as fruitful of loss and mischief 
as tlu^ original arrangement. In one respect, however, 
it was a distinct aclvance. in th;it S.vdney was no 
longer the absolute terminus of postal matter, tenders 
being accepted for the conveyance of nuiils to various 
places. But here again the old difficult.v presented 
itself, and the country post office, lil<e its Sydney 
prototype, was merely a place at which letters were 
delivered to addressees on payment of the regulated 
charge. Postal administration moved slowly in 
those da.vs, however — very different from its alert- 
ness now! — and it was not until 1828 that the provi- 
sions of this Act of 1S2.'3 were to any sensible extent 

St. John's and Church Street, in 1850. 

The old coaching days, before tlie railway caiiic to Pavra- 
inatta. The coach proi)rietor was Mr. Watsford. the father 
of the Rev. John Wat.sford, Daniel, George, Henry, Benjamin, 
and .Joseph. Mr. Watsford was the proprietor of the Star 
Inn, which stood on the site now occnjiied by the railway 
bridge in Church-street. It was pulled down to make room 
for the railway line. 

It is uiit iiiiproliaiilc that it was thrcuigli tlu' repre- 
sentation of a Pai'ranuitta I'esidcnt. whose luime will 
never be known, that the Government was galvanised 
into activity. He aecomjilishcd this by means of an 
anonymous letter to "The Australian,'" a ])aper 
which was established in Sydney in 1824. under the 
joint editoi-ship of "William Charles AVentworth and 
Dr. R. AVarch-11. In 1828 it was edited by Attwell 
Edwin Hayes, and it was owned by, amongst others, 
S. Kemp (afterwards part proprietor of the 
"ITerald") and T. Bodenham (father of the 
manager of the Commercial Banking Company 
in Parramatta. Mv. \\ . W . Bodenham). In the 
issue of "The Australian" for July 16, 1828, there 
is printed a letter, dated "Parramatta, 6th July," by 
a person who signs himself "A Well-wisher to Gov- 
ernment." and who has been a resident for 10 years. 
Then he tells a sad enough story. He gave a note of 
hand to a Sydney merchant, and on June 20 this 
merchant posted a letter to him. notifying that the 
note liad become due. In dite course this letter 
reached Parranuitta and was safel.v deposited iu the 
Post Office. "Now." the correspondent goes on, "I 
never having any occasion to go to the Post Office, 
could not, of course, be aware that a letter was lying 
there for uic. liut on the 3rd Jul.v I was told by a 
friend that a letter was at the Post Office for me." 
He went and claimed it. but the notification had come 
too late. "The merchant thought that as I had not 
sent a rejily to his notice, I did not propose paying 
any attention to it. and. in conseiiuence, he imme- 
diately goes and gives m.y note of hand into the 
hands of his solicitor, with instructions to proceed 
against me for the recovery of the amount. Now- 
all this is done before I even get my letter; and I 
fear all the proi)erty I have, which is but little, will 
be snatched from me by the law, and other conse- 
quent expenses; and I am to become impoverished 
and miserable: and to owe it all only to the establish- 
ment of a Post Office at Parramatta!" True, the 
gentleman might have directed some of the blame 
to himself, who was presumably as well acquainted 
with the due date of liis note of hand as the Sydney 
merchant. None the less, however, was the system 
faulty. He goes on to say, "I am credibly informed 
that there are letters laying at the Post Office here, 
for persons resident in the town, some of which have 
been laying there for five, others for six weeks. I 
write this with a view that it may catch the eye of 
Authority." It did. pre.sumal)l.v. Any way it was 
not the "Australian's" fault if it did not, for the 
letter was printed in a prominent place, over 
the leader; and, in case the eye of Authority .should 
miss it, the paper devoted a leading article to it. In 
supporting the representations of its correspondent, 
the "Australian" said, amongst other things: "There 
have been some places called post-offices established 
in various districts up-country, it is true, and to such 
places, letters, newspapei-s and the like, it is said, 
are regularly transmitted according as they may 
chance to be severally addressed, but there they ma.v 
lie till Doom's day — unless an individual can afford 
to throw away time in dancing attendance upon the 



Deputy Postmaster, hourly or dail.y, or weekly, as 
the case may be — uo chance has he of ever obtainint; 
a communication on which it nuiy hai^peu that his 
most vital interests are depending. . . . Can such 
a state of things be allowed to exist? For the sake 
of a paltry saving in the wages of a carrier of each 


By Mr. T. D. Little, J. P. 

inlaiul post office, nuist there be created a fund of 
vexation and expense to the public?" The se(|uel 
was satisfactory — at least to this town, however "A 
well-wisher to (Tovernment" may have fared. For 
we read that by the end of 18:28, the postal staff of 
the colony consisted of a principal jiostnuister. a 
clerk and a letter-carrier in Sydney, and eight 
country postmasters, including the officer at Parra- 
matta and one carrier. And the carrier was stationed 
at Parramatta. 

It was not, howevei'. iiiilil I he town was incorpor- 
ated that anything like pmiicr facilities were fur- 
nished. From its earliest da>s the Cduncil cmitiiui- 
ally and coutinmiusly ajiprdjiched the Government, 
asking for additii)iial jiost-nffices, for increase of 
accommodation, for the constructinn <>i' letter-boxes 
at convenient places, and, generally, for an extension 
of the important service. Successive postmasters 
have done the best they can with (he means a1 tlu-ir 

I can only take myself back fifty years. In an 
old land that is a short span, but in a comparatively 
lunv land it is quite a long stretch. 

Fifty years ago Howell's old water-mill stood just 
underneath where now stands the gas-works bridge. 
Across the river was Dr. Woolls' school and resi- 
dence. The George-street Asylum then housed the 
military, and, as a little hoy, I remember seeing the 
men on parade. Possibly that was about their last 
l)arade. before the regiment returned to England. 

Another landmark I remember was Peisley's 
slaughter-house. It was built just below Lennox 
Hridge, on the northern bank of the river, and jutted 
over the Ijanks. Then there was Dare's mill — a busy 
l)lace. now used as ice works. Mr. Hugh Taylor had 
a little Initcher's shop in Macquarie-street, on the 
site now occupied by the School of Arts; and 
LIrquhart's coach-building shop stood on the site 
now occupied by the Post Office. At the "Argus'' 
corner stood a little lolly shop, presided over by a 
fat old lady named Kitty Iloblis; while the opposite 
corner was occupied l)y Projihy, the bootmaker. In 
his fi'ont garden was a rabbit warren, the envy of 
all llie boys in the town. Bropliy's son Mick was a 
iioteil jockey. In front of the railway station, to the 
south, was a big paddock, in the centre of which 
stood a large red lu'ick house, occupied l)y Dr. Gwiuii. 
Ilai-i-is Park was then a bush. So also was the Went- 
woi'th Estate, Avhere now stand the houses iu Went- 
worth, Cowper, Wigrani streets, etc. These paddocks 
were once the scene of a gold rush. Trenches were 
cut all over the place, which, it was said. Dr. Gwinn 
iuid "salted." The old doctor was a queer character, 
aiul he spoke with a luisal twang similar to that (if 
I he late Sir John Robertson. The police barracks 
were in a large walled-in paddock where now staiul 
Uie District School. Laiu-er Barracks, etc. Ti'ooper 
Budin, a dashing Prenchnuin, who fought with Lord 
Cardigan, and took part in the charge of the Six 
Hundred, was the idol of everybody. What a great 
horseman he was! And how excited he used to 
become as he told the story of that charge! 

In those days it was a common thing to see teams 
of horses and bullocks hauling their loads along the 
Western-road, carrying goods to the west — to the 
gold fields and the large towns. 

On Queen's Birthday the Alxirigines used to 
assemble at the nuirket luiildings to receive the 
Queen's bounty in the shape of a red blanket. There 
was a large paddock at the rear of the Market 
Square, and there the blacks used to give exhil)itions 
of boomerang throwing. 

Dr. Brown was captain of the Volunteers. Others 
of our defenders were Color-Sergt. Gilbert Smith, 
Lieut. Stewart, Ensign Byrnes, and, of course, our 
own Charley Cawood. In the band were Messrs. 
George Coates, W. Jones, J. Parsons, John Gray, Joe 
Bi-ogden, -Tack Whitton and Spouiu-er. 

Then there were the great Parramatta cricketers — 



Tom Ashby, Jimmy Folkes, John Booth, Jim Wil- 
liams, Bob Dunn, the Paytens, Ted. Lakeman, Joe 
Rutter, Bob. Rutter, and others. The great matches 
were between Sydney, Jlaitland, Windsor and Par- 
ramatta, and the ^ames were i;enerally for £2 per 

We ;ils(i had alhh'ti's in timsr (lays, such as Dan. 
Watsford, sujiposeil tin-n to be the fastest ped. ui the 
colony; but his father could never induce him to 
run in a professional race. He was a King's School 
boy, and he upheld the dignity of the old school. 

In the noble art of self-defence we also had a 
champion in Parranuitta. Blacl< P'rank was the 
artist, and he fought some iiieuKU'abh' tights against 
another champion called "Vclbiw .Jinuny," Mnd the 
famous boxer "Black Pcrrw" 

I)ack after it reached the nape of the neck. Those 
cabbage-tree hats were fashionable, and cost up to 
ten guineas each. Some of them were of exquisitely 
I)laited sennet; but they were as heavy as lead. A 
man would ratlier, in those days, ha\'e a good hat 
Ihan a watch and chain. Tlie s[M)rls witc known as 
the •■('al)l)age Tree Hat P.riga(U^"' 

Besides Tbc King's School, we had Xewington Col- 
lege, just down the river, on the Blaxland Estate. 
A nundier of our boys v\a^nt there — John Harper 
(now Railway Commissioner), the Fernns, Joe Pay- 
ten, Dick Hunt. Tom Hunt, and others. John 
llarjx'r was a tine cricketer. 

Of tlie tradesmen and storekeepers of fifty years 
ago, not one has left a lineal descendant in the work, 
except in the case of Tom Price. Ills father was a 

Church Street, Parramatta, looking North, showing BanU of New South Wales. 

^li-s. Wickham was tlu' postmistress, the office 
being in the cottage in ( ieoi ge-street. afferwiirds the 
residence of Mr. R. L. Dunn. 

And who does not I'emcmbcr our old postman, 
Sandon? He delivered the whole of the letters, and. 
when the Elnglish mail came in. lie would be on his 
rounds till as late as 10 o'clock at night. Xo eight 
hours in those days! 

Then what a lot of ovcrhuiders we had — the Wats- 
fords, the Barneses, Jim Waddick, Jack Tluirne, 
Ernest Wright, the Cami)bel]s f Duncan and XeiP). 
They were the cattle drovers who tool; their mobs 
over thousands of miles. They wore calibage-tree 
hats and long hair fashionablv tui'ued inwards at the 

dapper Wclshniaii. wlm ,'ihv:iys won' a shiny white 
silk hat, and a plaid suit. He was a keen sport, and 
had the best gmi ami dogs in the country. 

Surely the half-cent ni-y has seen a great change 
in the old town: but not so great as the next half 
cent iii'X' will see. 





THOUGH it is not the name of the Rev. Richard 
Johnson, H.A., whii-h is m.iinly connected 
with the history of the Anglican Church in 
Parraniatta, yet it should not be forgotten that the 
first Chaplain held services regularly here, in the 
open air, and, later, appropriately enough, in a car- 
penter's shop. Indeed, as Archdeacon Gunther 
reminds in his informing brochure on the church and 

Marsden, who had then been two years in spiritual 
charge of Parramatta; and in 1798 Governor Hunter 
laid the foundation of a church which was later to be 
called after the lay-canonized finuidcr. For, before 
l\Iarsden entered upon the first-fruits of his earnest 
labors and consecrated his church on Easter Sunday, 
April 10, 1803, the third Governor, Captain Philip 
Gidley King, had issued his order that "the churches 
now building at Sydney and Parramatta be respec- 
tively named St. Phillip's, in honor of the first 

St. John's Church and Parish Hall, Parramatta. 

parish which he loved and served so well, it was 
under his auspices that the first effort was made here 
to erect a substantial church in Australia. The 
authorities, however, • had other purposes in view, 
and the building was used as a lock-up during the 
conduct of the operations, and afterwards as a 
granary — a "conversion," truly, which was not con- 
templated by the earnest but perplexed Chaplain. 
In 1796 the materials of two wooden huts wore 
formed into a temporary church, at the corner of 
George and IMarsden Streets, bv the Rev, 

Governor of the Territory, and St. -John's, in honor 
of tile late Governor (Captain John Hunter)." It 
is indeed fortunate that King's successors did not 
follow his example in the canonization of ex- 
governors — "St. Gidley's" would not have been an 
im|(osiiit;' filh'. 

The Church of 1803. 

However, people were not so p.irticular in those 
da.ys, and nobod.v seems to have remarked the in- 
congruity of the arrangement. Ma,rsden, least of all. 



Hi> tind at last attaiiu'd tlic first objfct of his amli'- 
lion. and St. John's Ciiurcli had lio^/un its Ion" and 
interesting liistory. A inodei-n eoimrcgation wonld 
possibly not have a()preciated tlie huildiny and tlio 

aceoniniodation jirovidi-d. TIhtc wi-re no i:)e\vs. for 
instance, when the eluu'cli was opcnrd: and in those 
(hiys it would not he feasible to supply their place 
with chairs. The congregation woidd have to ))ut up 
with such rough and ready forms or seats of any 
kind that the lil)erality or thi' ingciuiity of parishion- 
ers could sujiply. As time woih' on. jiews were 
furnished, aiul. as we shall see a little later, they 
were not all of an ordinary i<ind. Here a.ssenibled 
the officers from the Bai'iaci\s wiu'n they were lui 
duty, together with the townsjieople. In the gal- 
leries wt'i'e to be found the eonvii'ts and the soldiers; 
later, too. the children of the I'rotestant Orphan 
School ; and. when The King's School was established, 
the boys trooped here every Suiula.v. At first the 
building was of brick, stuccoed; two tovv'ers were 
added in time; and. when the church itself was re- 
moved and rebuilt of stone, these towers were left 
standing. They are what one sees to-day. One 
legend about them is that they were built by Mrs. 
I\Iacquarie in fulfilment of a vow. whilst another 
attributes the pious worlc to .Mis. Macarthur. wife 
of the resolute opponent of .Mrs. .Mac(puirie's hus- 
band, the Governor (1810-1821). According to the 
old fashion, the pews, when the.v were added, were of 
the high and roomy kind, in whicli worshippers were 
largely concealed from their fellows. To meet this 
couvenieuee. the officiating ministers had to assume 
a very elevated position, if they desired to be seen 
by their flock, iienned up in tlu' hi.nh pews. Accord- 
ingly, in the middle of the church stood a high 
'"three-decker" aft'air, concerning which I may be 
permitted to quote from an article I euntriliuted to 
"The Argus'" on the occasion of the celebration of 
St. John's Centenary (April. 1897): — 

The Three-decker. 

'"In the vestry of St. John's one of the most inter- 
esting memorials of past times is to be found in a 
picture of the old three-decker pulpit u.sed early this 
century. It is an extraordinary looking arr;ingement 
— one calculated to strike awe into the heart of the 
most incorrigible. On the sununit stands Samuel 
Marsden. correctly attired in the Geneva gown and 
bands which was then — and until only a few years 
ago — considered the proper apparel for a clergy- 
man when he was delivering his sermon. Below him 
in surplice and stole, with the hood of his Oxford 
degree showing — is ^Ir. Bobart, who was to succeed 
ilr. Jlarsden in the incumbency. In the lowest place 
the clerk — 3Ir. J. F. Statf — solemnly gazes at the 
congre.iration as one who has satisfactorily dis- 
charged his dutv."' 

Thanks to the courtesy of ilr. H. Wright, the accom- 
plished Librarian of the ^Mitchell Library, 1 have been 
able to sui)])l.\' pai'tienlars of this three-decker which 
have not. so far ;is 1 know. I)een imblished hitherto. 
These were obtained from a numuscript volume 
entitled: "Re|)ort and Estimate of the value of the 
imiu'ovenu^nts which have taken place in the Public of S.\'diU'y. Pari'amatta. Windsor, Liver- 
l>ool, and Camplxdltown, between the li.jtli of Decem- 
ber, 1S22, and the 24tli of December. 1823, inclusive: 
and an E.xpose of the i)resent state of the Publi.j 
Buildinus in New Siaitli WmIps. B.v (U'der of His 



Kxeelleiir-y. Sir Thoiiias Urisbjinc, K.C.B., etc., etc. 
JIade by 'S. JI. Harris. Arc-hilcct. 1S24." The first 
item ill the " I'arraniatta Church"' estimates is "A 
pulpit, witli two tliylits (if stairs and jiedestal, X.'2o." 

Tliat must have been the ecdelu-atcd " three-deelfer."' 
These estimates, which tot up to iL'22S 2s '2d, con- 
tain that further information about the seating 
accommodation of old St. John's which was promised 
above. There was no nonsense in those days, what- 
ever there ma\' be now. at)oiit there beinf>' no respect 
of persons in a clnircli. and no doulit as to whose 
comfort should lirst be considered. We find accord- 

in<j;]y that £35 was being expended on "upholstery, 
with imitation Sjianish Leather, stuffing to seats and 
back of Governor's Pew," whilst the sum of £15 10s 
8d (for "stuffing," wainscoting and 16 pairs of 

hinges) was considered enoiigli to provide for the 
wants of all the common worshippers put together. 
In this interesting volume — which used to lie in the 
Architect's Department till, at Mr. Wright's general 
request, it was handed over to the Jlitchell Lilirary 
— we have a "Plan of Parramatta Church" and 
"Elevation — showing Reculvers Towers." We are 
also told that: "Parramatta Church has undergone 
sundry alterfitions and additions in Plaistering and 
Woodwork. — A new Gallery has also been put u]) in 
the year 1823, but the worJviiianship, as well as the 
otliei- repairs, is badly done, and it is very doubtful 
whether the walls of the Church, from the inferiority 
of the IMaterials, will lie of long duration." 

The Church as it is Now. 

In view of this denunciation — more emphatic than 
grammatical — it is not surprising that the church 
M-as closed in 1852. When the new iniilding was 
opened in 1855, the only part of the old church left 

standing was the towers. Since then transe])ts were 
added (1883) and stained glass windows and otlier 
handsome memorials have from time to time been 
presented. The walls are rich with tablets and 
brasses to the memorv of men and women who hav(' 

South Wales and else- 

made their mark' in New 
where, and St. John's, the mother church of a 
goodly number of churches and parishes in the sur- 
rounding districts, is a fitting, as it is a striking, 
nionument in the Historic Borough. During its long 
and honorable career it had been ruled by only four 
men. when, this year, the Rev. S. M. Johnstone was 
ap])ointed to the incumbency resigned by the Yvn. 
Archdeacon (iunther. These four are: S. IMarsden, 
1794-1838; II. H. P.obart. M.A.. 1838-1853; R. L. 
King, B.A., 1855-1868, and W. J. Gunther, M.A., 




Acting on the excellent priiiciiile professed by a 
well-known writer — that when onee one has deliber- 
ately eliosen certain words to express one's meaning 
one cannot, as a rule, alter them with advantage — 
we make no apology for liorrowing for our account 
of All Saints' Church. Pai'i'amatta North, from an 
article wliicli appeared in "The Cumberland Argus" 
some yeai's ago. 

Early in 18!)7, when some surprise was expressed 
in the public press at the absence of any memorial to 
Samuel Marsdeu. Archdeacon Gunther wrote to re- 
mind the objectors that such a memorial did exist 
in the stibstantial shape of All Saints' Church, Par- 
ramatta. Noliody. however, seems to know the 
exact date of the laying of the foundation-stone. 
Before us, as we write, lies a l>rass plate Ijcaring the 
following inscription: — 

"This foundation-stone of the Church of All 
Saints, to lie dedicated to the Worshij) of Almighty 
God. was laid by tlie Right Reverend Father in God, 
William Grant Broughton, D.D., Lord Bishop of 
Australia, in the year of our Lord mdcccxliii. Henry 
H. Bobart, A.jM., Incumbent of St. John's Church." 

Above the line giving the year is a space left blank 
— evidently for the insertion of the day of the month. 
But the omission of this piece of information would 
almost lead one to imagine that the brass was never 
used — at any rate it cannot have referred to the pre- 
sent church. The only thing that the plate proves is 
that the parish was at first part of St. John's, and 
that the erection of the church wa.s decided upon 
during the incumbency of Mr. Bobart, who succeeded 
JMarsden on that gentleman's death in 1838. 

The same vexatious uncertainty dogs our footsteps 
throughout. We have before us the original list of 
"svibscriptions in aid of the funds for erecting a 
church in the Parish of jMarsfield to the memory of 
the late Reverend Samuel Marsden." This was cer- 
tainly started in the Governorship of Sir George 
Gipps (1838-184(j). for he is mentioned as the donor 
of £10. Other subscriptions included Jlarsden him- 
self, who left £200, the Society for the Propagation 
of the Gospel, through Bishop Broughton £100. Han- 
nibal II. I\Iacai-thur £100, G. T. Palmer (Commissary, 
one may suppose) £100. John Betts £50, Dr. Ander- 
son (whose name one of the Parramatta Wards com- 
memorates). Rev. Robert Forrest (the first Head- 
master of The King's School, who was also godfather 
to one of our wards and to whose memory the fine 
cast window in All Saints' was erected), Francis 
Watkins. father of Mr. F. T. Watkin.s, and J. B. 
Bettington (his wife put U]) another window in tlu; 
church). Other well-known names an- those of 
Suttor, Blaxland, Staft", Woolls ami Eliot t. the Police 
ilagistrate. The clergy in those days were either 
nmch better off than their successors now, or else 
they were much more generous. Amongst the foun- 
ders besides Marsden aud Forrest, already named, 

were: Rev. Thomas Hassall. Rev. II. II. Bobart. Rev. 
Janu's Allen. Rev. John Eyer, Rev. John Troughton 
anil licv. G. E. Turner. Indeed, as its history proves, 
All Saints' owes nnu-h to the piety and liberality of 
its clergymen. This list — the aggravating document 
hasn't got a date from beginning to end — must have 
been kept open for a long time, as we find that 
Governor Sir Charles Fit/.roy gave £10. aud he did 
not begin his rule in New Soutii Wales till 1846. 

Before this, however, then' was some sort of a 
church, probably the small wooden building in Pen- 
nant-street, to which reference is made in some old 
papers. The registers still in use bear this inscrip- 
tion: "1st March, 1844. These Registers were pre- 
sented to the parish of JMarsfield by the joint contri- 
butimis of H. H. ]Macarthur, Esq.. of the Vineyard, 
and ^Irs. Gore, of Pemberton Cottage, in the follow- 
ing sums: H. H. I\Iacarthur. Esq., £1 ; ilrs. Gore, 10s. 
James Walker, :M,A.. ilinister of Marsfield." The 
first entry is the baptism of ]\lary Jane Pye, by Rev. 
W. B. Clarke, which took place on March 3. 1844. 
Th)-ee months late John Harris was married to Ann 
White by the Rev. J. Walker, and on ]\Iarch .5 the 
first burial — that of ]Mary Ann Ralph, aet 13 — was 
reconh'd by the same clergynum. 

The Consecration. 

We are getting now nearer to the region of dates. 
There was first the church that was part of St. John's 
Parish, as evidenced by the brass plate above-men- 
tioned, aud then there was the small wooden church 
in Pennant-street, under the charge of the Rev. J. 
Walker, who reigned from 1844-1847. About £1000 
had been collected or promised and the congregation 
decided on building a church. The original plan 
submitted was less expensive than that ultimately 
adopted — mainly through Bishoji Broughton 's infiu- 
ence. There is no record of when the foundatiou- 
stone was laid or of when the new church was opened 
for Divine service. But there is in existence an 
account dated "S.vdney, 15th February. 1848," in 
which the Registrar of the Diocese of Sydney sets 
foi-th his claims upon "The Trustees of All Saints' 
Church. .Marsfield." as follows: — "January '21. 1848. 
Drawing a fair copy Petition for consecration of 
church, 6s 8d ; drawing nnd lugrossing sentence of 
consecration — fee for .seal — parchment and registra- 
tion, £2 2s; attending attesting ])roceedings. £1 Is; 
expenses, 10s 6d." It is satisfactory to know that 
the Registrar (whose name as signed looks like II. 
Ilari-ison James) received the aiiKUint £4 Os 2d from 
the Rev. F. Cameron (incund)ent from 1848-JIay, 
184i)). The receipt is not dated — nothing seems to 
have been dated in those days — but payment was 
Miithoi-ised hy the Trustees on P>bruary 26, 1848; 
from whicli we might coiudude that the consecration 
liad already lidvcn place. Elsr why "attending 
attesting |)i-oceedings" ' Against this we have the 
tradition that the ceremony took place on July 27 — 
liir d.'iy (111 whicli anniversar\' services have been 
held. But, if there is no evidence of the date, why 
should not the church celebrate its anniversary on 



November 1 — All Saints' Day? This would seem to 
be more in aecordanee with ecclesiastical usage. 

Tile church then consecrated was. of course, not 
as large as the present one, and the student of archi- 
tecture can see at a glance where the addition was 
made. The King's School had no less than seven 
pews in it, according to an old plan before us, on 
which some unknown benefactor in the distant past 
by a luippy chance wrote "July. IS-iS." 
Money ditl not come in freel.v. and it w 
seem that some of the persons who had 
their names down for suJiseriptions 
not fulfilled their obligations. 
These were promptly rounded 
up, with gratifying results in 
many cases, whilst in others the 
melancholy words "no good" 
indicate the collectors' opinions 
of some of tlie "subscribers.'" 
However, they got in over 

£100 with which to help liquidate the £450 debt. 

Internal Troubles. 

ilr. Cameron had a trouliled year of it. For one 
thing he actually jjreached in his surplice, and wo 
can all remember what a heinous sin that was till a 
very much later date than 1848. To-daj' the strictest 
of Evangelicals preach in their surpliee — and nobody 

All Saints' Church, Parramatta North. 



thinks (lii'.v iiie therefore on the road to Rome. But 
then it wa.s diti'ereut and the parishioners of All 
Saints' protested to the parson, and, when that was 
not successful, appealed to the Bishop. Bishop 
Broughttm did not attach xrvy much importance to 
the (piestion of vestments — in whicli. as in many 
otlier thinjis. he was in advance of the time — but, for 
peace sake, he advised ihc disrontinuam-e of the 

The Rev. W. F. Gore (18-49-1862) now l)ei:au his 
beneficent ministrations and it is to him of all the 
incumbents that All Saints' ciwcs most. To start 
with he had a little difficulty. Tlir worshippers at 
this church have always taken the keenest interest 
in matters eeclesiastieal, and some of them have dis- 
played remarkable keenness in secntina: out heresy 
or Romanism in the most unexjjected quarters. The 
Rev. F. Cameron, it appears, had introduced the 
startling '"innovations"' of a weelcly (itfertory and 
the "revival of Saints' days." The latter term 

Rev. W. F. Go 

meant that prayrrs were s;iid |)ul)licly nn tliese days, 
in compliance, one may suppose, with the direct 
arraiiuements of the rubiic. The trustees of the 
church— .Mr. J. B. Bettington. Dr. Woolls and Dr. 
Anderson — with the churdiwardens and some sixty 
other members of the congregation, looked upon both 
llu'se "innovations" with suspicion, and they peti- 
tioned the Bishop to order Mr. Gore to discontinue 
them. According to the petitioners, both had been 
introduced by the Tractarian Party and were there- 
fore "looked upon with suspicion and mistrust." 
Besides, they argued with crusiiing logic, if there 
are to be public services on week-days, why on 
Saints' days only? Why not every day? As to the 

"weekly offertory ' it was flat Popery, and. if the 
practice were continued, the i)arishio)iers woidd stay 
away from liniich altogether or else leave before the 
plate came i-ound. (Prejudices die hard. To this 
day one may se<' w(U-shippers — not in All Saints' 
only — gazing with suspicion at the plate as it works 
its wily way along the pews, or raising their eyes 
in holy liori-oi- to the roof till the evil tiling has 
passetl from them i. 

Bishop Broughton wrote the petitioners a very 
sensible rejjly. PA'en if the matters complained of 
had really been introduced by the Tractarians, that 
Avas not a convincing argument against them. The 
weekly offertory was a necessity to church life in 
Australia — how many denominations have fouinl that 
out? — and. as regards the observance of Saints' days, 
services had been expressly appointed by the Church. 
He would like to see daily services established, but, 
failing that, they should welcome any instalment of 
complete unifoiniity with the rubric. And. to wind 
up. he added that, even if he desired to order ilr. 
Gore to refrain from the practices complained of, 
he had no power to interfere. 

AYhich ought to have shut up the pugnacious peli- 
tiouers, but didn't. They held a meeting — Dr. 
Anderson in the chair — in which they placed on 
record the feelings of "deepest regret and apprehen- 
sion'" with which they had read the Bishop's lett^'r, 
and resolved to appeal to the Archbishop of Canter- 
bury. They let Bishoj) Broughton know of their 
intention, so as to give him another chance of tloing 
his duty as each of them would have done it if 
Providence had made him or her a Bisho|). Strange 
to say. Dr. Broughton was not terror-stricken at the 
tlireat. He may have known that the Ai-clibishop 
of Canterbury would be little inclined to interfere 
in an absurd quarrel like this, so many tliousands 
of miles away from Lambeth. Any way this is what 
he wrote to the All Saints' popes — the autograjih 
letter is before us: "It will afford me unfeigned 
satisfaction if. in compliance with your solicitation, 
it shall be in the power of His Grace the Archbishop 
of Canterbury to devise with the ecclesiastical auth- 
orities any such celebrations of Diviiu; services as. 
without violating the rules of the Church, shall 
accord w'ith the wishes of the memorialists." Pos- 
sible the memorial was never sent to the Archbishoj). 
There is, at any rate, no record of any reply having 
been received; and. if any were sent, it is safe to 
assume that the memorialists were gently informed 
that even the Primate of All England has mi |)ower 
to direct a clergyman tn from olicying the 
ordinance and directions of the Church. 

Next year, however, the parishioners scored off tlu' 
Bishop — much, we ma.v be sure, to their satisfaction: 
though, to their credit be it said, they dmi't make 
an.v outcry about it. Wlicn. earlv in 184!). it had 
been decided to make an eft'ort to ri'(luce the £o-tO 
debt on tin' cliurch. apjiiication had been made to the 
Bishop, who had promised to contribute £60 — one 
moiety in August, anil the other at the close of the 
.vear. His lordshi]) had evidently been so nnich per- 
turbed about the appeal to the Archbishop of Can- 


terliury that the promised donations had not turned 
np, and in IMareh, 1850, Mr. E. II. Htatham— a briglit 
e.xaniple of inethodieal arrangement and distinct pen- 
manship in those days of dateless scrawls — wrote, on 
behalf of the Trustees and Churchwardens, to remind 
him of the cireumstauee. In forwarding his £30 a 
few days later the Bishop expressed the opinion tliat 
the opposition to the weekly offertory and the "some 
kind of appeal" to the Arclibishop might not un- 
reasonably be regarded as exonerating him from fur- 
ther participation in the measures adopted by the 
parishioners for the relief of their church and for its 
future sustentation. The churchwardens, however, 
did not at all agree with him on this point. Bishop 
Broughton's money was all right, if his theology or 
knowledge of ecclesiastical law were inferior to 
theirs. "Pecunia non olet" — sovereigns have no 
Romanizing tendencies. Indeed, so highlv did the 

some of the high-toned people who worshipped at 
All Saints' in those days — though, by all accounts, 
she was as charming as she was beautiful. A mem- 
licr of the Innes family was hardly likely to jnit up 
with any criticism of that kind. Mr. Fletcher had a 
short reign. He had an idea — right or wrong — that 
the churchwardens should supply him with all need- 
ed houseliold appliances and he was much shocked 
at the absence of candlesticks. Wherefore he invited 
the churchwardens to his house, and. the festive 
board being lit up with a lot of candles stuck in a 
))eggarly array of empty beer bottles, asked them 
whether they thought the exhibition decent. Let us 
hope they were convinced. But Mr. Fletcher soon 
got an appointment in another colony — an oppor- 
tunity which was said to have l)een meant for 
another divine rejoicing in that not particularly un- 
(•(iinniiiii name. 


His Majesty's Prison, Parramatta. 

Tr\istees ;ippri>\'e wK liishnp linnigbfon's money that 
we find them applying on New Year's Day of 1851 
— so as to begin the year well — for the second £30. 
But whether they go1 tliis nr ii<i1 the record sayeth 
not. They <leserve(l it. 

List of Incumbents. 

The following clergymen luive lii'id tiie office of 
incumbent of All Saints': — hnnes Walker. M.A., 
1844 to 1847; F. Cameron. 1848 to .May. 1849; Wil- 
liam F. Gore, 1849 to 1862; George Barlow. iSo'i to 
July, 1867; (}. A. C. Innes, 1867 to July. 1868; J. 
Fletcher. 1868 to Sept, 1868; J. R. lUomfield. 1868 
to Nov.. 1886; John Done. 1886 to the present day. 

During the absence of Jlr. Gore, October to Decem- 
ber, 1862, the Rev. F. Armitage officiated and llie 
Rev. G. E. C. Stiles was locum tenens for Jlr. Blom- 
tield from December, 1883, to November, 1884. Mr. 
Innes' choice of a second wife was not pleasing to 

The Surplice Heresy Again. 

In the alisence of W\\ Harlow on one occasion the 
Rev. F. Armitage preached for him and incidentally 
got pulled up by the zealous heresy-hunters for the 
heinous crime (as it was then regarded) of preaching 
in a surplice. Which reminds tlie present writer of a 
curious defence of the innovation nuuh:' many years 
ago in a church in Dublin — the hotbed of strong 
Protestantism — by a gentlenuin who certainly was 
not a Ritualist. He was a big man of a portly habit 
— was. alas — and one of the firmest friends and truest 
f Ihri.stians that one could meet. On the occasion of 
his preaching in the surplice instead of the academic 
gown he bade his congregation notice that the "iiuio- 
vation"" had no coiuiection with Rome. It was on 
gi'ounds of pure convenience that he preached in his 
surplice. The clergy, he saiil. did not ask the congr(>- 
gation to go out of the church and change their dress 



for the sermon. Why should the congregation ask 
the clergy to do this? This eommonsonse way of put- 
ting things a[)i)eal('d to the people, and there was 
no further troubh' in tliat church about the matter, 
liut p(;ople were less reasonable in All Saints' in 
1862, as the following documents will show: "21st 
Sunday after Trinity, November 9, 1862. We, the 
undersigned churchwardens, beg to enter our protest 
against jtreaching in the surplice as was this day the 
case, a Rev. Mr. Armitage performing service for 
Rev. Mr. Barlow. We make this protest in order 
that it may not be taken as a precedent. D. J. Wood- 
riff, E. H. Statham." This was minuted by the 
offender as follows : ' ' This oecniTence was quite acci- 
dental and would have been immediately explained 

Betts collected the offertorj' and the vestry was as 
open to him as to us. In our ojjinion a protest is the 
act of the purely-prote.sting and not that of the cor- 
porate body. Mr. Betts' remarks have been added 
since Sunday. !)th inst. E. II. Statham, D. J. Wood- 
rift'." liishop Barker wrote a long and thoughtful 
letter on the subject, and the protest did not do much 
harm. Any way, if the churchwardens had only 
allowed Mr. Armitage to explain they would have 
f(uuid that the alleged "ritualism" was indeed noth- 
ing more than an accident. 

Enlargement of the Church. 

The cheerful ignorance of the date of the opening 
of All Saints' which has been somewhat of a 

Church Street, North Parramatta, loaking South. 

had citiici- III' tile I'hiiri'hwaiilcns s|)()kcn In nie on the 
sub.ject. F. Arniitage." Then comes in another 
churchwarden with. "With regard to the above 
memorandum. I feel it my duty to record my opinion 
Upon the matter refci'red 1o. I entirely dissent from 
this protest, which I consider altogether luiealled for. 
I now take this opportunity to assert my right to ue 
consulted in all matters wiicrc the interests of the 
Church, in this i)arish. are coneerneil. Atul I think 
that where two ciiureliwardens ignore the third, as in 
this case, it is an assunijition of authority contrary 
to the rules of the Cliureh and at variance with the 
Act of C^ounei! iinilei- which this Church exists in 
this colony. J. A. i'.etls." The objectors object 
again: "The protest was entered in open vestry. Mr. 

s1nmli]inu-lilnel\ in our way — attempting at tliis dis- 
tance of tinu> to give something like a consecutive 
history of the church — was freely admitted by the 
authorities when, in 1859, it was found necessary to 
add to the structure. The ofticial "Report of the 
Trustees and Churchwardens on the subject of the 
enlargement of All Saints' Church. .Marslield. 1860," 
begins with the following sentence: — "Soon after 
the oi>ening of the present church in 1817-8 it became 
evident to the Trustees and Chnrchwardcns that the 
design was on too small a scale for the re(iuirements 
of the E])iscopalians on the northern side of I'arra- 
matta, and m;in\- parishioiuM-s — ]iartly from not 
being able to obtain pews, and partly from old asso- 
ciations — continued to attend the parish ehureh of 


St. John's ou the south side of the town." Resort 
was had to many expedients for the accommodation 
of worshippers, but at last it was evident to Mr. Gore 
and his otiieers that the church must be enhirged. 
After reference to Mr. E. T. Blacket, the eminent 
ecclesiastical architect, it was found that the only 
thing to do was to add two comi)lete "bays" and to 
renu)ve the chance! furtlu'i' to the east. Yes, but this 
would cost money. Ilownmch? £l(i()(). Where was 
the money to be obtained? In November, ]8.i9, part 
of this problem was salved, Mr. Gore then offering to 
lend £800 at 6 per cent, from the completion of the 
building — a ridiculously low price as money then 
went — the principal not to be demanded until the 
other moiety recpiired to complete the work should 
be paid to the conti'actor. And — to quote the words 
of our authority (Mr. Statham, we should judgiO — 
"still further to eiUMiurage the speedy li([uidation of 
the dcl)t, the Rev. Incumbent offered that, so soon as 
the sum of £700, with interest on the full sum ad- 
vanced, should be paid off, the remaining £100 should 
be foregone as a donation. With full reliance on the 
good faith of the parishioners and trustees no per- 
sonal liability is exacted for the fultilment of these 
conditions." This, of course, was too good an offer 
to be refused, and the officers set to work. Mr. 
Ilouison, the contractor, did his part well and was 
content with a guarantee for his portion, payable 
at the rate of £50 per annum — the principal to carry 
interest until paiil. Amongst other subscribers 
besides Mr. (iore we find the following names: Mvsi. 
J. B. Bettington, Mrs. Betts, lAlrs. Elliott, and .Mrs. 
B. Baldock, Rev. F. Armitage, Dr. Woolls. J\lessrs. 
( '. W. Finch, James Pye, D. J. Woodritt', Betts, E. H. 
Statham, A. 0. Grant, T. Whiteside, H. Harvey. R. 
Keyes. and P. ]Miller. The King's School boys made 
a collection and there is a mysterious item in the 
account, dated March 8, 1860, "Foundation-stone ser- 
vice," £3 9s fid. All Saints' must have had a great 
many foundatiou-stoiui's laid — aiul nobody knows 
anything aliout them. The monej' raised according 
to the account presented to the Easter Vestry, 18(;i. 
by the Treasurer, Mr. E. H. Statham, totalled £1130 
2s 3d, but this included the £800 loaned by Mr. Gore. 
Mr. Houison's account for the alteration and exten- 
sion was £1717 13s 6d, and for pewing extension 
£128, and, when all was said and done, the work cost 
]Mr. Gore some £750 aiul the church ott'ertories — 
meaning practically, the clergyman's stipeiul — about 
the same amount. 

It is indeed to .Mr. (Jorc that All Saints" ('luii-i-h 
owes most of its iiresent beauty and completeness. 
lie gave it the nu)ney we have mentioned. He de- 
voted to it his salary for years. One of the bells was 
presented by him. Four of the stained-glass windows 
which adorn the church were erected by liim. The 
parsonage was chiefly l)uilt b.y money given hy him. 

The property, "Endrim," owned by him — where Mr. 
J. E. Bowden now lives — was rented by him to the 
churchwardens at £30 a year, the rent to be paid 
to the Clergymen's Stipend Endo^vment Fund. It 
was out of the fund thus increased that the present 
parsonage was built. The schoolhouse and master's 
dwelling were built at his instigation and we have 
before us a list of sul)scri|itions collected for this 
object. The document has the common fault of All 
Saints' documents — it is undated; but it records the 
liberality — to the extent of some £400 — of the con- 

But there is one tiling which must attract the 
attention of the visitor to the church — and that is 
the altar. Rai.sing the cloth the discreet visitor will 
note that it is placed there "To the glory of God and 
to the memory of" three ladies, each of whom has 
her name inscribed on one of the paiui'ls. These were 
the three wives of the Rev. J. R. Blomfield, a man 
who was most highly esteemed by iiis congregation, 
whom he led from 18()8 to 1886. His jtraise is still 
high in the mouths of those who knew him. His 
tenure of office was the longest of all the incumbents 
hitherto, until the present incumbent beat the record. 
This is the Rev. John Done, who has been in eharge 
now for (puirter of a century. 

No account of All Saints' Church would be any- 
thing approaching completeness if it did iu)t contain 
something about the liells. Dift'erent opinions are 
expressed about church bells, some jiersons hold- 
ing that they are a nuisance, whilst others maintain 
that they are a great aid to devotion. Possibly the 
mean is the right viev/. Bright bells ringing merrily 
and clearly on festival occasions caiuiot be other than 
a joy to healthy-minded and healthy-bodied people; 
and most of us have known how potently the solemn 
tone of the "passing bell" mingles with and attunes 
itself to the grief of mournei's. We are not surprised 
to hear that some persons coinijlain when bells are 
nuig at unearthly hours, but, on the whole, taking- 
all drawbacks into consideration, a good peal of bells, 
well rung, is a desirable thing to have in a town. 
Certainly All Saints' Church has such a peal. Parra- 
nuittans will be interested to hear about these bells 
anil what thev cost, as per account presented to the 
Easter Vestry of 1857. They cost £101 3s 9d all told 
— no ])un intended — ami the money was collected by 
^lessi's. Weaver. Betts. Statham and Robinson, assist- 
ed by a donation of £20 from Mr. Gore. The donors 
were: Treble bell, Mr. Henry Harvey; secoiul bell, 
Mr. W. Tiudle and I\Ir. W. Fullagar; third, Mr. 
James Pye : fourth, :Mr. Robert B. Baldock : lifth, Mr. 
and Mrs. J. B. Bettington ; and the sixth, the 
parishioners of 1855. There is a very fine team of 
bell-ringers now in the belfry, under the skilled eap- 
taincv of Mr. A. French, 







If the i-ude forefathers of our eoiauamity deserved 
the eondenmation of zealous men like Marsden for 
their generally indecorous behaviour and, particu- 
larly, for their uinvillintruess to attend the ordin- 
ances of religion, they might at least claim as a set- 
off that they took all sorts of care to induce those 
under their control not to forsake the assembling 
of themselves together. Posted up on the Parra- 
matta public notice-board, for instance, there was 
this general order: — 

"Every person will regularly attend public wor- 
ship, which will begin at 10 o'clock on Sunday morn- 
ing. The Commissary is directed to stop 21b. of 

si)iritual guides that these unhappy people — many of 
them, like their companions in misfortune, being 
transported for "crimes" which would now be ade- 
quately punished by a fine or "the rising" — had 
to suffer the extra penalty of being deprived of the 
consolations of religion. Two priests — one only of 
whom, the Rev. Thomas Walshe, has his name re- 
corded^ — petitioned to be allowed to accompany the 
Fleet, but Lord Sydney, the ^linister resi)iinsible 
for the arrangements, did not think it worth while 
even to answer their petition. Yet they did not ask 
much. "We are not so presumptuous," is the post- 
script of the letter, "as to wish .support from Gov- 
ernment ; we offer our voluntary services ; we hope, 
however, not to offend in entreating for our pas- 
sage." And, seeing that there was no other way of 


St. Patrick's Church and Presbytery, Parrarratta. 

meat from every overseer, and 1 ' :;lb. from every 
convict, male or female, who does not attend Divine 
service, uidess prevented by illness or other sufficient 
cause. ' ' 

Unhappily, the Divine service thus thoughtfully 
pressed upon the attention of the people was not 
that to which many of the inhabitants at that time 
belonged. Xo provision was made for the sjjiritual 
wants of otlier than the adhei-ents of the Church of 
England, and how numerous these were nuiy be gath- 
ered from the fact that, of the 756 convicts placed 
on board the First Fleet, fully 300 were Roman 
Catholics. It was by no means the fault of their 

getting to Australia tlian \>ev ll..M."s ships, this 
liardly seemed an unreasonable request. I'.iit Loi'd 
Sydney thought that the educational and miir;d 
needs would be served by the one Church of Eng- 
land chajilain, apj>oint('(l at Wilhcrforce's instance. 

A Famous Petition. 

So l\(]iiuni Caliinlii-s wci-c cDiiipi'llcd to attcnil 
Protestant ministrations, and they hni'c this, to tlicni, 
added weight of punishment with fortitude, until, 
towards the I'ud of 17S)l2. some of thdii [irotested in 
their turn. Jt is a feather in the cai> of I'ai-ramatta 
that it was settlers — free and convict — of this dis- 



ti'ict that uryed upon Governor Phillip "the incon- 
venience we find in not beinii' indnlued heretofore 
with a pastor of oiu' relijiion." Recognising the im- 
portance of poi>ulatii)n to the infant settlement, they 
declared that "mithing else could induce us ever 
to dejjart from His ilajesty's Colony here unless the 

heljjcd themselves. The Government had indeed so 
far yielded to the known wants of a large section of 
the iidialiitants as to grant permission for "the 
Roman Catholics to use the loft above the gaol in 
Parramatta for the i)erformance of Divine service 
on Sundays." That was in 1S27. The loft, which 

Fathei* Kenyon. 

Father Brennan. 

Dean Coffey. 

idea of going into eternity without the assistance of 
a Catholic priest." The petition fell on deaf ears, 
but a few years later, at the instance of Governor 
King — who perhaps thus atoned for his eccentric 
canonizing of his predecessors Phillip and Hunter — 
the l>ritish Government authorised the employment 
of three priests, transported for alleged complicity 
in the '98 movement, as schoolmasters and as pastors 
of their people in New South Wales. These priests 
were : The Rev. James Harold, the first Roman Cath- 
olic convict priest who lauded in Australia ; the Rev. 
James Dixon, afterwards Prefect Apostolic of New 
Holland — the first of the long and distinguished roll 
constituting the Catholic Hierarchy of Australia ; 
the Rev. Peter O'Neil. All three officiated in Parra- 
matta as well as in Sydney, and the first mass was 
said in Parramatta by Father Dixon on Mav 22nd, 

One of the main difficulties experienced by the 
Roman Catholics here was the absence of a fitting 
place of worship. Thus, so late as 1820, we find 
Father Therry writing to Governor Mac(iuarie, stat- 
ing his intention of celebrating Divine service in the 
town on the following Sunday, and asking him to 
"order any apartment that may be unoccupied in 
one of the Government stores to be appropriated for 
the purpose on Sunday." To which the Governor 
replied, through his secretary, IMr. F. J. Campbell, to 
the etfect that there was no such apartment available 
and that the stores were "fully occupied with grain 
and animal food for the public service." No room, 
therefore, for the supply of spiritual food. 

The First Chapel. 

In the circumstances the Catholics of Parramatta 
did what they have continued to do ever since — they 

was used at other times for the reception of prisoners 
passing from one station to another, had hardly the 
associations which are consonant with "the beauty 
of holiness," and efforts were diligently made for 
the building- of a chapel. The Rev. Daniel Power, 

who succeeded Father Therry as "Roman Catholic 
clergyman of this colony," was so enthusiastic in this 
cause that in 1828 he petitioned Governor Darling 
for a contribution, on the ground that "His Excel- 



leney I'esided oceasioiiMlly in that town." Ilistoi-y 
does not record whether or not this request was sne- 
cessfiil. It deser\-ed to be any way. and one would 
be glad to know that ilr. Power had succeeded in 
his efforts before he passed away to his rest in 1830. 
A few years later — in 1836 — we tind that the chapel 
has been built — a chapel capable of holdins"' 500 per- 
sons. It was under the charge of the Rev. (after- 
wards Ueau) J. Sumner, who had been ordained that 
year — the priest ordained in Australia. And 
it was in the same year — St. Patrick's Day. 1836 — 
that the foundation-stone of St. Patrick's Church 
was laid by Bishop Polding. The occasion is memor- 
able, for this was the first ceremony of the kind per- 
formed in Australia. 

It was not. however, until 1839 that St. Patrick's 
Church — a stone building — was opened for Divine 

Very Rev. Thomas O'Reilly, P.P.. 
Vicar Forane. 

worship. It was then under the charge of the Rev. 
Michael Brennan. who had also the oversight of nine 
outlying stations and whn had at the mother chiu'ch 
of his |)arish a weekly cDiigregation of between 400 
and 500 persons. By ihis time the Sisters of Charity 
had also began their beneficent work — work that 
has gradually grown ti> a wonderful extent. And. in 
this connection, it may l)e noted that Mother Francis 
Xavier Williams, of the Holiart Convent, was the 
first nun professed in Australia — the ceremony hav- 
ing beeu performed in Parramatta by Archbishop 

The 1830 cluu-ch sufficed for the needs of flic 
|)arishiouers for fifteen year.s — or. perhaps, tlie c iii- 
gregation was not in a ];'Osition to erect a larger 
edifice, ileanwliile. the work of the parish went on, 
under various priests. There was the Rev. Nicholas 
Joseph (afterwards Dean) Coffey, for ia.stance. who 
took charge in 18-42, and of whom Dr. Houison tells 
an amusing story in his informing paper. "Odd bits 
in the History of Parramatta." read before the Aus- 
tralian Historical Society five or six years ago. The 
Dean died very suddenly. Aichi)riest Sheehy saw 
him on the Saturday, when he seemed to lie in his 
ordinary health — the next day he celebrated the 
requiem mass over his remains. 

The finest memorial to Dean Coft'ey is St. Patrick's 
Church, which, as it stands to-day. was erected 
during his pastorate in 1854. Since then it bas been 
enlarged and inqjioved in various ways, a.-!, for 
instance, in the addition of tower and spire, now 
lu'arly 30 years ago. And all the time it has main- 
tained luider successive parish priests — Dean Sum- 
ner, Dean Ford, Dean Healy, Dean Riguey, and the 
Very Rev. Thomas O'Reilly — its high standard as an 
agency for good and an influence for the u|)lifting 
of humanitv. 


His Eminence the late Cardinal Morau. in Decem- 
ber, 1888, estalilished here Sisters of ^lercy, from 
Callan, Ireland, who took charge of St. Patrick's 
Primary School for girls. 

In January. 1889. a High School was commenced. 
The attendance steadily increasing, additional 
accommodation, including dormitories, etc., for 
boarders, was provided, and in 1893 Our Lady of 
Mercy's College was opened, with special depart- 
ments for Literature, ^lathematics. Science, Arts, 
Commercial and Iiulustrial classes. 

Since the establishment of the College, pupils have 
been prepared, year by year, for Public Examina- 
tions, and have scored high marks at the Senior and 
Junior University, and Public Service, niiu' pupils 
gaining the distinction of Cniversity medallists, and 
one obtaining a record pass of seven "A's," thus 
qualifying for the "Fairfax." 

In the Musical Exams., conducted each year by 
Examiners of the Associated Board of the Royal 
Academy and Royal College of ;\Iusic. London, the 
results have been most brilliant. Amongst the suc- 
cesses we may note the gaining of a Scholarship 
entitlinii the winner to three years' tuition at the 
Academy, London, si.x Licentiates' Degrees (L.A.B.), 
nine medals of the Academy, which were competed 
I'or li.\ all the candidates of the State, besides a 
iiuiiihiT of honors and passes each yeai- in every 
grade. The result of the Examiiiat imis. held in Sep- 
tember nf this year, deserve a s|)ecial mention. The 
College presented thirty-six candidates, of whom 
twentv-nine secured lioiuirs and seven high Passes, 



one candidatt' for Intennediate 
(irade (Piano) gaining tlie 
unique distinction of full marks 
(150). whilst a candidate in 
Senior (Violin) secured 146. 
and one in the same grade 
(Piano) 14:?. At various com- 
petitions in Sydney, and those 
held locally in connection with 
the School of Arts. etc.. com- 
petitors from the College have 
carried off numerous prizes for 
IMusie and Elocution, as well as 
for Needlework. Painting, and 

During the last few years 
special facilities have heen of- 
fered to students in the Com- 
mercial Class, with the result 

Convent High School, Villiers Street, Parramatta. 

Convent of Our Lady of Mercy, Pennant Street, Parramatta. 

that during the jiast two years 
thirteen jiupils have obtained 
positions, direct from the Col- 
lege, iu leading Sydney firms. 

Another feature of the pro- 
gress of the College was the 
fomiation some vears ago 
of the "College Orchestra," 
wliicli. on innumerable occa- 
sions, a]>peared at jinblic 
functions, and at all times re- 
ceived the highest praise from 
]H-ess ci'itics and others. 

Tiu' Schools now ciUldurled 
b,v the Sistei's of the Parra- 
matta centre, in various parts 
iif Sydney and Suburi)s, num- 
l)er 17. and include High 
Schools, Primary Schools, and 
Oiiplianages. with an enrolment 
of almost 3000 pupils iu actual 


Amongst the notable ministers who visited Parra- 
matta before St. Andrew's was built, iu order to 
atteiul to the spii'itual wants of their Presb.vterian 
l)rethreu. were Dr. McGarvie and Dr. Lang, who 
useil to come u[) from Sydney on Saturday and re- 
turn on Monday. The congregation gaining in 
strength and numbers, the Rev. James Allen was 
appointed bj' the British Government resident minis- 
ter in 18:17. and he condiu'ted services iu a little 
building in Ross-street. Dui'ing i)art, of his six 
.veai's' ministry h/' liad the assistance, tii-st. of the 
Rev. Cunninghaiii Atchison ( 1S:?,S-1S4() ) , and. al'tcr- 
wards, of the Rev. John Tait (1841-1850). It is on 
record that Mr. Allen and Mr. Atchison — both ap- 
pointed by the British Government — did not always 

agree iu their methods ; and iu the etui the services 
of each of them were placed at the disposal of other 
congregations. When Mr. Allen retired thus. Mr. 
Tait. who also owed his appointment to nomination 
in the old country, was iu sole charge. It was during 
Mr. Allen's ministry that a beginning was madi- with 
the building of St. Andrew's Church, but difficulties 
cropped up. not the least of them presumabl.y being 
the Disruption of 184:?. That this important clevelop- 
nu-nt was seriousl.v felt by Parramatta Presbyterians 
is shown by the fact that the congregation divided. 
Mr. Tait and tliose who, like liim. s.vmpathised with 
the Free Church Party, withdrawing into a little 
wooden cliurch at the corner of Phillip and Marsden 
streets, which was built for them b.y Mr. Janu^s 
Houisou (father of Dr. Andrew Houison. the well- 
known archaeologist). The other mendjers of the 



uliurcli. ;is zealous iu their views as their Free ('hiireli 
bretliren. ealled in the serviees of the Rev. James 
Coutts (1849-1861). Before the close of his niiuistry 
the dissensions had disappeared, and "Sir. Coutts and 
the united congregation worshipped now in St. 
Andrew's Church, which — from the outside — looks 
to-day almost as it did when the builder. ]Mr. Thomas 
Orr. had finished his work upon it. When 'Sir. Coutts 
went to Newcastle in IStil the congregation sent a 
successful call to the Rev. Thomas Craig, of Essen- 
don, Victoria (1861-1865). His successor, the Rev. J. 
B. Laughton (1865-1874) did much to advance the 

iiig health for his delicate son. he obtained leave of 
absence and took him on a trip to England and 
America, iu the course of which he accejited a call 
to a church in the United States. His resignation, 
however, which seemed at the moment to be an irre- 
parable blow, was really the prelude to the appoint- 
ment of a man under whose guidance Parranuitta 
Presbyterians reached the highest water-mark to 
which it had. up to then, attained. This was the 
Rev. J. \Y. luglis. a iireacher of great eloquence and 
pi)wei-. a dee]) thinker, a sympathetic guide to the 
young, a man who never discouraged the expression 

St. Andrew's Presbyterian Church, Parramatta. 

church's cause, not only by his own elo(iuence as a 
preacher and force and vigor as a writer, but by his 
happy faculty for gathering round him as co-workers 
men of like earnestness and ability. When he retired 
in the end of 1874 there was a difficulty in obtaining 
the services of an available minister (lualitied to 
maintain the high standard proverbially re(iuired of 
Presbyterian divines. Eighteen months later such a 
successor was found in the ])erson of the Rev. J. D. 
Murray (1876-1889), whose faithful and acceptable 
ministry was only ended when, in the hope of secur- 

of honest doubt, but who was always able w^isely and 
well to separate the false from the true. His death 
(1893) at a time when he seemed to be in the zenith 
of his intellectTial powers and equipjied to even en- 
large the sphere of his beneficent intluenee, was a 
serious loss to the higher life of the connnunity gener- 
ally, as well as to the church over which he presided. 

The Church To-day. 

The present ministry began on the loth of Novem- 
ber, 1893, when ]\Ir. John Paterson, a probationer of 



the Free Church nf ScotLaod, was ordained and 
inducted to the j)astaral church by the Presbytery of 
tlie Hawkesbury. He is a native of Scotland, and 
was educated at Glasgow University and the Free 
Church College of that eity. During his long minis- 
try many changes have been effected. In 1894 the 
church was renovated, the dark cedar seats giving 
I)lace to kauri pine, and the straight backs to sloping- 
seat and back, thus at once giving brightness and 
comfort. A gallery was also put in at the end of the 
church, which not only improved the appearance of 
the building, but also added sixt.y seats. Two years 
later a handsomi' new manse was built on the glebe 

land at the corner of Hunter anil ^tarsden streets. 
In 1899 Mrs. Payten, of Deskford, gave £150 for the 
building of a ludl which was urgently needed as a 
class room for the infants attending the Sunday- 
school, to be called the Payten ^Memorial Hall, in 
memory of her late husband. Andrew Payten, who 
was for many years an elder of the church and an 
active worker in the Sunday-school. The committee 
of management took advantage of the occasion to 
enlarge the existing hall by extending it to the 
boundary of the land. No sooner were these im- 
provements paid for than further alterations were 
resolved upon. It was determined to instal a pipe 
organ at a cost of CiSO. aiul, as there was an urgent 
demand for seating accommodatidii. the hack Avail 
of the church was knocked down and the building 
extended to the hall, thus pi'oviding room for the 
organ and the choir. These and other alterations 
involved an expenditure of over £800, which has all 
been met, save a small sum boi'rowed without intei'- 
est from the Church and ]\Ianse Loan Fund of the 
Presbyteiian Chiiri'h, aiul repayable over a ])eriiiil nl' 
ten years. The pipe organ was dedicated by the 
Jlinister and opened by Miss Ilouison on the IStli 

of November, 1909. The diamond .jubilee of the 
Church and the jubilee of the building were cele- 
brated by special services on October 15, 1899, and 
by a monster tea meeting and public meeting in the 
Town Hall on the 17th. The activities of the Church 
are niunerous, including a Sunday-school, a Fellow- 
ship Association, a number of Hible Classes conduct- 
ed by the Minister and others, a literary and debating 
society, a Women's JMissionary Association, and 
Ladies' Association. 

The elders are: Mr. Neil Stewart, J.P., Mr. D. D. 
Henderson, J. P., Mr. J. Knox, Mr. J. Finlayson, Mr. 
J. Rowe, and Mr. W. Morphett. The committee of 
management : IMessrs. W. Cox, A. H. Davie, A. Hen- 
derson, C. Miller, W. ]\Ie(ilashan, A. L. McCredie, J. 
McKenzie. H. .Marcroft. -1. il. Ritchie, R. H. Mathews, 
J.P., E. C. Murray, F. Ralph, with Mr. J. M. Ritchie 
as treasurer, and ]\lr. J. McKenzie as secretary, ilr. 
H. Marcroft is organist and choirmaster, and Mr. A. 
HollidaA" chui'eh officer. 


The first Protestant service conducted in Parra- 
nuitta. excepting the Church of England services, 
was conducted by a Congregational minister; and the 
tii'st Pidtestant place of worship o[)ened. excepting 
St. John's, was a ('ongregational chapel in the house 
of i\Ir. John Shelley. The first Congregational minis- 
ter was the Rev. Pascoe Crook, who held his tirst 
service in 1810, and his ministrations were continued 
l)y air. Ellis, the Rev. R. Ilassall (who was the 
founder of Sunday-schools in Australia, he having 
opened the Parrauuitta Church S\uiday-sehool in 
lSi;r), and John Heir. 

But, despite these early beginnings, tlie (.'oiigrega- 
tiiumlists had no "cause," as expressed by a regular 
church body and a separate church building, until 
1870. Early in that year several earnest adherents 
determined to supply this omission, and their eft'orts 
culminated in a public meeting held in the School of 
Arts on August 9 of that year. The next day, 
Sunday, divine service was held in the same building, 
the Rev. Thomas Roseby. P.. A., and the Rev. W. 
Slatyer officiating. After devotional exercises and a 
sermon, Mr. Charles Edgell read a "call" to the Rev. 
Thomas Spencer Forsaith, inviting him to take the 
oversight of the infant church. This document, pre- 
served in the minute book, is signed by Charles 
Edgell, Richard Trimmer, John Chantler, Joshua 
Ardill, Henry ami Rebecca Clayfield, Jonathan 
Ormes, Elizabeth Gates, Hugh Hughes, Noah and 
Hannah Gazzard. Joseiih and Anna Pegier, Hannah 
Bridge, John dialing, William and Sabina Fathers 
and Elizabeth Cutler. The Rev. Mr. Forsaith, who 
had resigned his pastorate at Point Piper Road and 
had been working a couple of months already in 
Parramatta, accepted the call and the church was 
duly constituted. He was a man of notable gifts, and 
not the least interesting point in his hi.story was that 
he had been a member of the New Zealand House of 
Representatives before the establishment of respoa- 



sible government, and was indeed a minister, though 
without portfolio, in the executive council which 
lianded over the control of affairs to the first I'epre- 
sciitative cabinet. He was the only Australasian of 
wlu)iii it could be said that he was Premier for a day; 
(liat he assumed office and resigned it on patriotic 
grounds only. This jiart of his story, which properly 
belongs to his pre-Parramatta career, is merely men- 
tioned as showing what kind of man the Congrega- 
tionalists were fortunate enough to secure as their 
first pastor. It was also to their advantage that he 
was a man of independent uu'ans; and this enabled 

]\ray 24, 1871, and about a year later service was 
held in the handsome Gothic building which stands 
on Alfred .S(iuare. The work — of which ]Mr. Thomas 
Rowe, of Sydiu'y. was the architect, and ;\Ir. Peters, 
of Parramatta, the builder — cost i;:i()ltll. and the 
auKiunt owing on the opening. £12S1, had been paid 
off in full by the middle of TSS5. 

Mr. Forsaith's Successors. 

Long before this, however, 'Sir. Forsaith had re- 
signed his pastorate. On various occasions he had 
expressed himself as discouraged and depressed by 

Congregational Church, Parramatta. 

him. iiDt only to contribute generously to tlu- build- 
ing of the church and to other causes connected with 
its interests, but to be "pasing rich" on a stipend 
which ranged from £53 3s 9i,^d in 1871. to its high- 
water mark. £158 17s 3d in 1873, thereafter steadily 
decreasing. The meagreness of this pecuniary recog- 
nition of his ser\'ice docs not seem to have affected 
Mr. Forsaith in the slightest. Under his auspices, 
and largely owing to his nwii lilici'ality and to his 
iuHuence with wealthy nien here ami in Englaiul and 
in New Zealand, the inendiers felt themselves in a 
[)osition to purchase land and to set about the build- 
ills': of a church. The foundation stone was laiil on 

internal discords, which, indeed. Wduld seem to have 
been caused nu>re by the zeal of individu:d members 
of the snudl community than by anything like dis- 
.satisfaction with the work of tluir whole-hearted 
minister. AVhen his senior deacon — the diaconate 
had been cstal)lished in 1S71. John Danbeiix ISrown 
and Charles Edged having lieen elected — turned ad- 
verse critic, and when at the sanu^ time he was offer- 
ed the position of Principal of Canulen College, the 
conjunction was too much for ^Ir. Forsaith. who 
resigned early in 1877. He was succeeded next year 
liy the Rev. Alfred Lloyd, who was :dso an earnest 
and hard-working minister, but who had not the 



political training which must have stood his prede- 
cessor in such good stead at trying moments. Thus 
in 1881 there was serious dissatisfaction, and, though 
a motion expressing confidence in the minister was 
carried by 25 votes to 7, the resignation of office by 
Mr. Charles Edgell, the first member of the church, 
and by Mr. Noah Gazzard, was a severe blow to Mr. 
Lloyd, who preached his last sermon in May, 1882, 
feeling himself, as he publicly announced, "utterly 
deserted." That this feeling was due rather to the 
sensitiveness of a man who, witlu)ut Ivnowing it, was 
sick luito death — Mr. Lloyd died suddenly a few 
months later — than to actual facts, is more than sug- 
gested by the very kindly and friendly letters later 
written by the officers of the church. His successor, 

sension, which, unduly magnified, led to Mr. Wil- 
liams' resignation. He must, however, have been 
convinced of the high esteem in which his flock held 
him, when, at a public meeting, presided over by the 
Rev. T. S. Forsaith. ample evidence was furnished 
that the Parramatta Congregationalists as a body 
bade him farewell with great regret. 

Recent Changes. 

TTnder the temporary |)astoral oversight of the Rev. 
J. U. Hennessy the Rev. ("harles Taylor accepted the 
pastorate in 1887. Pi-ior to this, it should l)e noted, 
the old public school building facing ilarket-street, 
was purchased for Sunday-school purposes for £1600. 
Mr. Taylor resigned the pastorate in 1892, and later 


Parramatta School of Arts and the Manchester Unity Hall, Macquarie Street. 

the Rev. W. West, had a short term of office, and 
when he left his j)>dpit vacant on January 7, 1883, 
the deacons took it as an intimation tliat he desired 
to sever his connection with his people. Nor did 
the Rev. ]\Iorgan Williams, B.A., renuiin very nuich 
longer. He frankly wrote, in reply to the "call," 
that the smallness and the depressed state of the 
church and congregation had made him hesitate be- 
fore accepting the invitation ; but he did accejif it, 
and these very eircumsfaiu'es decided him that he 
would stipulate for no stipend. At the end of lu^xt 
year, however, there was again some infernnl dis- 

in tiu- same year the Kev. H. (iainford was appointed, 
and he remaiiu^d in charge for four years. A eon- 
siilerable interregnum ensued, during which the Rev. 
J. 15einieft rendered nuicli service, and the Rev. 
(ieoroe Cami)I)ell exercised oversisht. In April, 1897, 
the Rev. R. F. Becher, B..\., Trin.'Coll., Camb,, minis- 
ter of the Congregational Church at Bathurst, was 
invited to the pastorate and began his ministry in 
May. He emphasised in his preaching as salient 
ideas of the Congregational churches, the supremacy 
of the spirit over the letter. Controversy about the 
selection of the canon he shuniunl as waste of time, 



merely expressing thankfulness for the spiritual good 
taste that kept in the Psalms, but sieved out Tobit, 
and Bel and the Dragon. He thouglit a preacher 
ought to study the writings of prophets and apostles, 
not to find the last words to be said on any great 
question, but as stimulating and suggestive, opening 
out vistas to widespread landscapes of truth as yet 
but partially explored. ]Mr. Becher taught that, as 
all knowledge of what lies beyond the shadow is 

December, 1897, the Rev. T. S. Forsaith, the founder 
of the Church, died at Newlands. In April, 1902, the 
Rev. R. F. Becher resigiied. and in tlie following 
June Rev. R. Y. Austin accepted the i)astorate. His 
promising career, however, was cut short by his 
death in December, 1902. The Rev. W. J.' Grant 
succeeded in July, 1903. and resigned in ]\Iarch, 1905. 
Subsequently arrangements in connection with the 
pastorate of the Church were handed over to the 

Baptist Church, Parramatta. 

imperfect (for even St. Paul only knew in part), a 
very generous charity should l)e exercised towards 
all who differ from us. Fnth-r sucli influences 
friendly relationships were maintained with other 
religious bodies in the liistoric borough, and united 
action became possible in many directions: among 
others religious instruction in the various public 
schools by the members of the ^Ministers' A.ssacia- 
tion, as well as the visitation of the numerous 
inmates of State asylums. A commodious schonl-hall 
at the rear of the Cluircli was completed in August. 
1S99. at a cost of about £300. The plan of the 
building, which was opened in 1900. emanated from 
the present School Superintendent. .Mi-. J. Johns, 
who gratuitously carried out the duties of architect, 
and ^Ir. F. Allen those of clerk of works. In 

Home ^Mission Board of the Congregational I'nicui. liy 
wluim the Rev. A. Castleman ami the Rev. P. 
Podmore were successively placed in charge for .short 
periods. Finally, at the Board's suggestion, the Rev. 
0. II. Purnell was called to the pastorate in April, 
1908. He took charge at the beginning of July 
following, and is still endeavouring to overtake the 
pastoral work which had fallen into such arrears, so 
to speak, during the preceding three years. 


Tliri-i' WMN (inly one Church in Australia in 
1S,")II. and that was located in Bathurst-street. Syd- 
ney. Obviously, individual Baptists throughout New 



Snntli Wales could not attend Divine service there, 
and it was only a few of them outside Sydney who 
could get to this church at all. These few. however, 
had to put up with a lot of inconveniences, for. a.s 
tliere was no railway communication, the journey 
had to'he made by road or water. As a ct)nsequeuce, 
Parranuitta Baptists joined the meml)ers of other 

denominaliims uutil, their numbers growinj;'. they 
formed little congregations at each other's houses 
and bore as long as they could the inconvenience of 
having no public place of worship. But this unsatis- 
factory state of affairs approached its end when, in 
1S5(), one William Hopkins Carey — one of a number 
of young men destinetl for tlie ministry, l)rought lo 
New South Wales l)y Dr. Lang — was set apart for 
the Baptist work in Parramatta. He was only 20 
at the time, but his efforts were so successful that tlu; 
congregation soon outgrew the accommodation pro- 
vided in the George-street house, just opposite tin- 
present church, and a move had to be made to the 
Courthouse, whilst a beginning was being nuidi? of 
the building in which the Baptists of to-day hold 
thei-r services. 'Ihe severance from the rnotlier 
cliundi in Bathurst-street, Sydney, was made with all 
due formality and the kindest of feelings ; and on 
April 9, 1851, the Parramatta Church was formed 
with the following members: — Samuel and Mary 
Burge, John and Jane (!hantler, Vince and Sarah 
Carr, Vince, jun., and Hannah Carr, Sarah A. Carr, 
Hannah Nicholls, Mary A. Watts and William Hop- 
kins Carey. P"'roiii these small beginnings sjjraug the 
flourishing Baptist community of Parramatta. In 
1851 Mr. Carey was ordained minister, ami it was 
in the same year that the first applicants for mem- 
bershi]! — Thomas Stapleton and Lucy A. Carr — were 
baptized. The ])rogress of the infant church was 
arrested by the death in 1852 of the Rev. W. H. 
Carey, and during the two following years no suc- 

cessor was appointed, ilinisters, however, regularly 
officiated, and one of them, the Rev. C. Smith, accept- 
ed a "call" to the pastorate in April. 18.")."). During 
the next month, however, he went to Qiu-ensland, 
and, on his position being declared vacant, the Rev. 
Philip Lane took charge until the latter end of 1856. 
Until they had a local habitation of their own, the 
Primitive Methodists used to worship with the Bap- 
tists; but, when their church in Macquarie-street was 
built, they withdrew, and so it came to pass that the 
Baptist services lapsed altogether, and for a num])er 
of years the members of the denomination wor- 
shipped in other churches. It so happened that a 
cause of stumbling was afforded in one of these com- 
munities, and the result was that in 1876 the Baptist 
Church was re-opened as the home of a sejiarate 
body. From that date there was no going back, and 
the "Tabernacle," as it is now called, flourished 
unch'r the successiv(- pastorates of the Rev, Robert 
Williamson (1877-8(1), the Rev. John Straughen 
(1882-1897). the Rev. J. C. :\lartin (1897-1900), and 
Pastor James Worboys (1900-1911). It is interest- 
ing to note that the two last-named are Australian- 
born, and that Mr. Worl)o.vs is a native of Parra- 
matta. The Rev. J. E. Leech was this year invited 
to assiune the oversight of the church, and he entered 
upon his ministry here in September, 1911. 


By the Rev.^G. C. Percival. 

A si)eeial interest attaches to the origin of 
.Methodism in Parramatta. For one thing, it carries 
us l)ack in thought Id the verv early da.vs of what 
was then st.N'led ■"Colonial" life. One feels that 
here, if an.vwhere at all in Australia, he is on historic 
ground. Pai'raniatta flgures in the earliest nuive- 
ments of Australian iMethodism. The first Methodist 
missionary sent to Australia from England visited 
the town soon after his appointment, and was among 
the first few ministers appointed to the charge of the 
local Methodist cause. The title of "Leigh 
Memorial" lioriu' b,\' tlu- prin('i])al town church of 
the denomination to-da.v, although not conferrinl 
until some vears after its erection, has perpctuateil 
the association of Parramatta Methodism with the 
name of that honoured pioneer. 

A second point of interest is that there are in 
association with Parramatta Jlethodism to-day the 
descendants of one of the two men to whose joint 
efforts the Methodist Church as a whole owes its 
earl.v introduction into Australia. There are also 
locall.v resident to-da,y a (juite numerous group of 
descendants of ministers and laymen prominent in 
the developments of the later movements of the 
Methodist cause in th(> old, historic town. 

In these facts is fduiul justification for a l)rief 
reference to the classic incidents l)ound up with the 
inception of iMethodist activities in the mother State 
just bordering on a hundred year.s ago. 



In one sense the honour of the initiation of Austra- 
lian Methodism attaches to the name of Thomas 
Bowden. "What is known as the "C'hiss ^Meeting" 
is regarded by more orthodox ]\lethodists as consti- 
tuting an essential factor of the denomination. In 
their estimation the existence of a community of per- 
sons possessing this organised means of Christian 
fellowship would go a very long way towards meet- 
ing the true idea of a Church. Consecjuently there 
are some who think tliat the proper date for the cele- 
bration of the Centeiniry of Australian ^Methodism 
should be fixed for the year 1912. seeing that exactly 
100 years previously, or on ]\Iarch (jth, 1812, ^Ir. 

is now a classic document. It portrays in graphic 
terms the spiritual destitution of the great bulk of 
the 20.000 souls of which the population of the 
"Colony" then consisted, and in jiowerful and pas- 
sionate language i»leads for the ajjpointment of a 
suitable agent, and jjromises the utmost in the way of 
effort for his support. 

Strange to say. it fell, for some time, apparently on 
deaf ears. The British AYesleyan ]\lethotlist Confer- 
ence, to which it was addressed, did not see its way 
to honour the petition until three years later. Refer- 
ence has already l)een made to the forthcoming 
oliservance of the Centenarv of ilethodism in Aus- 

Leigh Memorial Methodist Church and Macquarie Hall, Parramatta. 

Thomas Bowden commenced the first Class IMeeting 
ever held on Australian soil . That he did this within 
five weeks of the date of his own arrival in Sydney 
speaks much for the earnestness and decision of the 
man. As the result of discussion among the little 
company. IMr. Bowden three months later despatched 
a letter to England asking for the appointment of a 
minister to superintend, conserve, and extend the 
work. This was followed shortly after by a more 
officially worded "Appeal." in tlie framing of which 
Mr. Bowden was associated with ilr. J. Ilosking, the 
leader of a second Class. This memorable "Appeal"' 

tralia. and to some divergent views as to its most 
fitting date. The preponderance of opinion has 
favored the year of the arrival of the first missionary, 
in the year 1815. It was on tlie 10th of August of 
that year that, after a tedious voyage of 1C3 days in 
the sailing vessel, the "Hebe," the Rev. Samuel 
Leigh arrived in Sydney. His first home was with 
]Mr. Bowden, who remained in association with him 
as a Class leader, and who was present with him at 
llie first Quartei'ly IMeeting — as tlie nuarterly official 
business court of the denomination is style:! — on the 
14th dav of the following mouth. 

THE JUBILEE History of parramatta. 


How to Raise Funds. 

In the t'durse of an aitirlc in a special .inpplcraent 
of "The Argus," on Saturday, August 7ih, ].S;)7, 
issued in eonnection with a h)eal eomnienidration of 
the 75th anniversary of Parramatta ilethodisni, refcr- 
<-nee is made to a detailed scheme initiated h_y Mr. 

Rev. G. C. Percival. 

Bowden and his little e()mpauy of Methodists, with a 
view to providing- funds to aid in the support of the 
Christian work they contemplated setting on foot. 
It was really a part of their programme for fulfilling 
their pledge to the British Conference to furnish 
all the financial support in their power. Briefly, it 
was a scheme of cattle-raising, really, from which 
those pioneer Church financiers hoped to reap a 
goodlj' harvest. The article cited remarked, "It 
would be interesting to know the history of this 
fund. Members of this Church have an admirable 
knack of dealing with business, and we make no 
doubt that the officials know exactly what the 
'horned cattle' yielded, and what was done with the 
money." I am happily in a position, after this lapse 
of years, to at least partially answer this query. 
Unfortunately the enterprise was destined not to 
issue in success. The cattle either died, strayed, or 
were stolen by one or other of the many who in those 
days were ever ready to appropriate stragglei's, after 
having, in many cases, induced their wanderings. 
What might under favourable circumstances have 
proved a really splendid entei'|>rise went early and 
hopelessly to pieces. 

It was not until the year 1820, five years after the 
arrival of Mr. Leigh in Sydney, that Parramatta 

l)ecame the head of a duly constituted "circuit." Its 
first Superintendent minister was the Rev. Walter 
Lawry. He was the second JMethodist minister to 
arrive in Australia, having landed in 1818. An old 
record says that "he must ever be regarded as the 
fatlier of JMethodism in Parramatta." The organisa- 
tion of its initial ('hur<'h life, the erection of its first 
church building, and the creation of its first Sunday 
School, were due to his initiative energy. Accord- 
ing to the Rev. James Colwell's "History of Method- 
ism in Australia" the first Methodist Church (the 
term used then and for some years later was 
"chapel") was built in 1821. and was opened on 
Good Friday of that year. By that time two other 
ministers had arrived, and the i)reachers at the open- 
ing services were Revs. R. ^lansfield, at fl.:)0, Walter 
Lawry, 2.80, and Benjamin Carvosso, 7. The site was 
given by Governor Macquarie. A portion of the 
pioneer structure still stands at the rear of Maccpiarie 
Hall, in the street bearing the same historic name. 
An old record says that in the following year there 
was also a "chapel" at Kissing Point — now Ryde, 
and itself the centre of a prosperous circuit. The 
mention of Ryde recalls the fact of the gradual 
siirinkage of the geographical area of the Parramatta 
circuit with the nuirch of time and progress. Origin- 
ally Windsor had a place within its bounds. Within 
the memory of mid<ile-aged peo|.lc. Liverpool and 

Rev. Joseph Walker. 

Granville formed, with Ryde, a part of th(> Parra- 
matta circuit. 

Successive Minsters. 

Itinerancy is a law of the Methodist Church. The 
extreme limit of a minister's stay in a circuit is now 



tive .VL'iir.s. Theu it was thi-ci-. and that brief period 
was sometimes shortened by iueideiital exigences. 
The successive terms of the Revs. H. Mansfield, G. 
Krskine. B. Carvosso, S. Leigh, and .\. Turner cover 
a record of more or less pioneering effort, until in 
18)^1 a name appears that carries a familiar sound. 
In tliat year the Rev. J. A. iManton took charge at 
Parramatta. lie. lilce 'Sir. Lawry. was appointed, 
after an interval, for a second term. A grandson 
of the former (Mr. J. A. Manton, of Pitt-street, Par- 
ramatta) one of the Circuit Stewards, while 
the latter is represented by his granddaughter. Mrs. 
J. K. Manton. and family, all of whom are valued 
memliers of the Church. To Mi-, ilanton belongs the 
lionour of having been the prime niover in the estal)- 
lishment 'of "The New South Wales Wesleyan Col- 
legiate 'Institution," and also its first President. The 
institiition 'came into being in 1863. It was located 
at "Xewington House." on the southern bank of the 
Parramatta River. It has its successor in the New- 
ington College of to-day. at Stanmore. ]Mr. ]\lanton 
was also the Secretary of tile first Australian Wes- 
leyan Conference, whoch met in Sydney in 185.'). The 
Revs. W. Schofield and W. Simpson succeeded him in 
turn at Parramatta. 

Another notable name appears in 18;:i6. That year 
the Rev. U. J. Drajjer took cliarge. His tragic, yet 
noble, death has passed into history. From the deck 
of the ill-fated "Loudon" he preached to his drown- 
ing fellow-passengers the only hope of the life 
beyond. To his lot fell the honour of the erection of 
the larger church, now known as Macquarie Hall. 
Its dedication on Thursday. Iflth St'i)tember. 1839, 
made a high day for Parramatta ^Methodists. Wor- 
shipi'crs of to-day will smile at its description as 
"chaste and elegant."" In the afternoon of the same 
day was laid the foundation stone of Centenary 
Church, on the north side of the water, named in 
lionour (if the first century nf the existence of 
]Methiidisin. The latter building was for many years 
unused; but on the establishiiient of Methodist 
Union, in 11102, its use for |)ublic worship was, after 
extensive renovation, resumed. The period between 
1840 and 1850 was covered by the appointments of 
the Rev. John McKenny, E. Sweetman. W. Schofield, 
T. Adams. B. Chapman. N. 'I'uiiier. II. II. Gaud, and 
S. Ralione, with a second term by i\lr. Manton. By 
this time the circuit claimed the services of two min- 
isters instead of one ; and the Revs. T. Anguin. W. 
(jurnow, and R. Amos were among those appointed 
in association with the Superintendent in charge. It 
was during this period that the recently renovated 
and improved Macquarie-street parsonage was built; 
also churches at Dundas and Dural (now in the 
Dural circuit), Liverpool, and Hyde. Running 
swiftly down the gamut of ministerial appointments 
t(; April of this present year, we meet with the suc- 
cessive names of Revs. C. W. Rigg, James Watkin, S. 
Wilkinson. W. Hill, J. B. Waterhouse, J. Oram, G. 
Martin, J. Clifton, H. W. T. Pincombe. C. Olden, M. 
II. Parkinson, J. W. Winspear, P. J. Stephen, J. E. 
Carruthers. R. Sellors, D.D., C. T. Newnuin, J. Wood- 
house, and F. J. Branch. Ur. Sellors had previously 

been appiiiiil I'd as seciind man; the Revs. W. 
Kelynack. D.l).. \V. 11. George, and C. -I. i'rescott. 
1\1.A., also held similar aiipointments. With the geo- 
graphical diminution consequent on the furmiiig of 
sej)arate circuits within the original area the system 
of single appointments was reverted to, until the 
adoption of Union in 1902. when the combining of 
ex-Wesleyan and ex-Primitive ]\Iethodist interests 
necessitated the dual stall This was during the 
Wesleyan superintendency of Dr. Sellors, with whom 
the Rev. John Penman (previously Primitive J\Ieth- 
odist) became associated as colleague. Since then 
the Revs. W. H. Howard and Joseph Walker have 
successivelx- held the second appointment. Follow- 
ing on the consummation of Pnion came the [>nrcliase 
of the commodious ])ar.sonage in Churcli-street, Par- 
ramatta Xorth, for the acciuiimodatioii of the second 

The Rev. J. H. Fletcher succeeded the Rev. J. A. 
Manton at Xewington College in 18()-1, and was. until 
the removal of the institution to Stanmore, a familiar 
figure in tlu^ Parramatta pulp'tt. He was in many 
ways a man nf uniijue gifts. 

The Leigh Memorial. 

The elegant (iothic church in ^Macipiai'ie-street, 
known as the Leigh ilemorial. was o[)eiied in 1883. 
The initiatory steps for its erection were taken 
during the superintendency of the Rev. John Clifton, 
though tile opening took jilace in tlic term of his 
successor, the Rev. H. W. T. Pincombe. Its cost of 
over £7000 created a debt which for many years 
severely hamjiered the operations of the Church, 
aiuj is still a fairly severe burden ; but the congre- 
gation has faced the situation with a patience, a 
courage, and a success exemplary in the higliest 
degree. A financial crusade instituted by ladies of 
the congregation in 1890 at length evolved into the 
now well-known institution of "Market Days." by 
which means an average sum of well over .£200 a 
year has been raised during the last 17 years. In- 
deed, 'u one \'ear. 1889, the amount, including some 
si)ecial donations, was £500. 

The name of the late Rev. John Watsford is one of 
the most wiilely and inost favourably K'nown in Aus- 
tralasian Methodism. He was a boy in Parramatta, 
and his father owed his conversion tn the instru- 
mentality of Samuel Leigh. He was elected in 1878 
to the liigh position of first President of the General 
Conference, the supreme court of .Methodism for the 
whole of Australasia. Several branches of the 
Watsford family are a.ssociated with the Church 

Taking a necessarily brief survey of Church 
workers, of the past more especially, the luiiiies of 
Byrnes, Hunt. Howden, Smith, Booth. Sparks. Neale, 
Sainty. Manton, with many others, occur' I'eadily to 
miiul or- memory; while a bare list of all those of to- 
day would occupy a far greater si)aee than is avail- 

In addition to the Rev. John Watsfoi-d. tlie Parra- 
matta circuit has sent forward into the ministerial 
ranks the late Revs. W. Moore and A, J. Webb, and 


the Rev. R. Caldwell, all of whom gained the honour 
of Coiiferenee Presidency; and among the younger 
men the Revs. A. W. i^>urns and II. S. Howden, and 
the late Rev. C J\Ic( 'lelland iiarker; while adding 
but last year a student for the same saered office 
in the person of Mr. John Wesley Booth. 

United Methodism. 

The Methodism of to-day throughout Australia is 
made up of a fusion of the various branches of the 
original Methodist stock represented within its 
bounds. In Parramatta there were but two of these, 
the second being represented by what was kno^\^l as 
Primitive Methodists. Originally missioned from 
Sydney, and housed for some few years in temporary 

and also of the existence of the unused Centenary 
(Jhurch, the building in Maecpiarie-street was sold, 
the mendx'rs of its congregation joining with one or 
other of the causes on either side of the river. The 
result of the fusion of the two branches is seen to-day 
in a strong and extensive circuit, composed of two 
town and six country centres, with the chaplaincies 
of five Government institutions. Four services are 
conducted on nearly every Sunday by each of the 
two ministers, in addition to some half dozen taken in 
turn Iiy a large band of local preachers. There are 
five Sunday Schools, of the parent one of which j\Ir. 
Thomas Muston has continuously held the superin- 
tendeney for over 20 years, having been associated 
with it for over half a centnrv. Christian Endeavour 

Parram.atta District School, Macquarie Street. 

buildings, including a tent on the in)rth side of the 
stream, the local Primitive Methodist cause at length 
took l)older foi'm in the erection of the Church in 
Maequarie-street, west of Church-street, during the 
mini.stry of the Rev. Mr. Dash in 1878. Other minis- 
ters of the denomination in Parramatta, in addition 
to the Rev. J. Penman, already not<'d. were the Revs, 
S. II;irt. J. Sharp. W. Sparling, J, Ashnu'ad (during 
whose term a parsonage was liuilt in Western-road), 
P. S. Young, R. S. Willis, Ilorberry, Masterman, 
Smailes, and W. Pettinger. The late Rev. B. Kenny 
also served two terms of four years each, at an 
interval of P! years. Primitive Jlethodism also con- 
tributed three country churches; those at Dundas, 
Toongabbie, and Baulkham Hills South. In view of 
its close proxindty to the Leigh Menmrial Church, 

Societies and the remaining institutions of a vigm-ous 
^lethodist circuit fill up a busy programme. 

It bodes no discredit to any other similar agency 
to say that the Leigh Memorial Church has for years 
past possessed a choir of which any congregation 
nnght be justly proud. Its present conductor is ilr. 
R. McN. Ferguson, with IMr. W. Ridl(>y as organist. 

Parranuitta Methodist circuit has, ail fold, a uolile 
heritage to maintain; while a thriving and inipiii-lant 
town and connnnnity invite and merit its best in con- 
secrated and Chrisflike service. 




' The pioneers of a country of a great undertaking are like the foundations of a great city -soon built over and 

forgotten." -/->r. LanR. 
'Lest we forget."— Rudy ard Kipling. 


A GARDENER, a fariiKu-, a magistrate, and a 
minister — was the way in which Marsdfen 
descrilied himself in a letter to a friend in 
England; placing his occupations in the order of 
ascending dignity. "I consider it a duty for all," 
he added, "to take an active part," and "I can say 
that I do not eat the bread of idleness." 

And indeed the bitterest enemies of llarsden. wheu 
he was alive, and his severest critics now that he has 
long rested from his labors, will not care to deny 
that he worked hard and tirelessly at whatever it 
was given him to do. He was an ideal pioneer- 
just the man fitted for his day and generation. He 
was never idle. When he was not attending scrupu- 
lously to the duties of his sacred office— and he per- 
formed them diligently and earnestly at whatever 
cost to himself — he was sitting in the magistrates' 
court, or he was visiting the sick and the oppressed, 
or he was devising means for the advancement of the 
colony, or he was cultivating his garden or directing 
work at his farm. At one time he was the only 
minister of religion in the colony, and he regularly 
held services every Sunday in Sydney and Parra- 
matta. tramping the weary miles through the bush 
when he could not get to his goal by horse or boat. 
He certainly did not belong to the sentimental school 
of divines. His was not the preaching that would 
draw crowds of fa.shionable ladies to a church, and 
he would have been as much out of place in Mayfair 
as the Rev. Charles Honeyman would have been out 
of jilace in the Parramatta of a century ago. He was 
virile in his ecclesiastical policy as well as in every- 
thing else he put his hand to ; practical above all 
things ; teaching his people rather to do good in the 
present than to weep over the past. 

A Strong Man. 

And virile he was. loo, in his observance of the 
rules which he had delil)erately laid down for the 
g^iidance of his life. Once he had made up his mind 
on any given thing, nothing on earth would move 
him from his determination — not l)landishnu'nts. or 
menaces, or pimishmeut. He was not always careful 
to avoid giving offence when he knew that offence 
was meant to him. His was not the often praised, 
but seldom practised, Christianity which consists in 
turning the cheek to the smiter and presenting a 
thief with additional plunder. Rather, he stood up 
squarely to his opponent and always gave him — at 
any rate he always tried to give him — as good as he 
got. However much we may prftcnd to dfiirccate 

such a bearing in a teacher of religion, the world 
admires a good fighter, as it loves an ardent lover. 
The persons he is fighting with do not admire him, 
especially if they get the worst of the engagement — 
and perhaps this may account for the harsh things 
said of Marsden in his lifetime and repeated too 
often since. Never did he do a mean or uiulerhand 
thing; he fought fair and never hit below the belt. 

Rev. Samuel Marsden. 

Therr was no coiu-ealment. If. for instance, he 
refuseil to sit on the bench with emancipist magis- 
trates, he gave his particular reasons emphatically, 
and he never pretended com]iiiance or friendship 
when he meant the opposite. On iiiaiiy occasions 
expediency showed him an easy way out of diffleid- 
ties. and he could have pleasantly sauntered down 
an easy jiath tlirongh life if he had cared to be less 
uncom])romising to what he honestly believed to be 
wrong. But that, to this sturdv Yorkshireman, 



would have beeu a betrayal of his trust; it would 
have been the leader of the people in spiritual things 
bowing down in the house of Rimmon. So he de- 
clared his opposition boldly. "In the language of 
Mr. Marsden," wrote Mr. Commissioner Bigge, in 
his 1822 report, "there is observable the same 
undaunted and inflexible spirit that he afterwards 
displayed whenever an attempt was made to do 
violence to his feelings, or to wound his character." 
That was in reference to a particular affair, but it 
may be taken as a just criticism of Samuel Marsden 's 
career, once we remember that he was keener to 
resent injury to his office than insult to his person, 
and that he never spoke up more boldly than when 
he was pleading in the interests of those committed 
to his charge. Even his enemies recognised his 
sterling virtues. Thus Governor Macquarie, who 

moral principles." It was in opposition to this evil 
power, and its evil accompaniment, in defence of the 
rights of the people as against the encroachments of 
officialdom, that Marsden fought, all his life, with 
"undaunted nnd inflexibU' spirit." 

Early Days. 

Samuel JIarsden was eminently fitted by birth 
and education for the work he had to do in the world. 
Born at Ilorsforth, near Leeds, in 1764, he grew up 
on his father's little farm, taking the active part the 
sons of small farmers had to do — in those days at any 
rate. He learned his A. B.C. in the village school, 
and then he was sent to the Grammar School in Hull, 
of which at that time Josepli ililner, the historian, 
was headmaster. His achievement was so good that 
he was selected by the EUand Society, an evangelical 

St. John's Parsonage. 
On page 32 will be found the parsonage as it was in Marsden's time. This picture shows it as it appeared when it was 

known as "The Cedars." It was demolished in 1909. 

disyiissed liim from the magistracy, had to admit thiit 
Marsden's niaiiiier to him had been "constantly civil 
and accommodating," and that nothing in it could 
"provoke the Governor's warmth." And he goes on 
to admit "Mr. Marsden's qualification, his activity 
and unremitting vigilance as a magistrate, and, in 
society, his cheerful disposition and willingness to 
oblige." But soft words could no more move 
Marsden from the right path tluiii could insult and 
injury. "In every society," he writes to Bigge, 
"power gives influence; the more absolute the 
Governor's power the more corrupt the society, and 
the greater influence he will command. No governor 
can possess greater power than the Governor of New 
Soixth Wales, and no societv can be nioi-c voicl nT 

institution which busied itself in the higher educa- 
tion of promising lads, and sent to St. John's College, 
Cambridge. All through his boyhootl he had been 
what was then called" serious-minded, "and when the 
first chaplain of New South Wales, Richard Johnson, 
sent to his friends in England for an assistant, 
^larsden was invited by Wilberforce — to whom 
Johnson owed his appointment — to take the position. 
Marsden declined, lie wanted to graduate; he had 
not thought of emigrating; lie was not yet ordained. 
Finally, liowever. he accepted the offer — in ]7fl3 — 
and made all preparations for departure. One of 
these preparations was his marriage. He was nearly 
30 years old. and imw lie was leaving his country on 
a long and dangerous voyage to a land from which 



he might never return ; the okl home ties must be 
replaced by new ones. His wooing of liis wife is so 
mueh a revehition of liimself that one may see the 
real man in it — his weak points and his strength. 

A Characteristic Love-letter. 

The lady to whom lie offered his hand had been a 
friend of his boyhooil. and his letter of proposal — 
which surely de.serves a place in any uew collection 
of "The Love-letters of Great Men" — begins with 
thanks for some ' ' Scripture characters ' ' she had sent 
him. Then he goes on: "Since my lot is now, seem- 
ingly, cast, and God appears to be opening my way 
to carry the (Jospel of His Son to distant Lands, the 
time is come for me to la.v open my thoughts to you. 
which have long been hid in my own Breast. I shall 
venture to submit to your consideraticm the following 
important Question (praying at the same time that 
the Lord would enable you to answer it agreeable to 
His own Will : and in such a way as may conduce to 
your own happiness and mine). The Question is 
this: Will you go along with me? If upon consider- 

most affectionately"! Miss Fristran — that was the 
lady's name — had the discernment to see the man's 
true nature through this affectation of ascetic indif- 
ference. Moreover, it was the fashion of the day, 
and of the religious school to which ^larsden 
belonged. ]\Inch in the same way — but even less 
romantically — had Whitefield pioposed for his wife. 
He really wanted a lady to look after his orphanage 
— he hadn't the remotest idea of taking to himself 
the woman he loved. "You need not be afraid," he 
wrote to, let us hope, the thoroughly annoyed lady 
whom he proposed to make ilrs. Whitefield; "you 
need not be afraid to send me a refusal. f(n' I bless 
God, if I know anything of my own heart. I am free 
from that foolish passion the world calls love.'' Miss 
Fristran knew Sanuiel ^larsden : she accepted his 
proposal, and. during her long life, she enjoyed the 
sincere and honest affection of a loving husband. 

The Strenuous Life. 

The work done by ^Marsdi'u at St. John's has been 
detailed elsewhere, and there remains now to say 

Parramatta in 1824. 
Showing Old Government House on the extreme left, Mr. Marsden's Parsonage on the extreme right, and St. John's in the centre. 

ing the sub.ject you can answer in the Affirmative 
and sa\' : I am willing; then my heart (as far as it is 
proper I should give it to the Creature) and all I 
have are yours. I believe, if it be for my good and 
His Glory, He will provide me with an Helpmate ; 
and, if not. He will give me a ilind resigned to His 
Will, I persuade myself I should be happy in the 
En.joyment of you more than any other; yet I do not 
wish to purchase my own Peace at the Expense of 
your Comfort ; but only if you think you would be 
happy. . . . Then I cheerfully offer you my Hand 
and my Heart whenever you please. I remain, dear 
Betsy, yours most affectionately, S. ^larsdeu," 

Was ever woman in this humor won? Love not 
so much as mentioned I To be called a "Creature"! 
To he told, almost in so many words, that if she 
■wouldn't have him, somebody else would! "Yours 

something almnt his sci-vices to the colony as a 
farmer ami pasturalist. Ami. first, it should be 
recorded in his honor, that, whilst other persons were 
running (htwn New South Wales, ^Marsden did all he 
I'oitld, not only to make the conditions of life better, 
but also to convince his corresjiondents in pjiiglaiul 
of the magnificent prospects in view. "I tliiiik this, 
he wrote in one of his earlier letters, "one of the 
finest countries in the world, and no people will be 
happier in a short time." Never one to fold his 
hands and wait for the good time coming, he did 
his level best to help forward the fulfilment of his 
])ropliecy. As we have seen he ate of the fruits 
of his own hand, and in his own person proved the 
truth of his statement, frequently repeated, that "the 
country must become great from the richness of the 
soil and the healthiness of its climate." We read 



that liL' di-(ivo a French visitor in "a very elegant 
cabriolet" (probably a gifi) along "a very pretty 
road." When they arrived at their destination, 
Marsden's tarni, some seven or eight miles from 
Parramatta. they inspected his horses and sheep and 
cattle; they admired the large and well-constructed 
buildings; they wandered through a garden already 
containing most of the fruit-bearing trees of I]urope. 
with vegetables of all kinds. That was in 1802 — yet. 
eight years before, the place was mere bush, covered 
with what other visitors — from England these — des- 
cribed as "prodigious forests." It was the King 
of lirohdingiuig who "gave it as his opinion that 
whoever could nud-ce two ears of corn, or two blades 
of grass, to grow upon a spot of ground where only 
one grew before, would deserve better of maidviiid. 
and do more essential service to his country than the 
whole race of politicians put together." How, then, 
did Marsden and his fellmv-pioneers deserve of their 

nothingness liy the whirling wings of Time. "The 
apostle of New South Wales," he has been called by 
his admirers, and "the apo.stle of New Zealand." He 
was also the Prophet of Hard Work and Public 
Spirit. The tablet to his memory in old St. John's 
sums the whole matter up succinctly ami truly — 
"Died May 12, A.D.. 1838, aged 75 years, after an 
active life spent in preaching the (iospel, and in 
promoting the welfare of his fellow-creatures." 


There was not nuich love lost between Samuel 
Marsden. "the Apostle of New South Wales." and 
John ilacarthiu-. ■'the Father of the Colony." 15oth 
masterful men, neither could tolerate an e(|ual. let 
alone a superior; and whenever the objects of one 
clashed with the interests of the othei'. there was 

Parramatta in 1911, 
This photograph was taken from about the same spot as the sketch on the opposite fage. 

country — they who made ears of corn grow where 
none had grown before, who turned a wilderness 
into friiitful pastures? Or, again, no less an 
authority than Zoroaster has it that "he who sows 
the ground with care and diligence acipiires a greater 
stock of religious merit than he could gain by the 
repetition of 10,000 prayers." ^tarsden did not 
devote himself to the acipiisition of religious merit. 
He did his duty faithfully as the chaplain of the 
connnunity, but, remembering that the community 
had to make its way, he took up more than his share 
of the burden and carried it right manfully. He 
brought intelligence into the field as his ally : and 
the part he bore in the improvement of wool — still 
the staple commodity of New South Wales — will be 
remembered to his credit long after the storms which 
beat round his devoted head have been scattei-ed to 

bound to be trouble. As a matter of tact, however, 
there was plenty of room for both of them, and, 
probably, there would have been no collision if the 
layman had only recognised that the "turbulent 
priest" was perfectly justitied in insisting on the 
necessity for clecent respect at any rate being paid by 
the officers of the Government to the religion sub- 
sidised by the Government. But we may let 
quarrels pass. 

Macarthur made his first appearance in Parra- 
matta when, ill his 24th year, he arrived in 1791 to 
take possession as Lieutenant, under Captain Nepean, 
of the new barracks. He was accompanied by his 
wife, afterwai'tis godmother of the famous "Eliza- 
beth Farm," anil their two-.vear old son. afterwards 
Lieutenant-(!eiu'ral Sir Edward Jlacarthur, K.C.B., 
and Lieutenant Governor of Victoria (1S5G). It is 



not without interest to note tliat another sou. Jauu's. 
a Parrauiattan by birth, was also offered a knight- 
liood — the tirst Australian. i)robal)ly. who declined 
the houor. 

The Wool Industry. 

After a short period of service at headquarters 
in S.vdney. ilacarthur came back to Parramatta, in 
179-4. as commandant — and to la.y, on his grant of 
200 acres near by. Elizabeth P'arm. the foundations 
of the Austi-aliau iiastoral industr.v. Experts have 
decided, after much debate, that to him is und(nibt- 
edl.v d>ie the honor of being the father of the wool- 
trade, whilst due credit is also paid to the elforts of 

John Macartliur. 

"William Cox. Robert Hassall, and Samuel IMarsden — 
all names well known in these parts. After having; 
secured as good results as he could b.v the crossing 
of hair-l)earing ewes with sheep of English breed. 
Maearthur decided on importing merinos, and this 
he happily accomplished in 1797 by the aid of Cap- 
tain Waterhouse and Captain Kent, who happened 
to be at Table Hay when some pure merinos of 
Spanish breed were sold at auction. Of course 
everytliing was not nearly done wlu'u .Maearthur 
bought some of these precious sheej) ; and. indeed, 
nearly a geiu-ration later, he admitted that most of 
the New South Wales wool was too coarse to export 
and that the methods of breeding adopted were not 

of the best. ^leauwhile. however, he had been doing 
his best to further the industr.v. and in 1803 — a time, 
be it remembered, when a trip to Europe was more 
of an expedition than of the pleasant holida.v vo.vage 
it now is — we tind him giving evidence before a 
committee in London on the nature, value and pros- 
pects of Australian wool. He was able to produce 
samples of wool grown on Elizabeth Farm, and he so 
imjiressed the official world with his statements that 
Lord Camden, the Seeretarv of State, who then 
administered Colonial affairs, offered him 10.000 
acres of land in New South Wales for the pui'pose of 
establishing the industry on a proper basis. Lord 
Camden, be it observed, was not actuated in this 
geuerosit.v by an.v particular desire to advance the 
interests of Australia. At the time, and for another 
dozen vears. England was the main ram]iart against 
Napoleon's encrt)achments on the liberties of Europe, 
and her great enem.v. anumgst other devices for 
crippling her powei'. had set himself to oppose the 
importation of the best wool into England. Here, 
then, was a chance to be independent of the good 
will of Spain, then practicall.v owned bv France; 
and it was mainly with the ob.iect of making this 
chance good, that Lord Camden took action. How- 
ever that ma.v be. ^lacarthur selected his 10.000 acres, 
and it is not to be wondered at that he chose "The 
Cowpastnres" on the Nepean — so called because the 
cattle that stra.ved awa.v from S.vdne.v in the first 
year of the historv of New South Wales had with 
an unerring instinct strayed to this land and settled 
there, ^lacarthur christened the grant "Camden." 
in honor of the Seeretarv of State, and. a couple of 
.vears later, he sailed back to S.vdne.v in a ship which 
he ajipropriatel.v called the "Argo, " bringing with 
him some valuable merinos from George Hi's flock. 

The Deposition of Bligh. 

Ever.vthing went along ([uietl.N' and well until 
Governor Bligh succeeded Governor King (1806). It 
is not necessarv to go into the question of the rights 
and wrongs of the famous Bligli-]\Iacarthur quarrel, 
which ended in the deposition of the Governor 
(1808), in the cashiering of Colonel Johnston, the 
officer who actuall.v deposed Bligh (1811). and in 
the practical banishment of Maearthur (1808-1817). 
Suffice it to say that Maearthur. ai)i)rehended on 
warrant as the result of an alleged breach of port 
regulations, objected, Avhen he was brought before 
the Court, to be tried b.v the Judge Advocate 
(Atkins) ; that his ob,iection was sustained b.v the 
officers constituting the (!ourt : that, whilst Maear- 
thur was remanded to prison. Bligh took measures 
calculated to intimidate these officers; and that then 
Johnston deposed Bligh, released jMacarthiu*. and 
conducted the government of the country with his 
a.ssistance. What concerns this narrative is that the 
extraordinarv affair — which now reads like a scene 
in a comic opera, luit which was then serious enough 
— meant the al)sence of iMacarthur for some nine 
.years from the colony, at a time when his enthusiasm 
and knowledge and ability would have been invalu- 
able in pushing forward the pastoral industry. To 



be sure, he oecnpied himself usefully enough in 
Europe, examiniu^' into the best means for the culti- 
vation of vines and olives and so forth; and tlie 
experience thus gained was not without its benefit 
to New South Wales later. On Kligh's death in 
1817, Macarthur was allowed to return to the colony 
without making the admission of wrong-doing which 
had been required of him. and which he stubbornly 
refused, on the ground that the deposition of the 
Governor was a meritorious and necessary act. 
Henceforth he devoted himself quietly and assiduous- 
ly to the advancement of the wool industry and to 
the cultivation of his vines at Camden. In 1825 he 
became a member of the Legislative Council, but the 
stormy period of his life was over, and nine years 
later he died. 


So far at least as those who luive passed away are 
concerned, the greatest man who first saw the light 
in Parramatta is George Fairfowl Macarthur. The 
influence which, more than half a century ago, he 
began to exercise over the minds of the Australians 
fortunate enough to cuuu' within its range, exists 
to-day; and it will continue to exist so long as any 
one of those Australians survive. Nay more, it will 
never really die. The boys whom ^Macarthur trained 
for the battle of life, actuated themselves by the high 
principles of life and thought and action which he 
inculcated, hand them down in their turn to their 
sons. The great institution, of which Macarthur was 
one of the first boys, and of which he lived to be the 
second founder, could not. if it would, abandon these 
principles, and yet be what he ainunl at making it — 
solidly, tirelessly devoted to the realization of the 
highest ideal of practical education : a healthy mind 
infoiTning a healthy body ; all the faculties trained 
to the strengthening of character, to the building-up 
of that noblest of all works — a complete gentleman. 

George Fairfowl was the son of a iium of consider- 
able note in his day — Hannibid Hawkins Macarthur 
(1788-1861), a ne()hew of the great .lohn. For some 
years he was police magistrate at Parramatta and a 
member of the Legislative Council. When respon- 
sible Government was established in 1843 he was 
elected the first member for Parramatta. Long 
before this — in 181"2 — he had married Maria, daugh- 
ter of Governor King, and George Fairfowl was an 
offspring of this union. 

Beginning His Life-work. 

One of the first pupils at Th(> King's School, G. F. 
Macarthur si)ent nine years here uiuler the ferule of 
the Rev. Robert Forrest, and. when this first head- 
master retired and devoted himself to clerical work, 
he was one of the boys who followed him to Camp- 
belltown, where he remained — in company with the 
youths mentioned elsewhere in this History — for 
some eighteen months. After that, he was taken in 
hand privately by Dr. Woods and the Rev. James 
Walker — and that was all the training he received 

for the great work he was to do. Ordained in 1818, 
when he had reached the canonical age, Macarthur 
was successively curate of St. James', Sydney, 
Governor's chaplain, locum tenens at Trinity, 
Sydney (ISoO-l), and incumhent of St. Clark's, 
Alexandria. Here his health broke down and he had 
to retire from the ministerial work that he loved. 
And. shortly afterwards, when he believed that his 
life-work was done, his real life-work began. In 
1856 he opened a grammar-school in IMacquarie 
Fields, and before long men began to recognise that 
in this delicate clergyman, who had not en.ioyed the 
advantages of University training, was endjodied one 

Geofge Fairfowl Macarthur. 

of the rarest and most blessed of phenonu^na — a born 
schoolmaster. His boys did well, atul gradually the 
attention of our little world — smaller then, even, 
than it is now — was focussed on the doings of a man 
who turned out boys of the right stamp, as if out 
of a machine. The King's School was then in 
troubled waters. Its headmaster was an English 
ITniversity man of high attainments; but. somehow 
or another, he failed to impai't his undoubted know- 
ledge. Hard by there was the Australian school- 
master — by no means the scholar that Mr. Armitage 
was; yet, his efforts were successful, whilst those of 
the other man were not. Could the services of this 
man be secured, by hap])y chance or clever device, 
for the Oldest Grammar School in Australia? Hard 

THE jrmLEE history of parramatta. 

times pressed mi The King's Sehool and .Mr. ^laear- 
tliur was invited more than once to accept the head- 
mastership, ^lore than onee he refused — but at 
last he accepted the call, and iu 1869 The King's 
School, renovated and ini|)roved in various ways, was 
re-opened under the auspices of the tii'st Old Boy 
who had won his way by signal merit to the highest 
position in his alma mater. 

A Great Headmaster. 

The work that ^lacarthur ditl durin;:- his term of 
office (186!)-]8S6i has never lieen properly recorded. 

set about building. But supn-mely great school- 
masters — Arnold, of Rugby, fur instance, and Macar- 
thur. of Parramatta — should live, not only in the 
lives of tlii'ir lioys or in the concrete shape of the 
buildings which they established or for which they 
prejiaretl; they should live in literature. What Stan- 
ley did for Arnold, some old King's School boy 
should do for Macarthur. 

Wearied at last in his long tight against constitu- 
tional weakness, ilaearthur had to resign the head- 
mastership of The King's School, and he survived 
liis retirement but four years. 

Centennial Fountain and St. John's Park, Parramatta. 

Probalily it never will be. seeing that the inheritors 
of his well-earned fame keep jealously to themselves 
such documents — if any — as would shed light 
on the inside, as it were, of the great .schoolmaster's 
character and method, his achievements and his fail- 
ures, his high ideals and his attempts to attain them. 
So to us and to our descendants, liorn in a later age. 
Macarthin- nuist perforce remain the shadow of a 
great name. Even so. his memory is crowned with 
laurels. The Jlacquarie Fields boys. The King's 
School boys of his beneficent term in Parramatta — 
so long as they live the memory of Macarthur will 
never die. His influence, as we have seen, will live 
long after they also have passed into the shades. It 
is not that any definite memorial is recjuired of 
Macarthur. That is to be foiuid in the resuscitated 
School and in the Chapel which he was the first to 


AlK)Ut forty years ago some remarkable portraits 
ai)peared in the "Sydney JIail." and the attached 
letterpress led the intelligent public to 1)elieve that 
they were meant to represent the Rev. W. B. Clarke 
and the Rev. Dr. Woolls. It was 1878. the year in 
which Dr. Woolls. then o!) years old. had taken holy 
orders; and probably it was his mature years and 
his sacred j)rofession that enabled him to bear the 
infliction with fortitude. But neither age nor his 
sacred calling could I'estrain Clarke's iiuliguatioji. 
Vin- all his To years in the world, and his half century 
in the ministry, the pictures moved him to the poet's 
fine frenzy, and under the title "A Condoling 



Naturalist" he dropped into verses, now 
possession of Dr. Ilouison. They began : 

Believed of work and tired of seliools 
Behold tlie effigy of WooUs! 

Yet is the satire uot so dark 
As is the caricature of Clarke: 

He, to a wonder-seeking stranger 
Appears to be the last bushranger. 


Is there no law to hang a Scott 

For making faces that are not? 
For twisting eye-brows out of place. 

And altering an honest face? 

In like [jlayful mood does Dr. Woolls make fun 
of tliese pictures, which, for all present deponent 
knoweth to the contrary, may have been capital 
likenesses. Dr. Woolls' verses end: 

Oh! rather let me live and die 

As Nature made with nose and eye, 

AVith hone:-it look and decent face, 
To neither parent a disgrace: 

Content, amidst mine own to dwell, 
Xor wish to be a Svdnev swell. 

Given from the hand of AVilliam Woolls 
For those who scorn ai-tistie rules. 

Prom which gems of purest ray serene the hurried 
reader, who has no time to delve into some of the 
poetry which delighted our grandfathers, may, 
amongst other things, learn to bear with resignation 
the statement that the present editor has firmly 
decided not to publish here either ]\Ir. Clarke's 
"Lays of Leisure" — a collection of poems which he 
contributed to English i)eriodicals of a century ago, 
— or Dr. Woolls' poem on Winchester, or his "The 
Country." or even the poem which attracted Arch- 
deacon Broughton's attention and procured for its 
gifted author a recommendation to the first Head- 
master of The King's School. This last named pro- 
duction lies before me now. Its title page reads: 
"The Voyage: A floral Poem. Written during, and 
descriptive of, a ^'oyage from England to New South 
Wales. — 'Nos patriae tines, et dulcia liii(|iiimus arva; 
Mos patriam fugimus.' Sydney: Prinled by St(>phens 
and Stokes, King-street. 18:51^."* 'i'hi' "humble 
effusion'' — that's what the unnamed author calls it. 
writing from Parramatta — is dedicated to "John 
Davis. Esq.. author of 'The Port Cajitaiu,' 'The 
American Mariners." 'The Life of Chattertou.' etc., 
etc., etc." John Davis, alas! is not known to this fro- 
ward generation, and the three works which Dr. 
Woolls claims to "have ever perused with the 
mingled feelings of respect and admiration" are not 
to be distinguished in these careless and forgetful 
da.vs from the "etc., etc., etc." I am glad, however, 
to be able to rescue one verse of Mv. Davis's from 
the gulf of oblivion. It is the last of the four in 
which the gifted poet liade farewell to the daring 
emigrant, and staggers: — 

[*It is uot without interest to note in passing tliat these 
printers, in partnership with William McGarvie, liad on April 
ISth of the previous year, issued the first number of tlio 
"Sydney Herald," which, the imprint stated, was " edited, 
printed and [lublislicd " by them as "sole proiirietors. " Only 
they issued tlieir paper from Redman's Court, Ueorge-street 
■ — not from King-street.] 

Boy! let the liquid ruby flow, 

It idle were to weeji; 
A toast the youtliful Bard I owe — 

"Smooth be the awful deep!'' 

There are only five cantos in "The Voyage." each 
preceded by an Argument and all followed by 
copious notes. Still the temptation to let 'iOth 
century Australians peruse them with respect and 
admiration uuist be sternlj- resisted. 

Happily, it is for their works we know Claike and 
Woolls — not by their poems: Clarke, to whom we 
owe it that the study of geology was introduced into 
and zealously pursiu'd in Australia; Woolls. who. in 
con.iunction with Walker of The King's School, and 
Von ilueller of Sonth Australia and Victoria, did 
for the botany of Au.stralia what his friend did for 
its geology. 

An Eminent Geologist. 

William Tiranthwaite Clarke was l)orn in SutTolk. 
June -. 17I)S. ami took his degree at Cambridge in 
1821, sitting at the feet of Sedgwick and another 
Clarke, so far as regartls the science of which he was 

to be the first teariicr in Australia. Ordained deacon 
in 1821, and priest three years later, he did not 
engage in the regular discharge of the duties of his 
profession until 18:^8. when he was given a college 
living in Dorsetshire, which he held foi" si.x years. 
He inainly devoted himself during the period 1821- 
1833 to the cultivation of his special gifts, by 
research, study anil tra\cl throughout the ruite(l 



Kingdom and on the Continent. When — mainly on 
the score of failing health — he left England foi- New 
Soutli Wales in IS'49, his name was already well and 
favorably known in scientific circles. In another 
part of this History Clarke's connection with The 
King's School has been noted; bnt, though his work 
here was good and capitally done, it is of course as 
a geologist, not as a schoolmaster, that he made his 
mark in Australia. Ten or eleven years before the 
discovery of gold, he had shown irrefutably, from 
geological and mineralogical data, that the precious 
metal was to be found in New South Wales ; and, 
even without visiting the spot, he knew from the 
facts furnished to him that there must be gold in 
Bathurst. He championed the merits of New South 
Wales carl)oniferous fornuitions as against the criti- 
cisms of our Victorian brethren, who were at the 
time engaged in laying out their nice cabbage garden 
and rather sniffed at the untidy coal measures of 
the senior colony. He found gold in 1841 in the 
Macquarie Valleys and near the Vale of Clwydd, and 
three years later he exhibited his finds to represen- 
tative citizens. In 1S47 he recorded it as the result 
of his exploration that "New South Wales will 
probaldy. on some future day, be fomid wonderfully 
rich in metals.'' Not that he regarded this as alto- 
gether desirable, so far at least as gold was 
concerned. "It is well known," he wrote in Janiiary, 
1849. to a country newspaper, "that a gold mine is 
certain ruin to the first workers; and in the long 
run, gold washing will be found more suitable for 
slaves than British free men." A sermon might be 
written on tliis text — but not here. The wise reflec- 
tion did not. however, nuieh impress the then ])ublic. 
Tlie very next month news came that gold liad 
"broken out" in California, and by June some liOO 
of the scanty population of New Soutli Wales had 
gone to swell the gi'eat army of potential millionaires 
and certain wrecks. 

Meanwhile jMr. Clarke, having resigned his posi- 
tion at The King's School, was appointed succes- 
sively to the living ti\' Campbelltown and St. 
Thomas', Willoughby. This last post he resigned iu 
1870, after 24 years' faithful and valued service. He 
survived his retirement until 1878, when he died a 
few ilays after his 80th birtlulay. Honors were not 
an ol)ject of ambition to him. but he apju'eeiated the 
great distinction of F.R.S. Nor has he been without 
honor in the adopted country which he served so 
well. He was Vice-President of the Roval Societj' 
of New South Wales from 1866-1878, and the grate- 
ful institution has established a Clarke medal in his 
memoi-y. which is highly esteemed by the scientific 
gentlenu^n to wliom from time to time it has lieen 

Botanist and Schoolmaster. 

William Woolls, a native of Winclu'ster, Eng., was 
only 17 years of age when he was hailecl as a 
"youthful Bard" by Mr. Davis, on the occasion of 
his undertaking the vovage which he described in 
the poem to which sympatlu'tic reference has been 
made. For some foui- veai's lu^ was assistant master 

at The King's School, and later he became classical 
master at Sydney College under W. T. Cape. During 
both these periods, and afterwards when he ran a 
school of his own in Parranuitta, he contributed fre- 

tpiently to the press, especially devoting liis attention 
to the botany of Australia. Following upon his 
"Contribution to the Flora of Australia" came his 
"Introduced Plants" — a paper read by him before 
the Cundierland ^Mutual Improvement Society at 
Pari-amatta, of which be was President — and it was 
this work which gained for him llie distinction of 
Fellow of the Liinuiean Society. A greater honor 
was deservedly conferred upon his "Species Plan- 
tarum Parramattensium," which moved the Fniver- 
sity of Gottingen to confer u])on liim the honorary 
degrees of Doctor of Philosophy and Master of the 
Liberal Arts. Amongst other works of his may be 
mentioned "The Wonders of Australian Vegeta- 
tion," "The Variations of Species considered in 
reference to the Variations of Language," and the 
"Life and Character of the Rev. Samuel ]\Iarsden." 
This last mentioned public.-il ion was written with a 
view to raising funds for the building of All Saints', 
Parramatta. in memory of the second Chaplan. Dr. 
Woolls enjoyed oMarsden's personal friendship, and 
he had indeed been fre(piently urged l)y him to take 
holy orders. This step, however, he did not take 
until 1873, when he was a])poiuted to the incumbency 
of Richmond. As a schoolmaster. Dr. Woolls was 
highly valued by his colleagues, as well as by his 
pupils and their parents; as a clergyman, he per- 
formed the duties of his sacred office with zeal and 
distinction ; his work as a botanist will be remem- 
bered so hnig as regard is had to the i>ainful and 
incessant labors of pioneers in science. He died at 
Richmond, where he had been rural dean, 




As the boat was leisurely tiiuliiig out its way from 
Parrainatta to Sydney one tine niorniny, somewhere 
about a century ago, the attention of the respectable 
passengers — everybody was "respectable" in those 
days who wore a tall hat and was not an Emancipist 
— was drawn to an unseemly wrangle on the deck. 
People were as curious then as they are now, and 
there was a mild, but respectable, rush to the scene 
of conflict. Wliat was the horror of evervbodv to 

and addresses, not necessarily for publication, but as 
a guarantee of good faith, if any awkward questions 
should be asked at the double inquest. The reporter 
then gracefully withdrew, l)eing naturally unwilling 
to interpose between two Itellicose gentlemen — not on 
his own account, but in the interests of the public, 
which always wants a fair run for its money. Verbal 
hostilities were thereupon resumed, but when matters 
threatened to become really exciting, the absurd 
captain of the ship interfered and forcibly establish- 
ed peace. Then it gradually leaked out that Mr. 
Clarke had merely ventured on an observation which 
he supposed to be humorous, not reckoning that 

The Soldiers' Memorial, Parramatia Park. 
Showing also the Round House and on the extreme left, where the Obelisks stand — Ihe site of the Ob£er*\atory erected by Governor Brisbane. 

in which Fumker and Dunlop worked. 

find that violent language was being used by two 
respectable persons, and that one of these two gentle- 
men was habited in the out-door garb of a minister 
of tile Church of fingland. No ! it could not be ! — but 
it was. the Rev. W. B. Clarke, master of The King's 
School, one of the most eminent geologists of his 
day. And the other gentleman ? Why. it was Mr. 
James Dunlop. the astronomer. The reporter who 
was present — there was always a reporter present in 
those day.s — rushed forward and separated the com- 
batants, who thoughtfully ceased hostilities until the 
representative of the press h;id taken their names 

astronomers regard all observations as strictly be- 
longing to their province, and tliat .Mr. Dunlop was 
one of the few Scots who have to i)e wakened up at 
night in order that they may laugh at an imported 
joke over which brilliant Eiiglislimen and Irishmen 
and Welshmen have split their sides a week before. 
It was just after ilr. Dunlop had announced that 
he had catalogued 7385 stars, and IMr. Clarke was 
injudicious enough to inquire whether or not Mr. 
Dunlop had seen the stars double. Upon this Mr. 
Dunlop intimated his intention of throwing the other 
ueiitlcmaii into the river, and it was in order to pre- 



vent the accomplishment nf this threat that Captain 
Spoilsport — his other name has not come down to us 
- — interposed liis authority and his arm. 

It is pleasant and re-assuring — isn't it? — to find 
that these great men of the day were human. It 
brings them a bit nearer to ns ; makes them less like 
names in a book and more like the men we meet in 
the street every day of our lives : more like our repre- 
sentatives in Parliament, for instance. Dunlop was 
very human. 

Little Differences. 

So was Rumker, of whom we have not yet treated. 
Rumker's son candidly admits that "in early life 
his father was apt to take offence and see slights 

engaged to look after them had personal equations to 

Ilis son describes Rumker for us: "Of middle 
stature," he writes, "and slender form, but of great 
personal strength. His features were sharply cut, 
and you could see the constant workings of his mind 
playing upon them. His eyes were of a clear blue 
and wonderfully piercing. His hair was .iet black 
and long and waving, and maintained its color up to 
his death. . . . He was possessed of indomitable 
energy, shrinking from no task, and, by nature, 
generous to excess and of childlike sympathy. Ho 
was, though quick-tempered, an excellent teacher, 
and possessed astonishing patience." So far so 

United Friendly Societies' Medical and Dispensing Institute, George Street, Parramatta. 

where nothing of the kind was intended, in which 
case his temper sometimes got the better of him." 
And one can see from the little anecdote we have 
fi.shed up from the "Cumberland Argus" of the day 
— or its predecessor — that his assistant was .iust as 
pugnacious. For a nuschievous fate nuu1e Charles 
Luis Rundier Astronomer Royal of Australia, and 
James Dunlop his assistant. That was in 1821, and 
the mischievous fate in question was Governor Sir 
Thonuis Brisbane. The good (iovernor thought only 
of his beloved, but elusive, stars; the gentlemen he 

good: hut when one knows that the cxiTllrnt teacher 
luis fought a couple of duels and is (luick-teiupered, 
one is apt to a while over Ihe "astonishing 
patience." Any way, Rumker (luarrelled with Gov- 
ernor Brisbane, under whose auspices he came to 
Parrauudta in 1821. in order to administer the obser- 
vatory which the Govenu)r was erecting at his own 
exi)ense. This led to his resignation in 1823. and to 
his retirement to his freehold, which he called "New 
Ilargard." after his birthplace in ]\Iecklcn1)urg. 
Governor Brisbane returned to England in 1826, 



leaviiif;- his astronomical instniniMits behind him. 
Thereupon Runiker was re-ai)pointetl State astrono- 
mer, but after he had hekl th(> jiosition a couple of 
years — dnrin<;- -whicli he did notable work — he went 
to Europe on leave. In p]ni;land he quarrelled with 
somebody else, and one of the consequences of this 
quarrel was that lie never returned to Australia. 

Contradictory Judgments. 

Rumker was a distinguished man — an P.R.S.. for 
instance, in days when that distinction was jealously 
guarded. He had also a profound contempt for his 
assistant at Parramatta — the James Duulop afore- 
said — a contempt which was inherited by Rumker 's 
son. This son, the Government Astromuner of Ham- 
burs, has declared it as his conviction that his 

II. C. Russell. F.R.S.. who gives us the benefit of his 
views. According- to him. James Dunlop was the 
right man in the right place — "one of the most 
energetic scientitie men that ever set foot upon 
Australian soil." He also received the hall-mark 
of Hritish science — he. like Rumker, was an F.R.S. 
"He performed in Parramatta," says Mr. Russell, 
"an amount of work which has probably never been 
e(iualled, and certainly never surpassed." Refer- 
ence already has been made to the 73S5 stars that 
he catalogued — and that is independent of the 621 
nelnilae and cluslers of stars that came under his 

So now, you lunc both sides of the question in 
regard to Rumkei-. the first astronomer of Australia, 
and to Dunlop. his assistant and successor. The 

-• . MITH&C° 


Church Street, Parramatta, looking South from Phillip Street. 

father's refusal to return to Parramatta in 1829 was 
"the heaviest blow which science has received in 
Australia . . . for the subsequent appointment 
of Mr. Dunlop (whose qualifications were but very 
imperfect) at Parramatta has added next to nothing 
to astronomy, and the history of the observatoi-y dur- 
ing this period is a mere blank." 

The gentle reader, however, is implored to (lela\- 
his .judgment. Elxpert evidence is notoriously un- 
trustworthy, mainly because it is invariably contra- 
dicted, more or less directly, by other expert evi- 
dence. Let us put another astronomer in the box 
and hear what he has got to say. It is the late ]\Ir. 

mists of local prejudice and temporary disagreements 
have by now rolled away, and you can see the two 
men as they really and honestly were. Fine, straight, 
well-informed men, apt in the discharge of their 
duty. Both did great work, considering the limita- 
tions of their day. Both were honored in their life- 
lime. Neither of them is commemorated in the 
town which was the scene of their labors. Tlu-re is 
an obelisk in Parramatta Park on the .site formerly 
occupied by the transit instrument used in the obser- 
vatory, and this obelisk bears testimony to the 
wisdom and public spirit of Sir Thonuis Brisbane, 
who founded the observatory. Rightly so. Sir 



Thomas erected and iiiaiutaiued this oljservatory for 
four years at his own expense, and it is tittiog' that 
due recognition should be madr of this solitary 
instance of a governor who expenth'd iiis own funds 
for the advancement of science in his adopted conn- 
try. But surel.v there should be added some mention 
of the men who gained distinction for the Parramatta 
Observatory — of C'liarli's Luis Riniilvcr and James 


\Vith characteristic foresight the English authori- 
ties charged with equipping the First Fleet, sent 
out a small printing machine and plant — and nobody 
qualified to handle it. So it lay idle until, towards 
the end of 1795. a young man named George Hughes 
astonished officialdom bv announcinu- that he could 

Edmund Mason. 

set up type and work the machine. He was incon- 
tinently installed as Government Printer, and the 
first sample of Australian printing was posted on 
the Parramatta Court House board in September of 
the vear named. It was not a very interesting 
announcement — nior'c exciting tilings have been 
published here in the 116 years which have elapsed 
since. But. though it merelj' called upon all and 
sundry to attend a general muster on October 1 — on 
pain of imprisonmentj hard labor or corporal pimish- 

ineut — we may be sure that its sight stirred our fore- 

It was nearly half a century latei' — in 184;j — that ii 
newspaper was established in Pai'ramatta, and 
Edmund Mason (1817-1899) was its publisher, pro- 
prietor. lU'inter. and editor. It was called "The 
Parramatta Ghronicle." and it had its struggles, like 
all papers published in the near neighbourhood of a 
metropolis, ilr. ilason brought to the conduct of 
his plucky venture a considerabU> stock of energy 
and abilit.v. When he lauded in Sydney, in 1841, 
at the invitation of the "Herald"' proprietary, he 
found b.v his side in the office a man named S. 
Bennett, who was afterwards to found the "Evening 
News" aud to incorporate with it the "Empire," 
with which Henry Parkes made his mark in Austra- 
lian .journalism. Neither ^lason nor Bennett eared 
to be wage-earners when the.v could beconre 
employers, and it was not long before they decided 
to start a paper in Maitland. Here, however, they 
were forestalled, and Mason determined to try his 
luck in Parramatta. The "Chronicle." as has been 
said, was started in 1843, and. before the end of the 
year, it had a "reptile contemi)orary '' in the shape 
of "The Cumberland Times and Western Adver- 
tiser," owned and edited by one Isaacs, with the 
assistance of B. E. Baile.v. known — from his pen- 
name presnmabl.v — as "The Curh'w." ilason. how- 
ever, found that .iournalism in Parranmtta ditl not 
pay; so he shut ui» the "Chronicle" No. I. and devot- 
(■(1 himself to .job printing and tile stationer.v business. 
"The Cumberland Times" \o. I followed its hated 
rival into the grave, and for over 20 years no really 
successful attempt was made to issue a paper in 

The "Mercury" and "Argus." 

Amongst the luisuccessful attempts was "The 
Parramatta Chronicle" No. II. — a four-paged penny 
paper, quarto size, also owned and edited by 
Edmund IMason. It had a iitful career from 1865 to 
1867, the PlSth number, dated June 29, 1867, con- 
taining this melanchol.v paragrajih. tucked away at 
the foot of one of the columns: — "The Chronicle. — 
The present will be the last number of this little 
Paper. It appears the town can only sup])ort one 
publication of the kind, and the superior begging 
qualities of the Manager of the Sydney-printed 
Paper has procured the latter many subscribers to 
our loss — to say nothing of State Aid, in the shape 
of Government advertisements, which, through cer- 
tain influence, he is able to procure." The imkind 
allusion was to the "Parramatta Mercury," which 
paper was itself to be absorbed in the following year 
into the "Cumberland Mercury." Here we are 
getting down to the beginnings of things as they are 
to-da.v, for the "Mercury" lives and flourishes in 
this present year of grace, though its name is no 
longer familiar, the jiaper having been iuc(u-porated 
into "The Cumlierlaud Argus and Fruitgrowers' 
Advocate'' in 1895. At the start the "Mercury" was 
a 2d weekly, published every Saturday, and the 
proprietor, Mr. James Ferguson, was able to 



niinouiR-e in his fifth issue that his .iournal had "a 
wide and inereasiu,u' eireidalion." (.)iie tiling to the 
ci-edit (if the "]\[ereury" is that it was the first news- 
jiaper in Australia to use Colonial-made paper, and 
another, that it did the hest it could for the town 
and district. It was not long before Mr. Mason 
acnuired a controlling interest in the "Mercury," 
whose monopoly had been challenged in 1869 by the 
'"Cumberland Times" Xo. II., owned by the late Mr. 
John Ferguson. This gentleman, who died only a 
few months ago. wa.s in charge of his paper until 
shortly before his death tliis year at the age of 80. 
Mr. jMason had prospered so well in his business as 
printer and bookseller that he soon retired from 
newspaper work and went in for fruitgrowing. 
Then, having earned a complete rest, he sjjent the 
remaining years of an honorable and beneficent life 
at his house in Boundary-street, where he died in 
1899, aged 82 years. 

It would hardl.y interest the average reader to 
learn the names and to peruse the history of the 
various papers that have at diiferent times tried to 
serve the interests of Parraniatta and district. They 
had their day and ceased to be. To-day there are 
two papers: "The ('um)ierland Argus," issued twice 
a week, anil owned l)y ]\lessi-s. Little and (_'ii.. ;nid the 
weekly "Cumljerland Times." 


Whilst due honor should ]>r paid to naturalists 
like Clarke antl Woods, whose names and whose 
services to science in Australia are practically con- 
nected with Parraniatta. there are other men who did 
great work in the same field. Such are George Caley 
(the director of the liovernor 's gardens in Parra- 
niatta). Allan Cunningham. Rear-Admiral King. J. 
W. Lewin, H. M. Martin and George Suttor. Their 
explorations and collections of plants in the district, 
and their residence from time to time in Parramatta, 
for scientific purposes, .justify the commemoration of 
their names in any review, however slight, of the 
borough's contributors to the natural history of 
Australia. But, with the excei)tion of Cale.y and 
Suttor, the best work done by these men was un- 
doubtedly done out of Parramatta. 

Buying a City. 

For the same reason, extended notices of such men 
as John Batman (1800-1840) and Hamilton Hume 
(1797-1873) do not properly come within the scope 
of this History. Each was born in Parramatta, and 
the town is proud of being the birthplace of the 
founder of Victoria and of the explorer who made 
the first overland journey from Sydney to Port 
Phillip. Even now the story of Batman's jiurchase of 
the whole of the territory near Port Phillip, some 
600,000 acres, reads like an extract from Gulliver's 
Travels. How he rounded up the eight chiefs, who 
easily persuaded the plausible stranger — with his 
enticing collection of blankets, knives, tomahawks, 

red shirts, flannel jackets, scissors, suits, looking- 
glasses, slops and handkerchiefs — that the laud was 
theirs to sell ; how the three principal chiefs named 
Jagajaga, together with the lesser jjotentates — 
Cooloolock. Bungarie. Yanyan. ^Moowhip and Mon- 
marmalar — affixed their marks in clue form to the 
alleged legal instrument; how Batman rowed up the 
Yarra and found the site on which Melbourne stands 
to-day. and said of it: "This will be the place for a 
village" — are not all these things written in his 
jom-nal that he who runs may read? 

" Father " Watsford. 

One would like to write at length, too, of 
the Rev. John Watsford — Parramattan by birth 
and education. He. as is narrated elsewhere, was 
one of the first boys to attend The King's School, 
and he was absolutely the first Old Boy to become a 
master there. But his work as a distinguished 
minister of the Wesleyan Church — he was President, 
for instance, of the Australasian ilethodist Confer- 
ence, 1871, and first elected President of the General 

Conference. 1878 — was mostly done in other parts 
of New South Wales, in Fiji, in South Australia, and 
in Victoria. He was an apostle sent from Parra- 
matta, more than a resident in the town which he 
loved to the end of his long and useful life, and 
which honored him alive and reveres his memory 

George Suttor. 

Perhaps the best known name in this list of scien- 
tists is that of George Suttor. P.L.S., who arrived in 
the colony in Governor King's time (1800-180G). 



He had letters of introduetion to his Excellency, 
who took a fatherly interest in him and advised hi:n 
to remain (■■n hoard shij) niitil he conld jiet a house 
in Parramalta. ^Ir. Suttor was "not to think of 
staying in Sydney, as every man there was a rogne. 
and he wonld surely he rohhed." The Governor ma.v 
have known his S.vdney and he cci'tainly did knuw 
his Parramatta ; hut as eertainl.v he did not know the 
Suttors. who would seem to have a vvise and con- 
stitutional ohjection to he robbed, if we ma.v .judge 
from the i-ecord of this first colonist of his name 
and from the record of those who have borne it since 
in New South Wales, with honor and profit. Oeorge 

cultivation of plants and was the means of intro- 
ducing several novelties to England. His book on 
"The Cultivation of the Vine"' was the high-water 
nun k of local knowledge of viticulture at the time, 
and his "Memoirs of Sir Joseph Banks" was a 
meritorious atul sympathetic performance. His scm, 
William lIeni-\'. was born at Baulkham Hills in ISdti. 
and was in his time member for the Legislative 
Assembly for Bathurst. William Henry had two 
sons, both born at Bathurst. and both educated at 
Parramatta: the elder at Dr. Woolls' school, and 
the younger at The King's School. Bt)th are well 
known names in the public historv of the State — - 

The Long Avenue, Pariamatta Park. 

Suttor speedily settled in the Parramatta district, 
where he enjoyed the company of his old friend 
George Caley, who had been sent out to the colony 
by Sir Joseph Banks, Samuel Marsden and Lewin 
the ornithologist. He settled on land, tlie grant of 
the Crown, and soon had a comfortalde and suc- 
cessful farm. At Baulkham Hills he cidtivated 
oranges amongst other fruits, aiul he was soon in a 
position to acquire valualile i)roi)erty beyond the 
Blue Mountains, which he turned to great advantage. 
As a scientist he devoted his attention mainly to the 

^Ir. ^Yi]liam Henry Suttor, member of the Legislative 
Assembly and frequently JMinister of the Crown; and 
Sir Francis Suttor, who has held ministerial office 
in several administrations and is now President of 
the Legislative Council. 

The Introducer of Gas. 

.\ i-esident for some time, but not a Parramattan 
liy birth, was another Wesleyan Minister, the Rev. 
Ralph Mansfield. Arriving in Sydney in 1820, 



lie served in suceessive circuits in the metro- 
polis, Windsor, Parramatta, Hobart, and again in 
S.ydney. In 1829 he became editor and co-proprietor 
of the "Sydney Gazette," the first newspaper pub- 
lished in New South Wales — and, at least under its 
first printer, George Howe, a Sunday paper at that. 
Then he took charge, for Dr. Lang, of the "Colonist," 
and in 1841 he became leader-writer, and afterwards 
editor of the "Sydney Morning Herald." Mr. 
Mansfield has a strong claim to the gratitude of his 
country in the fact that it was he who in 1836 per- 
fected measures for lighting Sydney with gas. The 
Australian Gaslight Company was formed thereafter, 
with him as secretary. 

James Byrnes. 

The Hon. James Byrnes, M.l'., who, as appears 
in the Council records, aspired, but in vain, 
to be the first Jlayor of Parramatta, did attain that 
office in February. 1862, and renuiined in possession 
of the chair until Februarj-, 1866, when he was suc- 
ceeded by Mr. James Pye. He was member for 
Cuml)erland (South Riding) in the first Parliament 
under responsible government (1856), and ten years 
later, when Mr. (afterwards Chief Justice Sir) James 
Martin — himself educated at Parramatta — formed 
his first administration he appointed Mr. Byrnes his 
Secretary for Public Works. (It is worth noting 
that one of his colleagues was Henry Parkes, now 
for the first time a iMinister.) During his tenure of 
office, which lasted nearly three years, he had a lirush 
with the Borougli Coiuicil. and his rebuke of the V)ody 
over which he had presided so long is entered upon 
the minutes more, one would imagine, in sorrow than 
in anger. The Council had informed him as Secre- 
tary for Public Works that they would not co-operate 
with the Government in the intended sewerage work 
in the town ludess the proposed drainage was carried 
into the river lieyond the bi'idge and below Mr. 
Dare's mill. Whereupon Mr. Byrnes addressed this 
severe snul) to Ma.vor Harjxr: "I am at a loss to 
know what the Council mean iiy the intimation th.-it 
they cannot co-operate with tiu' (iovernment in 
carrying out this work, the Government never having 
sought their co-operation in the nuitter. I\Ioreover. 
I am not a little astonished at receiving such a com- 
munication, as the deputation that waited on me on 
the sul).ject — of whom you wei'e one — expressed their 
general satisfaction in the arrangements jiroposed. 
the only su-ggestion made b.v the deputation being 
one which would ])e extremely inconvenient and 
destructive to the design to adopt, except at an 
expense which neither the Government nor the Cor- 
poration woidd in my ojjinion be warranted in 
incurring." That nnist have shown aldermen that 
Alderman James Byrnes, candidate for the ilayor- 
alt.v, was one individual, whilst the Hon. James 
Byrnes, a Minister of the Crown, was a very different 
sort of personage altogether. After being in opposi- 
tion for a couple of years, during which the second 
Robci'tson and the foiu'th (.'owper J.Iinislries snc- 

ces.sive]y tried, as he ex officio maintained, to ruin 
the country, Mr. Byrnes becanu? Secretary for Public 
Works again in the third Martin Jlinistry (1870-2), 
which was turned out of office b.y his former col- 
league, Parkes, who then formed his first cabinet. 

John Lackey. 

John Lackey was liorn in Sydney in 1830, 
but spent most of his life in Parramatta, and was a 
very prominent figure in the political and social life 
of this district. He was not, like Mr. James Byrnes, 
a menJjer of the first Parliament under responsible 
Government, and, when this first Parliament was 
dissolved in December, 1857, the Central Cundjerland 
electors declined to honor him with tlieir suffrage. 
In 1860, however, Parramatta returned him at the 
head of the poll, and he retained his seat until 1865, 
when .1. S. Farnell and James Byrnes annexed the 
two seats we had then at our disposal. Nothing 
daunted, Mr. Lackey stood for Central Cumberland 
in 1867, and, having won the seat, he took care to 
keep it as long as he remained in the A.ssembly. 
Twice he served at Chairnmn of Committees; he was 
Secretary for Public Works in the Robertson ilinis- 
try, 1875-7, and in the Parkes and Robertson 
coalition 1878. Appointed to the Legislative 
Council, he was knighted on his cdevation to 
the dignify of President — an office whose duties he 
discharged lo nniversal satisfaction until his death. 

Hugh Taylor. 

Mr. Hugh Taylor (1823-1 897) was a conspicuous 
figure in Parramatta. as alderman (1863-1897) and 
as representative of the Borough in the Legislative 
Assembly of eight parliaments. Born in Jlacquarie- 
street, he was educated first at Mr. Daniel Thurston's 
school, in Phillip-street, and afterwards at The 
King's School. To those of us wlio remendiered him 
inaiidy as one of the protagmiists in the Byrnes- 
Taylor hostilities, it is interesting to remendjer that 
when he first took an active part in i)olitics it was 
as the able and earnest lieutenant of i\Ir. James 
Byrnes. The first direct antagonism l)etween ]Mr. 
Janu's Byrnes' son and Mr. Hugh Taylor was in 1871, 
when the latter won the mayoralty as against the 
other; and in the following year he secured the 
membership also. In 1878 Mr. Byrnes turned the 
tables, but at the next elections Mr. Taylor 
triumphed, and he remained in possession of the .seat 
until Mr. Dowell O'Reilly, as a Reidite Liberal, 
wrested it from the veteran Parkesite. During his 
long Parliamentary career, I\Ir. Taylor was very 
active in procuring grants of money for the develop- 
ment of the Borough in ways that he thought best; 
and perhaps the most useful boon, and the one his 
constituents appreciated the most higldy, w;is his 
sucessful effort to get Parramatta included in the 
peimy postage area. 



John Taylor. 

John Taylor (1827-U)U5j, Hugh's brother, was, 
until 1!)05, the solitary survivor of the first Municipal 
Council of Parramatta — a fact which is commemor- 
ated by the facsimile of his list of the Aldermen of 
1862 which appears elsewhere. He attended Mr. 
Thurston's school, and little thought that one of his 
schoolfellows — his own elder brother — was to 
represent the borough in eight parliaments, and that 
another — James Martin— was to die Chief Justice of 
New South Wales. After some years here and at 
Mr. John Hare's (which stood on the .site until lately 

then was off to California. This was the time of the 
gold rush, but Mv. Taylor stuck to his trade and 
made money. In 1855, however, he returned to Par- 
ramatta, having added a wife to his treasures, and 
.started the auctioneering and valuation business, in 
which he was engaged for the rest of his long and 
useful life. Incidentally he was a Market 
Coniiuissioner, until the borough was incorpor- 
ated, Lieutenant of Volunteers, Alderman, J.P. and 
Licensing JMagistrate, and manager of the Parra- 
matta Branch of the Savings Bank of New South 
Wales (1860—1902). He filled in his spare time at 
OIK! period liy founding and editing the "Parramatta 

Parramatta North Public School. 

occupied liy St. John's iJi-aiiimar Sciiool at the coriu'r 
of Church and ^lac(iiuirie streets) he was sent to the 
Sydney College, then ruled by ilr. W. T. Cape, with 
Dr. Woolls as classical master. His father — Hugh 
Taylor, the elder — wanted to article him to George 
R. Nichols, a lawyer who filled the office of Auditor- 
General in the first ministry formed in New South 
Wales under responsible government. Here he would 
have met JMartin again, for he was one of Nichols' 
pupils. Instead, yoiuig Ta\'lor bound himself appren- 
tice to Mr. Urquhart. the coachbuilder, whose fac- 
tory was near where "The Argus" office stands, and. 
having served his full term of six years, he .started 
out on a belated " wanderjahre." After a visit to 
New Zealand in 1848 when the Ilimi Heki war was 
on, he spent a few months in New South Wales, and 

^Mercury aiul Cuiiil>erlancl .\dvocate" — a twopenny 
weekly which lived from .January. 1866. to February, 
1868, when, dying, it gave birth to the "Cumberland 
Mercury." which, in its turn, handed over its tri;st 
in 1895 to "The Argus.'' A curious evidence of Mr. 
-Jolm Taylor's abundant energy is to be found in the 
Mitchell Library, in the shape of a publication called 
"Parramatta and Present." Really it is an 
advertisement of his auctioneering l)usiuess. but 
sandwiched in between are interesting items of infor- 
mation about the town, illustrated by some of the 
most amazing i)ictures anybody would care to see in 
a book. ^Ir. Taylor was a perfect mine of Parra- 
mattaJorc and he was always ready to place his 
knowledge at the service of fellow-citizens and 




THE KING'S SCHOOL (1832-1911). 

THE KIX(r.S SCHOOL is so well represented in 
tlie jiages that follow that introdiietion would 
lie unneeessary. if it were not for one or two 
things. One of these is the desirability of plaeing' 
before readers some eoncrete facts regarding this 
"Oldest Grammar Sehool in Australia." 

For ovei' two generations now — well on. indeed, 
into the third — The King's Sehool has been unob- 
trusively holding uj) the flag of education. And with 
this main object in view : "to make man, first, master 
of himself, and. secondly, master of the world in 
which he moves." The words just (|uoted were 
uttered long after The King's School was established, 
professedly in order that "increased facilities should 
be afforded for olitaining a useful and libei'al educa- 
tion." Perha])s, these words sound snudl, as com- 
pared with till' others. But tliey come to the same 
thing in the end. Wherever you tind to-day an old 
King's School boy of the average type, you will he 
shaking hands with a man who is ediicated above the 
average, who is master of himself and of the world 
in which he nuives. Not intellectually, always; but 
alwa.ys morally and socially. The King's School 
boy of the normal type can hold his own in any 
society — except the lowest; and he can geni-rally 
tight his way out of that. 

And so. The King's School might well have been 
left to its own high reputation and to the elo- 
quent tril)utes to its excellence which follow this 
introduction. But. as a mere matter of history, 
something nnist he said about the School, from a 
purely statistic;d point of viinv. Archdeacon (after- 
wards Bishop 1 Hi-ougiitou. "Vice-President of the 
Committee of the Clergy anil Sehool Lands." was 
the father of a plan for the establishment ot two 
.schools for l)oys. one in Pan-amatta and the other in 
Sydney. The plan was snbmittetl in IS'M), but it 
was not until two yeai's later that it was ado|ited in 
practice by the establishment of The King's School, 

Archdeacon Broughton called the School, not after 
the King, as some have su[(posed, but after his old 
sehool in Canterbury, I]ngland. This is abiuidantly 
proved out of the Archdeacon's own mouth. Tic 
went to England in 1834, from which visit, by the 
way, he returned the first and last Bishop of Austra- 
lia. Whilst in the old country he was jiresent at a 
banquet given by the King's School Feast Society, 
nnmliering anu)ngst his fellow guests such distin- 
guished personages as Archbishop Howley, of 
Canterbury, and the great Duke of Wellington. In 
reply to the toast of his health, the Archdeacon is 
reported by the "Kentish Gazette"' to have said that 

"he had been placed at the head of Christianity in a 
country where education was unknown — he spoke of 
New South Wales; and it was part of his duty to 
attempt the removal of the difficulties produced by 
the lack of an establishment for inculcating religion 
and general knowledge. He succeeded in founding 
a public school on what he hoped was a satisfactory 
basis. He had given it the name of The King's 
School (cheers), and, in doing so, he trusted that he 
had acted from the praiseworthy feeling of reverence 
and respect for the place of his own education (loud 
cheers). There was now. he rejoiced to say. a King's 

Rev. Robert Forrest. M.A. 

.Srhool at the aidi])odes (repeated cheers). At the 
time he left it upwai'ds of 70 scholars, chiefly board- 
ers, the sons of the most respectalile inhabitants of 
the colony, had been entered, and there was every 
prospect of its success and jirosperity." This report 
was re-published in the London "Times" of Septem- 
ber 25, 1835, a copy of which the present editor was 
jiermitted to see by the courtesy of ]\Ir. Sydney G. 
Boydell. a grandson of the P>ishop. 

The First Headmaster. 

Thanks to Dr. Andrew llouison. one can speak 
about the School from its earliest day.s. from the 
masters' point of view. The Rev. W. B. Clarke, 



]\I.A., F.R.S. — whose name recurs frequently in this 
History — was a master for some four years under 
the Rev. Robert Forrest, the lirst Headmaster. Mr. 
Forrest was not a graduate of a University, but was 
ordained from St. Bee's College, and the Lambetn 
degree of M.A. was afterwards conferred upon him. 
The school was opened on February 13, 1832, in a 

The King's Schcol in 1861. 

brick house in Lower George Street. And the first 
boys were: xVndrew ^McDougal. Edwin Sutttu-, 
George Rouse, Joseph Thomjjson, James Walker. 
Charles Lockyer. boarders ; and six day boys — Orr 
(2). Oakes (2), (ieorge ;Maearthur and John Wats- 
ford. James S. Ilassall. grandson of Samuel [Mars- 
den, entered in April, 1832, and after the June holi- 
days there were 100 boys in attendance, amongst 
whom one distinguishes the names of Blaxland and 
Futter. The increase in numbers meant the enlarge- 
ment of the accommodation, and accordingly a new 
schoolroom was built, and two ad.joining cottages 
were rented for liedrooms. Oiif of these boarding- 
houses — thus early was ado])ted the plan wliich the 
present Headmaster has perfected — was under the 
charge of "Jerry" Hatch, a tutor, and the other 
under the charge of ]\Ir. (afterwards the Rev.) W. 
Woolls. who was to become a pi'omiuent personage in 
the infant community. It is Mr. Ilassall himself 
who, recalling in later years the irreverent manner 
of boyhood, tells us about the "Jerry" of Mr. 
Hatch's appellation; just as he also handed down 
the fact that the first Headmaster of The King's 
School re.ioiced— or otherwise— in the nickname of 
"Old Bob."' The foundation stone of the present 
luiildiug, on the old Cherry Tree Gardens, was laid 
in 1834 l)y Captain Westmacott. A.D.C. to the then 
Governor. Sir Richard Bourke, who had used all his 
influence to |irevent the enterjirise from being set 
going. Government subscribed £2000 to the cost, 
and, whilst the building was going up, it paid the 
rent of the temporary school (£80 a year), whilst 
boarders paid £28 a year and day lioys from £(i to 
£10. It was imt a very higii charge, and "Old Boh" 
and his assistants gave the boys full value for tlidr 
money, the scliool-liours in .^Ir. llassall's time liciii"- 

from 7 a.m. to 9 p.m., with, presumably, a few 
intervals for meals and games. 

Mr. Forrest and his boys nu.)ved into llie new 
building in 1836, but unfortunately it was not 
long before the first Headmaster was obliged by ill- 
health to resign the position he adorned and in 
which he had done such capital work. In 1839, 
accordingly, he left Parramatta and took the living 
of Campbelltown and Xarellau. But even here, in 
his enforced leisure, the born schoolmaster had to 
exercise his vocation, and accordingly we find six 
bciys of 16 or 17 years of age added to his family — 
two Nortons, two Oxleys, (!. F. jMaearthur and 
Ilassall. Before long, the IMacarthurs presented him 
Id the living of Camden. 

Divided Control. 

^leauwhilc things were going none too well with 
The King's School. On Mr. Forrest's resignation 
the headmastership was taken over by the Rev. 
James Troughton. his brother-in-law. also a St. Bee's 
man. As, however, the new chief was not competent 
to teach classics, the Bishop of Australia — for to 
this dignity Archdeacon Broughton had now been 
elevated — appointed the Rev. William Branthwaite 
Clarke, M.A. (Cambridge), to take the higher forms 
in that subject. IMr. Clarke had come out to Aus- 
tralia in 1839 — he was then 41 years old — mainly in 
search of health, and the Bisho]) gladly took advan- 
tage of the opportunity to strengthen the School, 
which was afforded liy tiie opportune arrival of a 
man who had already ilistiuguished himself as a 
litterateur and who had more than laid the founda- 
tions of his subsequent eminence as a geologist. A 
good story is told of his visit to Parramatta. 
The Bishop drove him up and droi)ped him at the 
School, with the inquiry: "Can I do anything for 
you in Sydney. Mr. Clarke.'" This was the first 
intimation he had received that his sphere of use- 
fuliu'ss had been definitely fixed for him. and that 
he was to remain in Parramatta. He acrcpted the 
sitiuition philosophically. "No, my lord," he 
replied, "thei'c's imthiug you can do foi- iric: unless, 
indecil vdii ran Frank a clean shiii to nic."' It 
was one iif the pi-ivileges of high officers in those 
days that they had not to ])ay for the carriage of 
letters and parcels — their mere signatures were 
sufficient postage. But this was too much for the 
Bishop of Australia. "No, Mr. Clarke," he said, 
"I think I can luifdly do that"; and there is no 
evidence that, tlii'ii or thereafter, he understood the 
delicate hint of unpi'cpai-edness which tlic victim of 
his nuigh and i-eady nicllu)d of appnintmciit inteiul- 
cd to ('(invcy. 

A'alurally enough, tin' 'l"niuL;li1un-( 'iarlcc control 
was nut a success, and in 1S41 the lu'v. William 
West Simpson was appointed Head -Mastei-. Per- 
haps he was not in office long enough to make his 
mark. luit. an.v \va>'. it was a dangerous experiment 
to appoint til till' ciinti'iil uf a young i)ublic school 
a gentleman whose scholastic experience bad been 
confined to the teaching of a pr'ivate sclioul in 
London, There was the furtlier objeetinn that .Mr, 


Siinpsnii's Hilly titli' Ui academii/ distinction was a 
Lamhclii .M.A. granted in recognition of a presum- 
ably learned. l)nt now forgotten, translation of the 
"Constitutiones Societatis Jesu, Anno 1.358." For 
all that, he was doing good work when hi.s career 
as Headmaster was unromantically but ett'eetively 
stopped by an outbreak of .scarlet fever, which 
attacked him as well as a number of the boys, and 
which compelled him to resign his office. 

The next Headmaster was the Rev. James Walker 
(1843-8), the tirst O.xford graduat(.' to hold the posi- 
tion. Mr. Walker was not only a brilliant classical 
scholar — ' ' one of the best classical scholars that ever 
came to the colony," M'rites the Rev. W. B. Clarke 
to Dr. Houison — but he was also well known as a 
botanist, and he frequently wrote on his subject to 
the press of the day. affording much valualile infor- 
mation on poisonous plants. His sons — P. B. Walker, 
wlij attained a high position in the Telegraph De- 

Rev. Frederick Armitage, M.A, 

partment ; Critchett Walker, so long Principal 
Under-Secretary; and R. C. Walker, Librarian of 
the Public Library, Sydney — maintained worthily 
the distinction of their father's name. Apart from 
his work in the School. i\Ir. Walker was largely 
instrumental in the establishment of All Saints' 
Church, and he was much missed when he resigned 
the Headmastership in 18-18 and became incumbent 
of St. Luke's, Liverpool. 

Robert Forrest Again. 

The Rev. Holicrt Foi-rcst slcppcil into the breai-h 
on ilr. Walker's retirement, and. during the five 
years of his second headmastership (18-t8-]853), he 
did much to maintain and establish the reputation 
and usefulness of the School. His own health had, 
he thought, lieeii restored, and he set to work with 
energy to develop the activities of the institution 
for which in its infancy he had done so much. Un- 
hap|]ily. the hopes entertained of his continuance in 
robust health were not to be fulfilled, and Mr. 
Forrest — whose services to Parramatta are grace- 
fully commemorated by the "Forrest Ward" of the 
Municipality — died a few months after his return 
to England on his resignation in 1853. 

Mr. Forrest's retirement was but the beginning of 
the disasters which crowded on the School during 
the next thirteen years. Whilst the authorities were 
looking round for a suital)le successor, the Rev. H. 
II. Bobart, JI.A. (Oxford) — who had succeeded 
Samuel Marsden as incumbent of St. John's in 1838 
' — was prevailed upon to fill the gap. But it was too 
much for him, esi)ecially as, about this time, he was 
busily engaged in ])re])ariiig plans for a new church 
to take the ])lace of ilarsden's building, which had 
been closed in 185'2. He survived his appointment 
little over a year, dying at the School in June. 1851. 
A couple of months later tlu' Rev. (afterwards 
Archdeacon) Thomas Druitt took charge, but he 
soon faded away from Parramatta and made room 
for the last Headmaster before the intei-regnum. 
This was the Rev. Frederick Armitage, M.A. (Oxford 
and Camliridge). An Oxford graduate in the first 
place, Mr. Armitage was a fine classical scholar, 
with French and German at his finger-tips; but 
what he did not know about mathematics would fill 
birge volumes. Desirous of increasing his useful- 
ness in this direction, he hit upon the strange scheme 
of going through the Arts course in Cambridge. 
But there was a difficulty in the way. Cambridge 
would gladly confer, for a consideration, an "ad 
eundem" degree upon a graduate of the sister Uni- 
versity ; but it was unprecedented for such a 
graduate to enter as an undergraduate. Be that as 
it may, the unprecedented duly took place : l\Ir. 
Armitage matriculated at Cambridge, went through 
the Arts course and took his degree — not, hovv'ever, 
in mathematics, but in classics! Good scholar as he 
was, and painstaking and earnest teacher, Mr. 
Armitage was deficient in the faculty of maintaining 
order and discipline, and, when he went to England 
on a twelve months' leave of absence, it was to 
bring from there his headmastership (1858-1866) to 
a close by resignation. Mr. L. J. Trollope, who took 
temporary charge during his leave, has recorded 
elsewhere the history of his valiant attempt. 
But neither he nor any other man could have suc- 
ceeded in the circumstances, and the Oldest Gram- 
mar School in Australia put up its shutters and 
remained closed. 

Macarthur to the Rescue. 
The interregnum lasted till January. 1869. when 
The King's School opened its doors again under the 



direction of the Rev. (icorjiv F. Macarthnr. himself 
au old King's School boy. For some twelve years 
l)efore this, he had been successfuU.v conducting a 
school at JNIacciuarie Fields, and it was with his 
])upils there as a nucleus that he entered on the head- 
mastership (]8t)!)-18S6) wliich justified his claim to 
be regarded not only as the "Sect)nd Founder of The 
School,'' but as one of the greatest of Australian 
educationalists. Archdeacon C4unther — who did 
much to secure the re-opening of the School — has 
paid a fine tribute to the memory of this great 
schoolmaster, but there is yet material for a work, 
which should be of great interest, exclusively de- 
voted to a study of his career, its lessons and its 
achievements. This matei-ial is m;unly in private 

laid upon him — to do his duty honestly and faith- 
fully to the School and to the parents of the boys 
entrusted to his care, without at any time allowing 
private or personal considerations to interfere with 
his conscientious course of action." Mr. Gray's 
headmastershij) — abruptly terminated by the neces- 
sity of rettirning to England on the grt>und of Mrs. 
(h'ay's health — is chiefly nuMuorable for the opening 
of the School t'hajiel. subscriptions towarils which 
liad been bt'gun during his predecessor's reign. 

The Last Twenty Years. 

The Rev. Edward Harris. .M.A.. D.D. (Oxford), 
brought with him from England — where he had 

tilled iiiii)oi-t;mt educatioiud positions, iiudiuling thi; 

The Kings School in 1899. 

hands, and possibly will he used at some future date. 
For our purpose it must suffice to observe that 
Macarthui- might have applied to his life-work me 
proud boast of Augustus — "I fouiul Rome a miid 
village. I leave it a city of marl)l(^ palaces." But 
with this difference: Macarthur ''found'' nothing — 
he made everything. He created the "tone" of The 
King's School, and he turned out every year the 
luidoubted makings of manly men : the best type of 
Australians. The instruction imparted was simple 
and solid, and order and method were the watch- 
words of his just rule. 

The high standard fixed by ^lacartlun- was main- 
tained by his sueeessoi'. Rev. A. St. John Gray. M.A. 
(1886-8), who could truly say when he resigned 
his trust that "during his coiuu'ction with the School 
he had always kept in mind the one great obligation 

lleadmastership of Exeter School — a reputation for 
culture and scholarship and thoroughness which he 
brilliantly nuiintained at The King's School (1889- 
LSS).")). During his term of office, it will be remem- 
l)ered. there began the "hard times" whieh had 
such an effect on Xew South Wales, and necessarily 
upon the ScliocJ which is so largely recruited from 
the pastoralists ;ind from all whose jirosperity de- 
peutls directly on "the land." This, of course, 
re-acted in various ways, but Dr. Harris could point 
wh(>n he resigned to various achievements of import- 
aiiee. and. above all. to the firmer and firmer estab- 
lishment of the I'eputation of the School. "Our 
aim," he said, "has been to do the small things of 
daily duty as well as we ct)uld do them, and to do 
everything, be it work or be it play, well." Tlie aim 
was fulfilled. 



If Dr. Ilfirris felt llie l)i't;iiiiiin!is of the bad times, 
his suce<'SS(ir, the Rev. Arthur Ilaiuinerton Champion, 
M.A. (Caml)ridiie). had all the rest of them during' 
his term (lS!)5-]y06). Yet by dint of hard work and 
unfailing' and sincere attention to duty, it eonld be 
said of Mr. Champion that from a total of 78 boys at 
the School when he took charge the numbers rose to 
100 boarders and 47 day boys, and that considerable 
additions had to be made to the buildings. In the 
case of a man still living — to live, as we may hope, for 
many more years of usefulness — it is well to keep 
silence, yea. even from good words. But it may be 
permitted to transcribe here a sentence from the 
"Sydney Morning Herald" on the subject of his 
resignation: — "In his characteristically quiet and 
unostentatious manner, l\Ir. Champion did much to 
confirm the high reputation of the old School, and to 
advance the cause of sound education." A higher 
note was struck by the late Nornuni J. Gougli in his 
appreciation: — "To be a gentleman in the face of 
things in general is not always easy, and, perhaps, 
for many of us Mr. Champion has made it easier, 
for his woi'l< has lain as much with humanity as 
with the humanities. ... If Mr. Champion has 
never cranuned a boy. he has never suffered one to 
go empty Here was the note of a great sim- 
plicity, of unaffected charm: here was a man who 
had power, l)ut diil mif set it on a iu'dcstid : who 
M'as simple, and yet atlde<l diginty to a position 
which was itself a dignity." 

Now, for the second time in the history of the 
Oldest (iranunar School in Australia, an Old Boy 
reigns in The King's School, and the fact prompts 
the wish and the belief that the Rev. Stai-x- Waddy, 
M.A. (Oxford), may be a second Macai'tliui' in in- 
fluence for good and in success of every kind. It 
would ill liecoiiic lis in a History to which Mr. 
Waddy has contril)uted some interesting pages, to 
speak more particularly of his work and his methods 
than he has himself cared to speak; but we may be 
permitted to mention a few facts and figures which 
speak for themselves. During the last 4i/^ years, 
the following additions have been made to the School 
buildings: — New dining hall, new library, museum, 
kitchens, etc.. and the swimming bath. Three School 
houses — Broughton. IMacarthur and Old Oovernment 
House — have been established, thus providing 
accommodation for 184 boarders and 50 day-boys. 
This number, now in attendance, is easily the highest 
on record; and if the Council wants to receive more 
boys it will have to see about enlarging its increased 




1 893 



The gift of Charles Kemp, Efq. 

n. H. GALL 

The Scliolarship li(s in ;ilicyani'0 from July, 
1S64, till January, 1869. 









11. S. MORT 

L. lIARRlfcON 

After being iu abeyance for sonie years, (his 
Scholarship wa.s revived as 



Hanging on the wall of the big schoolroom are a 
number of Scholarship Boards which in themselves 
are a history of The King's School, or, at least, a 
perpetual memorial of the leading students in given 
years. Subjoined are the boards relating to the 
Broughton Scholarship and Prize, and the Broughton 
and Forrest Exhibition : — 


The gift of Robert Campbell, Esq., M.P. 

18.54 . . JAMES D. COX (Trin. Coll., Oxon.) 
185.5 .. GEORGE E. C. STILES (St. Eilnuni.l Hall. 

1858 .. WILLIAM J. GUNTHKR (Queen's Coll.. 


1859 . . FRANCIS PILGHER (Orie! Coll., Oxon.) 
1862 . . FRANCIS M. BETTS (Pern. Coll., Cantab). 

These exhibitions then fell into abeyance, 
but were ultimately revived by the 
generous liberality of the family of the 
late Robert Campbell, Esq. 

1874 , . EDWARD J. JENKINS (Trin. Coll., Oxon). 

1875 . . JOHN E. S. ELWELL (Non-Collegiate Stu- 

dent, Oxon). 

1879 .. HENRY L. DAYIS (Queen's Coll., Oxon). 

1880 .. CHARLES G. WADE (Merton Coll., Oxon). 


TliE Jul3tLEE History of PARkAMA^r'TA. 



EECUNALIJ Jl. lloUK (Now College, Oxoii). 
GEORGE M. L. 1XXE« (Trinity Coll., 

CECIL ALBAN WIllTK (New Coll., Oxoii). 
D. MACGMAN (Halliol Coll., Oxon). 
P. S. WADDY (Balliol Coll.. Oxon). 
.1. M, MAUGIIAN (Balliol Coll., (l;;o;i). 
EDMUND A. BARTON (New Coll.. Oxon). 
SYDNEY G. STILES (Oriel Coll., Oxon). 
S. F. MOKT ((Jneen's Coll. Oxon). 
M. G. FIELDING (Merton Coll.. Oxou). 


An " Old Boys' " School. 

By the Rev. Stacy Waddy, M.A. (Oxford and Sydney) 

There is one aspeet of a (ireat i^iblie Sehoul that 
is too rarely reeoguised. When people say "How 
is the Sehool g'oino- on?" they have in mind the boys 
who are at the nionient being' educated there, and 
the masters who are at that time sitting in the seats 
of the mighty. 

The mi.stake is nalural; but it is a mistake none 
the less. For a great Hehool consists of all the boys 
wJio have ever been at it — not merely its present 
mendiers. "Once a Kingeyi. always a Kingeyi"! 
(I am very doubtfnl how our ;incicnt nickname 
should be spelt; but I am quite sure of the truth of 
the maxim.) A School exists .to produce "old 
boy.s"; and if we forget that the old walls do not 
stand simply to house the present generation, but 
also to gather reunions of the "old boys" of the 
past, we take a stunted vie\v of the greatness of the 

I shotdd say that here perhaps is to be found the 
chief feature of the life of the School under my 
owni Headmastersliip. It happens that I am an "Old 
Boy." It is no merit of mine; I did not send myself 
to School; there seemed to be no qtiestion but that 
my father's old School s-hould have the task of 
making the best it could of me. My grand-uncles 
had been Kingeyis; my father, my paternal and 
maternal uncles also ; myself and my brothers made 
the same air resound with similar outcries beneath 
the chastening birch. Proliably next year another 
generation of the name will sit on the benches and 
wear the uniform. 

So that I started as Headmaster with the qualifi- 
cation of being a very thoroughly descended "Old 
Boy." Only once before. I Ijelieve, had an Australian 
boy passed on to the Ileadniastership of his School ; 
and that also was at T.K.S., in the case of my great 
predecessor. Mr. Macarthur. The fact at any rate 
was rare enough to strike the imagination of the 
"Old Boys"; and I have found myself from the 
commencement of my regime with a most powerful 
and enthusiastic force behind me — the loyalty and 
co-operation of the Old Boys of the School. 

What the Old Boys Do. 

'I he pnigi'ess of the last f(jur yi'ars has lieen a 
great gratification to me. And I am glad of a judilic 
o]ipoi-tiuiity of showing how much this has been due 
to the fact that the old School consists of all tlie 
boys who have ever been at it; that, when you ask 
"IIow is 1he Sehiinl going on?" you must look ipiite 
as miieli at the keenness and loyalty of the Old Boys 
as to tliat of the present staff of masters and su[)ply 
of boys. 

The outAvard and visible signs of this iiave been 
three: The lirsl is. (lie splendid Old Boys" Swiininilig 
Bath — their gift to Alma IMater. The second is. the 
large nuiidier of boys who have come to the School 
through the urging of "Old Boys." The third is the 
large and hearty gatherings of "Old Boys" who have 
met at the School. Commemoration Day has become 
Old Boys 'Day. Twice a year they gather to the School 
to play the present boys at cricket (and generally 
get beaten!) Once a year they attempt the .same 
task at football (and always get beaten!) They 
come for Prize Day. for boxing tournaments, swim- 
ming, tennis. Ami besides these gatherings for set 
purjiiises. pel haps few days that we have' not 

Rev. Stacy Waddy. M.A. 

some Old P>oy up at the Sehool. having a look roiuid, 
yarning to the Sergeant, exchanging liadiiuige with 
the old Matron, and reminiscences with Air. CJorr or 
Mr. Thomas, — and perhaps, as he looks round the 
old familiar scenes, having a litth' sinking feeling 
in his heart that they were good old times, and wc 



are not quite sure that we will ever have quite such 
a good time again. 

Truly, if a School i-annot draw hack its old boys, 
and make them feel a little tender, as they look 
round, there is something wrong somewhere. And 
T.K.S. at any rate has always been a great "Old 
Boys' " School. 

Some Past Masters. 

Another feature that has tlistinguished the old 
School in the ptint is also a part of its present; that 
is, the way it has been able to retain the loyal and 
keen services of good men on the staff. One is almost 
tempted to say that the best known of those who 
stand out in its past history liave not been its Head- 

— ever feel that any greater influence has come into 
our lives. (It will be obvious that I speak only of 
Headmasters who have passed away from the world 
wliere they laboured.) 

Yet even alongside of these names, how brightly 
stand out those of their right hand men! Burkitt 
and Dalmas have become traditions; Delaney will 
always have the very sympathetic recollection of 
the many boys whom he ruled — and rule he did! 
No one can say that the old School has ever yielded 
U) the lines of management which make the Head- 
master a distant and unapproachable j)otentate, a 
part of a boy's life liardly more personal than dis- 
tant thunder. With men like JMacarthur and Harris, 
it was the personal touch that produced their influ- 

Ring's Bridge from Parramatta Park, showing Hospital and The King's School. 

masters, but their helpers and right-hanil men. Air. 
Forrest, the tii-st Headmaster, has certainly left his 
mark ; no old boy of his will ever forget him. It is 
one of my deep regrets that I never met Mr. Alacar- 
thur; but this I can say — of all the numberless "Old 
Boys" of his whom my position has enabled me to 
meet, I never met one whose voice did not become 
almost emotional as he spoke of his "chief." Of 
these two then it would certainly not be true to say 
that their names were less famous than their helpers. 
Nor will we wht) passed under the rule of Dr. Harris 
■ — a great and good man; a reallv ureat schoolmaster 

ence; they knew their boys — still heller, their boys 
knew them. Long may such be mir tradition! But 
all the same, the ^e^dly eifective assistant-master has 
a sphere and scope hardly less impDrtant. almost 
more intimate, than the "Chief." And 1 should 
unhesitatingly say that the great work of T.K.S. 
in the past is quite as much due to the years of 
faithfid and strenuous service of men like n.-dmas, as 
to the work of the Headmasters. 

And I am ])roud to think that it is so still. To 
l)oys and old boys of the past fifteen years. Air. 
Tliiiiiias is simiiK' a i)ai1 of T.K.S. Wliatever side 



of the School life thev were keen upon ; whatever 
incident makes them rub the i)lace when they think 
of it ! — whatever they see was a help to them to 
become the men they now are ; he had a share in it. 
And jMr. Corr has had an experience probably unique 
in Great Public Schools; for he has now to teach 
the sons of former pupils ; he has served under three 
Headmasters; he has seen four former pupils join 
the stalf as his colleaiiues in mastership : and he now 
helps a Headmaster who was once his pupil. The 
power of service to the School which such a standing 
gives is obvious. 

The House System. 

It is largely with the idea of giving to such men 
the widest possible scope and sphere that I have 
organised the School on what is known as the House 
system. The plan is simple; merely this — to find 
tiie best men available as House masters; to give 
them a cluster of thirty, forty, tifty boys with whom 
they shall be brought into the most intinuite contact 
possible; to make the House a unit, with a corporate 
life of its own. inspired and moulded by the House- 
master, — not competing with, but contributing to, 
the wider patriotism that haunts the idea of "The 
School"; to allow the Houses, while running on the 
same broad lines, yet to develop their own indi- 
vidualities, in keen and healthy rivalry each witli the 
others; this is to gain all round and lose nowhere. 
It is to make the best of every force that goes to 
vivify the life and tone of a School; comradeship 
amongst the boys; local patriotism blending with 
wider loyalties; the influence of a wise and good 
assistant-master used to its very fullest extent, being 
diffused over tlie whole School, but also concentrated 
upon a section. It is hard to overestimate the great- 
ness of the sphere iif influence open to a House- 

So that the fouiulation of this system is not a 
revolution: it is but a new way of producing old 
results to their greatest possible extent. In fact, the 
names l)oth of the Houses and of the House-masters 
are signs of the truly conservative nature of the 
move. There are four Houses: the old School House, 
that lias stood as it is now for nearly SO y(^ars: the 
old (iovei'nment House, which has .stood nearly IDii 
years, and now houses the i)oys who iii'c to make 
Australia loyal and progressive in Ihc future; 
Broughton House ("Xewlanc's"') named after our 
founder; and ]\Iacarthur House, named after our re- 
founder, ilr. C'orr has charge of the School House: 
]Mr. Thomas of Old (ioverniiu'nt Hdusc; and two old 
boys of the School. Rev. E. F. Waddy and H. E. 
Britten, are in charge of Broughton and ]\Iacarthur 
Houses respectively. 

In a short article like this. I have taken but one 
aspect of the School life : I wish to show that T.K.S. 
is an ''Old Boys' '" Sclu)ol. that knows the secret of 
prodiU'ing that wonderful feeling called loyalty. 
Once the quality is learned, the boy is sure to feel 
it in the wider issues of later life ; the keen Old Boy 
will be ripe material for becoming the keen citizen, 
soldier, patriot. Imperialist, churchman. He will 
have the Imperial instinct ; not afraid of big under- 

takings and progressive developments; not needing 
to be told that such developments will demand his 
effort and self-saeriflce ; seeing life in the light of 
comradeship, not of mere self-seeking. If a School 
can do that (and Australian schools as a whole can 
proudly claim that they do > then they deserve well 
of the wider unities and comradeships for which 
they must prepare their boys : the State, the Empire, 
the I'niversal Church. 

"Schola Regia floruit; floreat. et semper floreat." 



By the Rev. Arthur Hammerton Champ'on, M.A. (Cambridge 
and Sydney). 

An ancient poet, with whom some of us had a 
notlding acquaintance in youth, sings of the pleasure 
felt liy one who stands on a cliff overlooking the sea 
;iiiil watches the toils of those in peril, when winds 

Rev. Arthur Hammerton Champion, M.A. 

and waves are high. But he hastens to adtl that the 
chief emotions in the watcher's mind will be sym- 
pathy born of experience and .joy in jiresent well- 
b(>ing and high hope for the future. I believe that 
flic publishers of this volume have asked me to eon- 



tribute a few lines to it, because they credit me with 
feelin-i' the same emotidiis as I hjok on the progress 
of that good ship, dear to so many of us and to all 
men known as T.K.S. But as others will write of 
its history and indulge in personal recollections and 
do honour to its great names, I shall venture only on 
some general notes. 

The first thing that impresses one more and more 
is the great need to the country of such a School, 
with its traditions and opportunities and various 
activities. A country like ours, of wide spaces and 
much outdoor enterprise, produces a particular type 
of boy: a boy intelligent but not always intellectual; 
not always a lover of books, but yet quick to read 
men and things ; not always endowed with what a 
great scholar called "the low cunning to understand 
a rpiadratic," but ready to study and solve some of 
the i)i-oblems of life. Such boys develop best under 
the manifold influences of such a school as The King's 
School, and often develop slowly and in unexpected 
directions; and so, fairly to .judge of its usefulness 
to the community, one must look, not merely to 
showy successes in examinations, but over a far 
wider field; into remote corners and Polar seas; into 
the careers of wise rulers in the Church and able 
judges and patriotic leaders in politics, and also 
into the lives of obscurer citizens who are working 
fortiter et fideliter, with loyalty to tiie old Schodl 
as one of the inspiring forces of life. 

And then, even the most careless observer must 
notice the growth of the School — growth in numbers, 
which indeed will vary in this land of vicissitudes, 
but may reasonably be expected to be maintained ; 
growth in buildings — and it should be remembered 
that it is not fifteen years since the pi-osaic fact of 
a kitchen too small to swing a cat in suggested the 
beginning of additions to the School House which 
had done duty for so many years; and growth in 
the system which has produced "Houses" of the 
English Public School type. 

The town of Parramatta has a history, has many 
associations with the past, linking it with the larger 
life of the community, and not the least of these is 
that "])laee of sound learning and religious educa- 
tion"' which far-seeing Bishop Broutihton founded 
in 1S3-2. 


The School in the Sixties. 

By L. J. Trollope, the First Lay Headmaster. 

It was in June, 1858, that I came over from Tas- 
mania to take u]i work on the staff of The King's 
School. At that time there were from eighty to one 
hundred boys on the roll, and the teaching staff con- 
sisted of the Rev. F. Armitage. M.A., Headmaster, 
Jlr. TI. S, Hawkins, I\1.A., mathematical master, and 

five others including myself. There was then no 
Council. The Bi.sliop of the Diocese was visitor, but 
his duties were confined to the appointment of the 
Head, and during the six years that I was there he 
only visited the School twice — on prize-giving days. 

About 1860 the numbers began to decrease rapidly. 
Three factors contributed to this: 

The opening of the Sydney Grammar School, the 
King's School before that event being the only pub- 
lic school in the colony, with the exception of a 
school at Cook's River kept by the Rev. W. Savigny. 

The departure from the School of Mr. Hawkins to 
open a school at lioulburn, he taking with him two 
other masters and several lioys. 

The state of disrepair into which the School build- 
ing had fallen; there being no fimds from which a 
new roof, which was urgently needeil, could be 
financed: and I\lr. Armitage having spent several 
hundred pounds on class rooms, etc., not seeing his 
way to further expenditure. In 1863 he went home, 
intending to return in three years, and I was left in 
( liarge as Acting-Head ; but in June, 1864, he decidiMl 
not to return, and there was nothing left but to close 
the School, as the roof was like a sieve. 

During the time I was there the School turned out 
some good scholars and athletes, among tlieni being 
found the names of Suttor. Cox, Throsby. Chisholm. 
Blaxland, Belts, Waddy. Amongst the 
were the father and uncle of the present Ilead- 
ma.ster. Among the Blaxlands were the father and 
uncle of another master at the present time. 

There were three import;int events in the history 
of Parramatta which had something to do with the 
old School : — 

First. The enlargement and beautil'.\ing of All 
Saints' Church. The School had no chapel in those 
days, boys and masters atteiuling the services at 
All Saints', and when in 1861 the Church was 
enlarged a stained-glass window was erected in the 



chancel to the memory of tlie first Headmaster, the 
Rev. R. Forrest, by suliscriptioiis fnmi [)ast and 
present boys. I niii:ht iiientinn here that the Rev. 
F. Gore, B.A., incumbent of All Saints', assisted at 
the School when we were shorthanded and notably 
when I\[r. Hawkins broke his le^ and for more than 
three months was nuable to attend. 

Second. The formation of the Parramatta Volunteer 
Rifle Company. This was. 1 think, the second volun- 
teer company in New South Wales, and was .ioined 
by ]\Ir. Armitage. myself and about a dozen of the 
older boys, there being no cadet corps in those days. 
In connection with this an incident occurred in 
which four of The King's School boys were concern- 
ed. Four of the Faithfulls. of Springfield, near Goul- 
burn. were returning after the vacation, two to tlie 
University and two to the Scliool. when they were 
"stuck up" by the Hall gang of bushrangers. Tlie 
three elder had their rifles with tliem, and they suc- 
ceeded, though only mere lads, in driving off the 
outlaws, one of whom was said to be wounded. 

Third. The establishment of the Borough of Parra- 
matta. But the only connection of The King's School 
with that was that one of the masters. Mr. J. \. 
F'lower. was an official at one of the polling booths. 



By Mr. Justice Pring, Judge of the Supreme Court, New South 

The King's Sclionl. which was founded in 183"2. 
was closed in 186.3. At that time the Rev. G. F. 
]\IacHrthur liad a prosiierous boarding school at I\Iac- 
quarie Fields, lie was one of the first jiupils of The 
King's Sclu)ol. 

In 1868, when 1 was one of the l)o>s at jMaetjuarie 
Fields, he determined to inidertake the task of re- 
opening The King's School. I remember going with 
him that year to see the jilace. The Headmaster's 
cottage was then occupied by I\Ir. John Taylor, a 
well-known citizen of Parramatta. but the school 
buildings were in a sadl.y neglected state. The 
Upper School room was the abode of goats, while 
ducks inhabited some of the class-rooms. A large 
expenditure was necessary to put things in order, 
but ]\Ir. JMacarthur undertook this, and, though he 
received some assistance, the larger part of the ex- 
pense fell upon him. In January. 1869, he opened 
the School with a roll call of thirt.v-eight boarders. 

In the preceding year he had had 84 boarders at 
jMacqnarie Fields, hut many parents, fearing lest a 
town life would be in.jurious to their sons, had with- 
drawn them. I left at the end of 1869. but kept in 
close touch with the School until .Air. ]\lacarthur 
resigned the lleadnuistershi)) in 1886. having suc- 

ceeded in winning such a good name for the School 
that he was unable to accede to all the applications 
for admission. 

While I was there we had some difticulty in secur- 
ing that great delight of boys — a place in which to 
.swim. We w'ere not allowed to bathe in the river, 
for in days the people of Parramatta depended 
largeh- on it for water for donu>stic jnirposes. All 

The Hon. Mr. Justice Pring. 

day long water-carts i)lieil between the dam and the 
town. Ultimately wc took possession of the dam at 
Xoi'th Rocks, but 1 lidirve that later on that was also 
forbidden wate;-. 

In 1869. though OTir numbers were so few, we were 
at the head of tlii> schools in cricket, defeating Xew- 
ington College, which before then was considcreij 

Football was then unknown. True, we had a ball, 
hilt wf oidy kicked it aimlessly about the play- 
ground. Of course, as we had a rifie cadet corps at 
Macquarie Fields we brought that with us to Parra- 
matta. atid gave a good account of ourselves at the 
Randwick shooting matches. On Sundays we used to 
march to church at All Saints", but later on services 
at the School were instituted. Ilowevei-. JIi-. iMacar- 
rhur soon coiK'eived the idea of building a School 
!'ha]>el. anil collected a considerable sum for that 
purpose, but the chapel was not built until after ho 
had retired frimi the position of Headmaster. 

The pi-incipal masters were ]\Ir. Burkitt and !\lr. 
Dalmas, both of whom are now dead. Their .ser- 



vices to the Sehool were of inestimable value. ;ni(l 
are recorded on tablets on the School walls. 

Ihere was an island at the toot of llic playground 
covered with .scrub, which formed a convenient hid- 
ing place fur "smokers." Some years ago the dam 
was raised, with the result that the island has lieeii 
submergetl. Our diet was very simple, bread and 
butter for breakfast and tea, meat and vegetables 
for dinner, and jnuldiug on Sunday, Tuesday and 

In my time lu)lidays were not so long as now. We 
had ten days at Midwinter, and six weeks at Christ- 
mas, and facilities for travel were very different 
from what they are at the present da.\'. It took mc 
three day.s to get to my home and three more to get 
back, whereas the same journey can now be made 
in twelve hours each way. Needless to say I went 
home only at Christmas time. However, since those 
days there have been many alterations, some of the 
most noticeable of which are in the School itself. 
Tlie ai'ea of its usefulness has been much enlarged 
with a view to prepare bo.vs for the real work of 
life. The establishment of Houses in connection with 
the School is a marked step in the direction of bring- 
ing it into liiH' with the great [)ul)lic schools in 
England. We may now loiik forward to a career of 
great usefulness for it. 



By the Headmaster. 

The King's School, Canterl)ury. proudly styles 
itself "The Oldest Public School of England." We 
are glad to he able to use the same phrase for 
its Parramatta namesake — one might say "god- 
daughter" — as regards Australia. But when it adds 
the justification, that it was "founded in the Vllth 
century, and reconstituted by Henry VIII. in 1541," 
our modest age of eighty years looks very small. Yet 
here, too, there is likeness; each goes bacdi to the 
beginnings of national life and education ; each pro- 
claimed from the start that "Godliness and good- 
learning" are inseparable; and each has moulded 
and been moulded by the community it served. 

And, after all. eighty years is no short time. There 
is room for antiquarian interests to gather, for much 
change to take place. Parts of old buildings are put 
to new uses; new buildings are added; some that 
once were centres of vivid life are swept away. In 
the belief that there is an interest in these things. 
that memories gather round jiegs, and are interested 
in their pegs, this article is written to tr^K'e (though 
inadequately, yet with a hope of calling out correcter 
and ampler information) how the present School 
surroundings took their shape. 

The first T.K.S. still statuls— a brick two-storey 
liouse in (leorge-street. A verandah has been added 
in front; it is in excellent repair'. How far it retains 
any traces of its former occupancy I cainiot say. An 
artistic sketch v.-as recently made of it by ^Ir. H, 

This was occupied while tlic buildings intended for 
the School were being erected. How long that took, 
I cannot say. We have always understood that our 
massive walls, fully two feet thick, and the mon.)lith 
pillars of the porch, Avere the work of convict 
labourers; on the other hand, iMr. Jlacarthur, in a 
famous Commemoration sjjeech, is said to have indi- 
cated that (iovemor Bourke was hostile to the 
Si-hool, and blocked the supply of labour. 

How the Buildings Grew. 

Still, built it was. and thithci- canu^ the box's. What 
stood on the site previously.' Ai-e any parts of the 
present buildings a siu'vival (d' i)rcvinns tcnanc.v? 
'Ihe ground in front was. I understand, a nursery 
uarden; various Ileadnuisters are credited with 
having gi-own fruit in the grounds, ami provided 
temptation foi' the breach of the eighth <-)niman(l- 
nu'ut. I can only cu\y their horticultural pro.iciency ! 
For I can make it grow nothing but i'arramalta 
grass. P'our years ago. the grountl in li'ont of the 
S(diool was elaborately levelled: it was ploughed, 
cleared of the tufts of our enemy, and hopefully 
sown with couch seed. And after a long interval, up 
came — Parranuitta grass worse than ever! I hope 
that some futuie Ileadmastei' will have the joy of 
seeing the Sidiool sports held there. But I fear I 
will not. It still justities the uanu' by which we 
called it when 1 was a boy hei-e — the "hard stuff." 
Earlier pictures show that it was once much less 
level; Mr. Macarthui-. 1 believe, di<l a good deal of 

Let us take Hrst the growth of the buildings. '1 hi! 
original i)lau was four rooms — a school-room (known 
as the Prayer Hall in JMacarthur's time; now, since 
the building of the Chapel, known as "Upper 
School"). Across the stone-tlagged hall was a dining 
room of the same size — (were these ever stone-paved 
too?) — now known as "Lower School." Its chief 
memories are of "bread and scrape" in Forrest days, 
with bread and water as a healthy change of diet 
when over-feeding produced naughtiness! Later, 
when a long low dining-hall was built on, it became 
Lower School, and a tablet on the wall (unveiled on 
Commemoration Da.y, 1911) records the memory of 
the great Lower School master, W. Dalmas. 

On the second storey, approached by a stone stair 
with iron hand-rail, were the two dormitories. Was 
one of them ever used for other purposes? It seemed 
hard to believe that there could have been boarders 
enough to till both in the days wdien Upper School 
sufficed as the one class-room. Can anyone tell when 
the wooden partitions were put down the middle of 
the dormitories? Do they date right ba.ids to the 
StoiH:- Age? So far as I can tell, the dormitories are 
unchanged within the memory of any "Old Boy" to 
whom I have spoken about them, I have had infor- 



mation that there used to lie three masters" eubieles 
iu No. 3. 

To this (irie:iiial nueUnis. additions were soon 
needed. A row of class-rooms was added outside 
what was then the back door — leading from the hall. 
These class-rooms have had a bewildering variety of 
use — the terms "music-room." "chemistry room," 
"monitors" room.'" "nniscuiii."" have dodged about 
too fast to be followed. 

The next addition (but when made?) seems to 
have been the old stone dining hall, on the left as 
one looks to the porch. "What a cold room it was! 
Long as a caterpillar; with a small dais, whence the 
cry of "Too much noise!" from Burkitt and Delaney, 
and many another, has often hushed the babble that 

Headmaster "s house, which previously nuist have 
been cramped (piarters for a family. The present 
Headmaster "s dining room (where many a boy 
shivers, when invited to tea. while "the Chief" 
makes improving conversation and forgets to offer a 
second help of apple tart), was ^Ir. Armitage"s 
library, and also used as a class room. The second 
storey was p\it on when Dr. Harris arrived. 

The Gym. appears to have been built in ;\Ir. (iray's 
time. A tin carpenter "s shop stood, as late as ilr. 
Champion's time, near the Gym. Lavatories Tised to 
stand near the School back-door, and were pulled 
down when the present dining-hall wing was added. 
The small Inith-room at the end was presumably the 
scene of ^Ir. Justice Print;' "s reminiscences of the 

The King's School in 1911. 

boils up at tea while the monitors are lingering over 
their luxuries after the rest of the School is anxious 
to be gone! Later, this hall was wood-floored and 
divided into three of the worst class-rooms the School 
ever had. In 1910 it was pulled down, to make room 
for the present kitchens. lil)rary and lavatories. 
(There was one curious feature about it; round its 
play-ground end and west side ran .stone flags, as if 
it had once had a balcony. Can anyone remember if 
this was so?) 

Next, Mr. Maeartlmr. on eimiing from Mac(pTarie 
Fields, put on the curious but useful i)eaked upper 
storey, containing hath-i-ooms and work-room for 
boys' clothes, also three small dormitcn-ies. now used 
as masters' bed-rooms (2) and sick-room. 

The next addition was, a second storev on the 

once-a-week hath on Saturday night — when lucky 
was the boy who came first, or nearly so I 

The School Chapel. 

The building of the Chapel was a beiu'fit to the 
whole life of the School that can hardly be over- 
estimated. It was mooted by ilacarthur. built by 
Gray, ojjcned on the first Sunday of Harris's tenure. 
It is not only architecturally a handsome l)uilding, 
in excellent taste, which attracts visitors from far 
and wide; it is also an instructive contrast to the rest 
of the ])uildings — they so severely plain, and utili- 
tarian, this so delicate and beautiful, every .stoiu' of 
it lovingly carved. An unendowed School cannot 
have "frills''; the one place where T.K.S. has spent 
an "unnecessary" penny is, rightly, its Chapel. The 



arcliiteets were so pleased to have at last sonietliing 
to build that was not a warehouse or "pub.", so 
glad to be told to plan a building worthy of its site 
and its funetion. that they gave the reredos them- 
selves. Certainly, they put their hearts into the 
work. No detail is ever repeated; the building is 
symmetrical and balanced, but even in little points 
they lavished care to make it varied. We may well 
be proud of it. But I hope ere long we will have 
wiped off the reproach that it contains no memorials 
of Broughton, Forrest, ilaeartlmr. or Harris. 

The next great addition was the mass of red-lirick 
that now rears itself on the Park side of the Lower 
School. 'I"h(' new dining hall tluue ju-ovided was not 

corner, near Pye's Cottage, in which ilr. Burkitt 
kept pigeons, I believe. ]Mr. Forrest had a stone 
stable near where the Chapel now stands. 

The chief changes in the grounds that would be 
noticed now are the al)olition of fences. The tall 
paling fence that marked the Headmaster's drive 
and groinids off from the playground was taken down 
in 1908. The i)arapet (who built it?) was taken away 
in 1908, and a concave bank of turf put in its place ; 
the boys turfed this (they could not help them- 
selves!): but they also turfed the space next the 
drive volmitarily. Many little enclosures that were 
fowl yards have disappeared ; l)ut the stories may 
still 1)e told what desperate fellows we were when wo 

satisfactory ; it contained less room than the old one. 
In 1910, under the present architect, Mr. J. W. Hill, 
a very skilful adaptation of tlie original plans gave 
us the present dining hall, 100ft. by '.i'Zit., and a new 
range of kitchen buildings, library, museum, and 
class rooms. 

The course of time has not only added, but swept 
away, buildings chiefly of the smaller soi-t. Besides 
those mentioned, the old Hospital and blasters' Cot- 
tage, each facing Pennant-street, have gone, with 
many memories of hospitality that clung to the latter. 
In a lithograph of the School in 1857, which came 
into my possession in a curious way, there are several 
buildings which I cannot identify. One appears to 
be the two-storied stable that stood in the N.W. 

fished for fowl out of the back dormitory windows, 
or threw boots at the Headmaster's pet cock, who 
would crow all night just below! When we have 
left school awhile, what "terroi's" we begin to find 
that we were ! 

Some Other Changes. 

The chief change is on the Park side, where a new 
road now leads up to the kitchen. There, behind the 
Gym., in what was the cow-yard, stands the Swim- 
ming Bath. Mr. Corr has laid out these grounds ; a 
lawu leads up to the Bath, kept well-watered by the 
bathers who lounge awhile in the sun after a dive; 
on either side are wattles and flowers, and on the 
whole it is now a worthy approach to the view of the 



School from the Park. The tine lucerne ptitch that 
was the I'mit of ilr. Chainpion's care is n;)W no more: 
the tjroiuul will piobably lie levelletl for cricket 
wickets. The School Farm has removed the need for 
it, and for the cow-bails, etc. The "bowliny- lawn"' 
is now criclvct ])ractice-wickets. 

Of two other points I would like to speak. The 
School now accommodates fewer boys than ever 
before; it is full with a1)out C3. The accommodation 
is now provided by '"Houses" — not a private venture 
of a master, but School Houses, as much a part of 
the School as Upper School itself. The Old Govern- 
ment House foinis a splendid addition lioth to our 
room and to our prestige; it makes an ideal luiine for 
the little boys. Broughton House, with its jn'etty 
fii-ounds (once "Xewlands'). and ^Macarthur House 
(once '"^Moreton House"), and the School Farm. 

The King's School Chapel. 

«('!•(' added in I'JOS. 11)11. and IIMIT respect i\'ely. and 
Old Government House in lUld. The School now has 
about 72 acres of land, iiid four "Houses," besides 
the 2-10 acres of Park at luiv side. Its situation is a 
great asset; fresh aii' and space mean nnich to a 
crowd of boys. 

The last point to notice is our ti'ces. One can get 
other things in a hurry, but there is nothing ready- 
made aboiri, a tine tree ; it is not only a beauty ; it 
means history. And Parramatta is renowned for its 
trees; and T.K.S. has some glorious specimens. There 
is an avenue of oaks (old and scrubby, l)ut "real 
English") leading up to ]Macarthur House. The 
curved drives from the gates to Broughton House, 
and from the Lodge to Old (ioverinnent House, are 
of fine camphor laurels. During the last two years. 
nearly 200 wattles have been planted at our Houses. 

But the finest things we have are the plane trees 
along the fence by the (Jym.. and the two really 
splendid specimens of camiihor laurel in front of the 
Headmaster's house. It would be a great satisfaction 
if someone could tell when our trees were planted, 
and whom we should thank when we look at their 
rounded greenery and their cool sluide. When 
the laurels are twinkling " 'twixt shadow and 

sliade": and tlie white cedars aiv all ]uTfu.Mie a.nd 
blossom; or the \vattles all golil. or the jacaranda 
all jmrple; or when (only once in many years) the 
Hame-tree by the Headma-ster's verantlah is a mass 
of incredible ruby blossom. — truly no one who saw it 
v.-ould feel that T.K.S should lie elsewhere than 
wliri'c it has stood for its SO years. 

"I'liirnit. Floret, et senipci- Kloreat." 



By Mr. W. Stewart Corr, M.A. 

The name of The King's School has been so closely 
associated with various forms of sport, that no 
account of the School would l)e complete without 
some reference to this important side of the School 
life. Pel haps some people would cavil at the use of 
tile word "important" in such a connection, and 
indeed tlierc ai'e many who think that ton nni -u 
iittcutiiin is given to games in our ])Hlilii; schools; 
bul 1 \( ntuiT to think that sni-li opiniims are rather 
I he result of igiuirance as to the attitude taken up 
by the Schoiil authorities with regard to s|)oi'ts. At 
'1 he King's School, as at most s<-hools of a similar 
class, the idea has always l)een that the ])hysical 
development of the boys is jus*; as nuich a part of the 
school work as the training of their mental powers: 
and so all g;imes are organised in such a manner that 
e\-ery boy can get the best advantage out of them, 
;ind by nudcing them practically comimlsory, it can 
lie made certain that each boy gets an adeiiuate 
amount of healthy exercise. 

But the sciiool games, properly i-egulated. play a 
far more important part than that of merely provid- 
ing a means of taking exercise, or of acting as an 
outlet for youthful energy ; for they are a big factor 
in the discipline of a school. The boy who aspires 
to the honour of being a member of the School 
cricket eleven or the football fifteen, knows tliat the 
first thing necessary is promjit obedience to orders, 
and the throwing of the whole of his mental and 
physical energy into the game. He must undergo 
wearisome hours of practising the various points of 
the game, so as to be ready for any emergency that 
arises in an imjiortant match; he nuist subordinate 
his own ideas to those of his captain and coach; au'l 
above all. he must learn to Jilay the game, not for 
his own gloi-ification, but for that of his team and his 
school. And when these are the lessons that are 
taught by our school games who will dare to say 
that those ganu's do not play an important part in 
the niak-ing oF our future citizens? 

The Start in Athletics. 

SiU'h being the attitude of the authorities of The 
King's School, it is natural that School should have 



a good record during the past forty years or so, 
(luring wliieh the games have been considered an 
important part of school life. Of course games have 
always been played at the School since its oi>ening 
in 1832, but in the early days cricket had not become 
a universal game, and football was unknown. Foot- 
racing there was, though no regular athletic 
]neetings were held, and one hears of wild 
struggles at "shinty,'' the forerunner of the modern 
hockey, in which the boys of the "fifties" indulged 
in the Park, to the detriment of their sliins ami to the 
loss of their temper. Then came the early attempts 
at cricket, with its old underhand bowling, and we 
hear even of pon.y-racing when "mounts" were avail- 
able. But it was not until the reconstruction of the 
School under the Rev. G. F. IMacarthur in 1868, and 
the advent of that great sporting enthusiast. Mr. W. 
K. Burkitt. that the school as a whole took up games 

As in all big schools the two chief games are cricket 
and football, but for various reasons the latter game 
has alwa.ys been the more popular at The King's 
School. The chief of these reasons is that School 
draws its boys mainly from the count). w The,v come, 
on the average, for three or four years, and as the.y 
usuall.v start as novices in all games, through lack of 
opportunit.y of learning them on the far back station, 
there is not tinu^" to make them into good cricketer's. 
To football, however, they take like ducks to water. 
as the.y can soon ])ick up sufticient knowledge of the 
game to enable them to get sonu'\'ment out oi it, 
and b.y the end of their second or third season the.v 
nia.y become experts at it. And sn, in speaking of 
King's School sport, football comes first to our mind. 

Football in the '70 's. 

The game was first introtliu'cd into the culony 
about 1870. when the Universit.v Club was formed, 
soon to be followed b.y the V7allaroo F.C. Then ;\lr. 
Burkitt got the Headmaster's permission to intro- 
duce it at the School, and from that time till now it 
has l)eeii tiieir special game. For the lirsl I'cw years 
the three clubs mentioned above were I he only ones 
in existence in New South Wales, and llie.v met each 
other about four times in that season. The Wal- 
laroos soon came to be regarded as the special team 
for old K.S. bo.x's to .join, and as very often present 
boys played with that club, it was no unusual thing 
in the "seventies" to find nearl.y the wluile Itmiii 
made up of T.K.S. boys, past and present. This led 
to some difficult.y at times; for instance in 1877, when 
more than half the Wallaroo team were T.K.S. bo.vs, 
and so. when these two teams had to meet, the bo.ys 
easil.v defeated their rivals, who had to i)la.v with 
onl.y half their regular team. In this .vear the School 
actuall.y won the Premiership of the colon.v. though, 
as their team was practicall.v the same as the Wal- 
laroos, the latter club is down in the I'ccords as the 
holders of the title. 

Other schools now took up 1lie game, and N<'wing- 
(iir College (then on the I'arramalta River) became 
I he chief school rival. ITnfortunately there are no 
recdi'ds of the eaily matches betwe(>n thi' two schools. 

hut tradition has it that in the "70's" the older 
school renuiined unbeaten. 

In the 'SO's. as long as ?ilr. l>nrkitt was at the 
School to imbue the i)o.vs with his unbounded energ.v, 
and to keep them in condition b.v his .strenuous 
system of earl.v nnii'iiing ti'aining. the School kept 
u]) its re])utation of always turning out a strong 
team; thouuh even tlicn thc.\' occasionall.v met more 

V/. S;i:ua.t Corr. 

than their match in Newingtou College, now removed 
to Stanmore. But with Mr. Burkitt "s departure the 
sporting spirit of the School seemed to decline, till it 
reached its lowest point in 1888, when the School 
(lid not win a single match in citlu'r cricket or foot- 

Premiers Six Years Running. 

This iicriod of ■■ilr.\- rot." however, was not to 
last long, foi' If^SI' saw the advent of Dr. Harris as 
Headmaster, and his great enthusiasm aud wonderful 
power of getting the best out of every one soon had 
its etfect. and in 1890 we find a 1cam of stalwarts, 
led by E. A. Roberts, ready to do battle for the 
School. In this year the Schools' Athletic Associa- 
tion was organised. mainl.\- with the ob.iect of regu- 
lating inter-school contests, on the basis that each 
school was to meet evci'y olhcr competing school 
twice each season in crickcl and ft)otball. This was 
a vast improyemcnl on I he old s.vstem, or rather lack 
of system, under which schools played once or twice, 
lU' perhaps four times a season, .just as the fanc.y took 
Ihera. In this yeai' the Rugby Union oifered a shield 
for competition among th(> (Ireat Public Schools, the 
condition bi'ing that it must ]io won three years in 



siiccpssion. The King's School won this straight out, 
and so tlie School Ccnnicil presented another shield 
on the same terms. The School jiromptly annexed 
this also, and the two sliields now hang in the dining 
hall as permanent mementos of six years' successive 
premierships. Of the winning teams that of 1892 
was undoubtedly the best, and many critics think it 
the best that the Sehool has had since the competi- 
tion started. Its line was never crossed during the 
whole season by a Sydney school, that honour being 
reserved for All Saints' College, Bathurst, in the 
final match for the premiership, and the record of 
the Sehool in all school matches was 174 points to 7. 
A. G. H. Gardner, captain, was centre three-(iuarter, 
with A. F. ilanehee and S. ^laephail as halves; A. 
Bon;l and S. ^loore, two sprinters, on the wings com- 
pleted an attacking and defensive combination that 
was unrivalled. Add to these a stalwart lot of for- 
wards, including H. Lowcock. P. S. AVaddy (the 
present Headmaster), W. White and J. Abbott, who 
were liable at any time to start a passing rush on 
their own account, and you have a team that justified 
its title of "Champions." 

During all these six years the winners' great rivals 
were Xewington College, who generally ran them 
very close, and in 1900 and 1904 had to play otf a 
final match to decide the jireniiership. 

Some Fine Footballers. 

In 1896 Xewington won the coveted honour from 
T.K.S. Then for two years the latter withdrew from 
the competition for private reasons, joining in again 
in 1899, when they were second to Sydney Grammar 
School. Xewington won again in 1900. During this 
period the School produced some fine footballers i" 
the three Fntters. A. Verge. E. A. Barton. Docker and 
others, wlio made their mark later in senior fool ball. 
Then came another series of three successive M'ins in 
1901-2-3. during which were many memorable con- 
tests against Xewington, St. Joseph's and Sydney 
Grammar School. AVith the last named school, 
King's had three very exciting matches in 1903, the 
results Ix'ing 0-0. 11-10. and in the final for the 
liremiersliip .5-0. 'i'bc two Smiths. "Alac." and 
"Bede," were the most prominent jilayers of this 

For tlie next three years the Sehool struggled 
gamely with dimini.shed numbers to 7)iek from, but 
St. Joseph's College secured the premiership for four 
years. Then for two .vears tlie Church of England 
Grammar School gained the honour, with their very 
substantial teams Of 1908 and 1909. In 1910, how- 
ever, victor.v smih'd once more on The King's School, 
and the coveted shield (now a perpetual one) came 
■"home" once more. It would have been fitting that 
this Jubilee .vear should have l)een marked by again 
bringing the honour to Parranuitta, but Xewington 
College has proved too stnnig. and so the shield goes 
to the old and honoui-able rivals of the past thirtv- 
five .vears. and King's have to be content with second 

To enumerate the celebrated heroes of the football 
field of the last forty years would be a long task. 

The records of inter-State matches teem with them, 
especially in the first twenty years before the field of 
selection grew so large. Amongst the manv we may 
mention are: — C. Tange, J. A. Brodie. the three 
Baylis brothers, W. S. Brown. "Wally" Smith, C, 
G. Wade (still (luoted as one of P^nglaud's greatest 
three-quarters). H. E. Britten, C. A. White, W. A, 
Rand, C. Keadford, J. and L. Wade; and in later 
years P. 31. Lane. E. A. Roberts, C. Ellis, A. G. H. 
Gardner. E. 'SI. Bowman, the three Fntters (J., F. and 
v.), the two Smiths (Bede and 3Iac.), A. Verge, 
X. R. Johnson and L. Reynolds. Hosts of others 
equall.v good have not had the opportunit.v of playing 
after leaving school, and so have been lost to senior 
football. Of late .vears the tendenc.v has been for 
bo.vs leaving school to join the Cit.v and Suburban 
Association, in which the.v can clioose their own club 
rather than be forced to play with the district in 
wliieh the.\' happen to reside. 

Half a Century's Cricket. 

Turning now to cricket, the other important school 
game, though we have not such a great measure of 
success in School Premiership contests to chronicle, 
still for over half a centur.v a high standard of 
cricket has been maintained, and an.v talent for the 
game that ajipeared in the School has been developed 
b.v careful coaching. Twice since the foniulation of 
the Schools' Athletic Association have the blue and 
white colours been carried to victorv — in 1892 and 
in 1899. And on five other occasions, including last 
season, second honours have fallen to their lot. In 
the "nineties" there were man.v notable battles with 
the crack cricketing school. Sydney Grammar School, 
for suprenmc.v. One of them, in 1894, furnishes 
(>videuce as to tlie sporting spirit that the School 
prides itself in maintaining in all its games — and on 
that account merits special mention. It was the last 
match of the season, and. as the two schools were 
e(|ual in points, the winning of the Premiership 
dejiended on this match. It was a close struggle, and 
there came a time when the (irammar School had 
eleven runs to make with their last man in. The 
batsman smote at the ball, whieli hit the edge of his 
bat. rose a few- yards into the air. and found a rest- 
ing place in the wicket-keeper's hands. The match 
was over and tlie victor.v won, and the excited team 
started for the pavilion in glee, when the voice of the 
umpire stop|)ed them. No one bail tlumght of 
ajipealing to him. as the catcli was so obvious. Now 
some one said "How's that, uni|)ire.'" "Xot out" 
was the astonishing repl.v — astonishing alike to both 
teams. Tlien the K.S. captain (C. A. Jaques) called 
his team back and the.v resumed the game without a 
murmur, and saw victor.v turned to defeat as the 
batsmen made the necessary runs. The Grammar 
School autluu'ities. in a very si>orting spirit, offered 
to give T.K.S. the matcii. l)ut this offer could not be 
aecepted. as the umpire's decision must be final, and 
so the Premiership for that vear was lost. In another 
match played a week later, which their opponents 
offered to them to decide which was the better team, 
The King's School boys won easily. 



A Big Score. 

Lodkiiig back to the cai'ly ilay.s of tlie Scliool we 
hear of a School teani playing a Sydney team in 
Hyde Park as early as 1850, so that the game must 
have been practised assiduously even then. There 
were no other schools to play, so the matches of 
which there are records were against the Parramatta 
team or Sydney visitors. In the '60 's we have R. A. 
and P. I\I. Waddy playing for the State. When we 
get to th(> .seventies we hear of matches against other 
schools. Sydney (Irammar School and Newington 
(College, which were played more or less regularly. 
In 1876 the Schot)l put up what was the record total 
of the State for an innings, viz.. 532, against a private 
school kept by Mr. Southey, at Mittagong. To this 
total J. Ilillas contri))nted 120, W. S. Brown (the 
present School doctor) 114, E. Pell 105 and ('. (_1. 
Wade (late Premier) i)5. This remained the reccjrd 
score of the colony for some years. 

Coming to more recent years some names stand out 
prominently of boys of the School who have had the 
opportunity of kcejiing up their cricket. Amongst 
these we can mention the two Hettingtons (J. B. and 
J. H.) ; S. R. Walford: the three Waddys. sons of a 
cricketing "old boy" — P. S., who played for O.xford, 
and after his return to the State put up 93 and 102 
playing for Maitlaud v. an English XI., E. F. and 
E. L., who have reju-esented the State many times 
and are "still going strong''; L. W. Pye. the two 
Futter.s (Frank and Victor), who played for Sydney 
University; A. and N. Ebsworth, IL ('. i^la.xland, 
Fred. Body, Verge. E. E. Body. W. A. Walford and 
S. Ayres. 

One thing that militates against King's School 
boys being prominent in the cricketing world is the 
fact that most of them go back into the country after 
leaving school, and never again get an op])ortunity 

for regular practice, aiul s iiny primising criidxct- 

ers are lost. 

Other Games. 

Of the other ganu^s of the School the ainiual atii- 
letic sports meeting deserves most notice. This meet- 
ing is held in the interval between the football and 
cricket seasons, and for a few weeks the playing 
fields are filled with ardent sprinters in strenuous 
preparation for the ))ig day. when, before the eyes of 
an admiring thrcuig of mothers and "sisters and 
cousins and aunts" they will eiuleavour to gain pos- 
session of sonu= of the ti'mptiiig array of trophies 
which their friends have ottered as the rewards of 

At odd times lennis is indulged in at the various 
School Houses, but, though it is increasing in popu- 
larity, it cannot be called as yet a genuine K.S. ganu'. 

Lastly we must mention ritle shooting, a sport 
which came over to us in the migration from ilac- 
quarie Fields, and has been kejit up ever since. The 
long distance from the Randwick range has hereto- 
fore limited this sport to a few enthusiasts, but of 
late yeans it has grown in pojuilarity. and the win- 
ning of the Schools Challenge Shield last year and 
the Rawson Cup this \-ear has I'lmsed more 

enthusiasm. With the opening of a range at 
hand there is no doubt that tliis very useful form of 
amusement will be taken up keenly by the majority 
of the senior boys, who will have an adtlitioual 
incentive in the fact that in this sport, above all 
others, they are preparing themselves to be of use 
to their country in time of need. 


C<^ c^^ 


By Mr. J. H. M. Abbott, Author of "Tommy Cornstalk." etc., etc. 

There are not very many manifestations of the 
sentiment of mankind which may be looked for 
with certainty — very few of which it is possible to 
say truthfully. "Just so — exactly what was to be 
expected." Man is an uncertain beast. He is geuer- 



Rev. Edward Harris, D. D. 

ally only consistent in his inconsistency. It is not 
easy to predict what he will do next. He usually does 
the unexpected. 

But he has a few charactei isl ic trails which do 
not seem to fail, a few iiinrni and uienlal imi)ulses 
which are fairly to be cniinlcd on. I'nssilily they are 
niiii'c Ihan a lew, lie will light I'lir his food, his 
womankind, and his otTspriui;. lie will i-esiMit all 



injury, and occasionally l)e grateful for a kiudness. 
Of these almost elemental indications of his posses- 
sion of feelintrs. it is safe enou.uh to feel sure. And 
of a few of them, havinir to do with his relations 
with his fellow man. there is a possibility of lookin<r 
for a display luider given circumstances. For 
instance, he may always be counted upon to reganl 
with friendliness and kindliness other men with 
whom he has been associated in periods of happiness 
or of danger. You will almost invariably find that 
men who have soldiered together, and men who have 
been shipmates, and men wlio have been to school 
together have an instinctive regard for one another 
which is wholly ineradicable. They will always be 
glad to meet, and will nearly always hasten to take 
each other's part, or to assist one another when there 
is a necessity for assistance. It is this sort of primi- 
tive instinct which is accountable for the formation 
of Old Boys' Unions. It was very strongly account- 
able for the formation of the first association of its 
kind in Australia — The King's School Old Boys' 
Union. The regard for the School, and for one 
another as part of the School, has always been the 
most strongly cultivated sentiment of any that mem- 
bers of the School have had to do with. It has 
literally been what might be taken as the essential of 
the whole spirit of the teaching of The King's School. 
Ever since tlie little old-fashioned house in George- 
street saw the lieginnings of the School — nearly 
eighty years ago — or rather, as soon as. in the course 
of a year or two, there began to be old King's School 
boys, the feeling of devotion to the School, pride in 
having been a student there, and determination to 
further its interests wherevei possitde. has been a 
strongly fixed part of every old boy's subsecjnent 
life. The School has ;dways been in touch with its 
past. Any old imy mi^ht be sure of a welcome 
whenever and however he migiit re-visit Parramatta. 
Cricket and footiiall matches between the Present 
and the Past have always been [.ronnnent fixtures in 
the sporting calendar of tlu> School. Any occasion 
that brought old Imys .■ihnut I hi' place has always 
been regarch'd as a high festival — chiefiy for the 
reason that it helped to connect to-day and yesterday 
in the history of Ihc School. There has always been, 
since 1832. a sml (if informal and undefined union 
amongst old King's School boys — none the less strong 
and sure because it was vague and unrecognised. The 
spirit of union has always existed since the School 
began to exist — since "Long Bob" administered 
eane, and "Slender Jane" was liberal with physic. 
But it was not until sixty years of the School's life 
had gone by that any attempt was made to organise 
jiroperly such a society as the present Old Boys' 

It is a curiously fitting thing that the germ of the 
itlea of an Old Boys' Union should have originate 1 
in the mind of the Kev. G. P. ilacarthur long l)efore 
its constitution took place. In 1880 the "old chief 
instituted the annual observance of Commemoi-ation 
Day (February 13) at the School, and. during the 
course of an address to those who W(>i-e uatliered 
togethci (Ui that nccasinn. In- said: — 

"The first great purpose I have to-day is this. — I 
propose by an annual commemoration day to cele- 
brate the opening of the School on the 13th Febru- 
ary. 1832, the birthday of high-class education in 
Australia, and for ever to connect it with the nauK' 
of Robert Forrest; and my second gri-at purpose is 
to make these annual commenujrations conducive to 
the union and loyal fealty of any boy who can claim 
this School as his 'Alma Mater.' For all such in time 
of trouble here he will find a true rest. I am sure if 
our old and revered Head blaster could s[)cak to me 
to-day he woidd say, 'You are acting rightly — do all 
y(ni can to keep old boys together and to attract 
llicin to tlic Old School." 

But "Old Mae." was in his grave before his idea 
took shape in the definite formation of a Society 
whose aim was to foster the notion that a boy's 
departure from the School did not terndnate his 
coniu^ction with it. and to take practical stejis to 
ensure the complete federation of Past and Present. 
And it was one of Mr. ]\Iacartliur's boys — one who 
had heard the address quoted above — who realised 
the dream of continuity' which Mr. iMacarthur 
enunciated thirty years ago. The seed which the 
latter had sown in his Commemoration speech had 
taken a long time to germinate, but at last it was to 
come to life, and to gi-ow steadily and strongly into 
the sound and healthy organisation of to-day. The 
Old Boy who had listened to the words of the dead 
Chief, and does not seem to have forgotten the letter 
or the spirit of them, was "Alf. "Wilkie"' — alias Jli'. 
A. B. Wilkinson. It is not fiattery to say that to ^Ir. 
Wilkinson, more than to any one else, is credit due 
for the bringing about of the pi-actical beginnings of 
the Union. 

It was not an easy undertaking. First of all it was 
necessary to <'ompile a roll of Old Boys — or as many 
Old Boys as it was possible to reach fairly con- 
veniently. The full roll is not complete yet. But the 
enci-getic founder of the Union hunted up a large 
number of names, and set about getting the owners 
of thciii uiiu-c or less fandliar with the idea whose 
realisalion he was striving to achieve. Then he 
diafted a scheme for the constitution of the I'liiou 
and convened a meeting of well-known Old Boys to 
consider it. He called to his assistance three other 
well-known Old Boys, representing different 
decadi's in the life of the School. Sir Francis Suttor 
(1860), :\Ir. J. A. Brodie (1870). and Mr. E. A. 
Roberts (1890). and it was over two of their names 
that the scheme was launched, the foundation meet- 
ing held, and the King's School Old Boys' Union — 
the pioneer of many other sinnlar orgaidsations in 
Australia — established on Jiuie 21. 1893. 

In the first annual report of the Committee of the 
I'nion (1894) there is an interesting description of 
the first steps in its formation, which is worth quoting 
hi-i-c. An extract from it reads as follows: — 

"At the suggestion of several Old Boys a circular 
was sent to such of the Old Boys of The King's 
SchiKil. luid the School formei'ly condiu-ted by the 
l{r\. {',. F. Macarlliui- at Macquarie Fields, whose 
addresses wcM'c known, inviting them to a meeting to 



coiisidri' tile dcsirahilit y of cstahlishinu' an (.)U1 I'jovs" 
Union for llu- purpose of prcsLTving and fostering- 
an interest in tlie afifairs and well-being of the 
present School. The inaugural meeting was accord- 
ingly held, with the i>eriiiission of Dr. Harris, the 
Head blaster, at the School, on "ilsl of -lune. 189:5. al 
which there was a large attendance. Certain resolu 
tions were submitted and a sub-committee appointed 
to frame a constitution for consideration at a future 
meeting, which was held on the l!.Sth of August fol- 
lowing, when the present constitution was adopteil 
and the Union formed. Since then the Committee, 
b.v the issue of circulars and personal canvass, have 
obtained an enruhnent of 1'JI) memhers. A registei' 
has been opened containing tlie names and addresses 

lo the Si'hooi, and 1hi' work of tlu'ir Union b.v 
members generali.w '1 he Committee would impress 
on the minds of mendiers that the working uf the 
Union will not at the present, nor for some time to 
come, be experienced in the marlced aetivit.v and 
prominence of thi' Union, but in the stead,v work of 
cementing togi-tin'i- the interest of all Old Bo.ys for 
occasions when unily in their ranks will be of service 
in advancing tl:c well-being of the School." 

That w;is the first record of progress which the 
new Union had to make. Since it was made nearl,v 
two decades have gone by, and the record of the 
Union to-day is one of man.v achievenu'iits. and alto- 
gether too large a oiu^ to l)e set forth here in detail. 
With the minute books to assist, with a gieat nianv 

Old Government House before it was transformed into a School House. 

of the members, anil such information in regard to 
their careers as ma.\' be interesting both to tin' 
members of the Union and to the students ;it the 
School, and it is intended to utilise the School ilaga- 
zine as a means of circulating the inf(U-mation thus 
collected. It has been thought desirable to establish 
centres in the jn-incipal towns of New Soutii Wales 
and other colonies, under the charge of local assistant 
secretaries, in order to create and sustain a stronger 
interest in the ob.jects of the Union, and to generally 
extend its work ; already secretaries have been 
appointed at several places. As will be understood, 
the actual work of the Committee has been spent on 
preliminary matters and d<?tail. the result of which 
can only l)e tested by time, and will depend greatly 
on the amount of interest taken in matters relating 

(itlier sources of information to draw upon for a 
comjjilation of its history, and with the experiences 
and reminiscences of many ofhce-holdcrs in its 
administration to fall back upon, the writer of this 
lirief memoiial of it can only confess that a full 
account of its life and work is altogether beyond the 
scope of his article. It only remains to be said of it 
that its success has been full and comi)lete, that it 
has worthily fulfilled its ob.jects. and that its mere 
existence has been a source of strength to the present 
life of the School and to the lives of its members. In 
every way it has realised the hopes of the great man 
who spoke thirty years ago as to his trust in what 
the animal Commemoration would stand for, as being 
"conducive to the union and loyal fealty of every 
boy who can claim this School as his Alma Mater." 



It has (Iciiii- tliat and iiioi-c. It has made it possible 
that with every boy who enters The King's School 
there may remain an abiding and sustaining thought 
of great value to him and of great comfort in his 
after life. And this thought is that he may always 
remain a King's School boy. So long as he lives he 
may go to Parramatta, drop the mantle of his years 
and cares, and become, in the happiness of his recol- 
lections, as much a boy again as when he played 
football in the beautiful old Park, raided oranges in 
the Toongabbie orchards, or drilled on the flat below 
the Parapet. Nothing can take that iirivilege from 
him. He is a King's Schoul lioy until he dies, and 
when he does die — whether his memory be a notal)le 
one or an obscure — he still has been an Old Boy. 
Which, even if he should chance to be hanged, is 
something to his credit. 

It is difficult to select anyone for particular men- 
tion as having done more than another to further 
the interests of the organisation. The writer is not 
going to attempt to do so. But he is going to men- 
tion one name which ever\- Old Boy will readily 
admit tleserves such mention. In this connection it 
is a name that is synonymous with enthusiasm, 
energy, unselfishness, painstaking endeavour, and 
entire good fellows-hip. It is necessary to put it in a 
•sentence by itself. It is Sid. Baydell. 

The roll of Head Masters contains the names of 
men who may well be placed in the same class as the 
great Arnold of Rugby For tliey have not alone 
influenced the history oi' The King's School. Their 
sjilendid personalities and powers for good have 
intluenced the history of Australia. In year.s to come 
it will lie recognised, even more fully than now, that 
some of them have clone maeli in the making of our 
new nation. They will have influenced for the best 
the lives of men whom they never saw and to v\'hoin 
their lives are but a tradition. When he w;is leaving 
the School to become an Old Boy himself, Edward 
Harris said some words that seem to express the 
spirit of the School, Past and Present, better than it 
was ever expressed before or since. He said: 

''Those who are leaving us are going to carry the 
banner of our school high wherever they may be. so 
that it may be said that The King's School turns out 
Christian gentlemen. To those of you who are 
coming back, I would like to say that the time oi' 
transition is a very difficult time, and I hope all who 
come back will resolve that the future shall be a 
great deal better than the past. If you make .i]> 
your minds to this, it shall be. No one will re.ioice 
more than the one who is speaking, if the days of 
Harris's headmastership are forgotten in more bril- 
liant records. Our successes in the past are more 
than I should have expected to see, antl I hope those 

successes will lie the standard of the future. 
I am sure I am full of a feeling of gratitude to God 
for guiding our steps here, and of gratitude to the 
men and boys who have made it possible for me to 
hand on my burden to a younger shoulder. Thank 
you. boys!" 

Nobody ever knew bettei-. or strove harder to 
imjiress others with the fact, that the maintenance 
of the School, ami of the Union which is a part of 
the School, was bound uj) in the maintenance of lofty 
ideals. It is such a spirit that has made the Past, 
stands for the Present, and expresses the Future of 
The King's School. 

j./f:?^ Mi^^ 

The First Officers of the O.B.U. 

It is interesting to note here the names of 
the first office-bearers of the Union: President, the 
Rev. Dr. Harris: Vice-Presidents. Sir Joseph Abbott, 
the Veil. Archdeacon (iunther. \Villiaiii Dalmas. Dr. 
E. J. Jenkins. (;. B. Forster; Committee. Rev. H. 
Wallace Jlort. S. W. Dowling. R. II. Bode. E. A. 
Roberts. W. R. F. Burkitt. II. W. Gillam. J. A. 
Brodie. G. W. Ash, W. S. Corr; Hon. Treasurer. C. 
C. S. (iarling: Joint Hon. Secretaries. J. A. I. Perry 
and A. B. Wilkinson. 

The Present Off.cers. 

In all those years since "!J3 there have lieen a great 
many oflice-holders in the Union. They cannot all 
1)1' mentioned here, and having given the earliest list, 
we must content ourselves with the present one, 
which is:— Patron. The Rev. Stacy Waddy, M.A.; 
President, The Hon. Mr. Justice Priug; Vice-Presi- 
dents (Town), The Hon. C. G. Wade. K.C., M.L.A., 
I. B. Keys. A. W. I. .Alacansh, J. Russell French, H. 
M. Shelley. Dr. Chisholm Ross. (Country) A. G. 
White. J. B. Bettington. The Hon. E. B. Fon-est, 
il.L.A.. The Rev. A. H. Champion, M.A.. Sylvester 
Brown. R. J. C. Maddrell, sen.; Committee, G. W. 
Ash, D. ilaughan, M. Abbott, M. Massev-Westropp, 
H. A. I. Smith, J. M. Maughan. A. D. Mitchell. W. 
A. Walford. C. E. Manning, Rev. F. T. Perkins; 
Countrv Representatives, R. D. Wiseman, G. A. Read, 
E. E. i. Body, E. K. Tully. Lionel .Manchee; Hon. 
Treasurer, R. JI. Shannon : Hon. 
Harvey; Assistant Hon. Treasurer, 
Assistant Hon. Secretary, A. G. H. 
Auditors, W. F. A. Lareombe and C. A. White. 

Secretary, Neil 

Boyd Edkins; 

Gardiner; Hon. 



The National School. 

WHILST it does not fall within the seope of 
this work to enumerate, or to detail the 
liistory of. the many excellent educational 
institutions which are conducted by private citizens, 
mention must he made of the first national or public 
school of Parramatta, and of its successors to-day. 
And here a word by way of introduction may be 
interestiui;' to some readers. 

In the old days the State showed its interest in the 
education of the rising generation in two way.s. 
There were four religious denominations in the en- 
joyment of State aid — the Church of England, the 
Roman Catholics, the Presbyterians, and the Wes- 
leyans. Each of these had schools, o1¥icered l)y men 
of their own choosing, conducted according to their 
own systems, and. to a certain extent, suppoi't-jd by 
them. And to each of these schools grants were 
annually made by the State. This is M'hat is known 
as the Denominational System, and it is not trench- 
ing on forbidden controversial ground to say that it 
answered its purjiose to a certain extent for some 

But there were people t)utsi(-le these four religious 
bodie.s who did not approve of the denominational 
teaching imparted. They had children of a school 
age, and it was early recognised that it was against 
public policy to allow these children to grow up 
without the adecjuate education whicli could only be 
assured Ijy State aid. Wherefore National Schools 
were established in various centres, which were 
under the control of local boards appointed and sub- 
sidized by the state — these again under a central 
board — and which did not give the distinctive 
religious instruction imparted by tiic deiiiniiiiiational 

Such a school was opened in George-street, Parra- 
matta. a couple of years after the institution of 
municipal government — on October 28, 1863, to be 
exact. The school was unique in this respect — that, 
whereas similar undertakings in other parts of New 
South Wales were engineered and fostered by boai'ils 
composed of leading men, this one owed its oi-igiu 
and its useful existence to the teacher, Mr. J. II. 
Murray — father, by the way. of the Murray Brothers, 
an old business tiriii of Church-street. These 
Murray Brothers — or some of them — had indeed an 
important part to play in the school their father 
opened. "How many pupils will you have, Mr. 
Murray?" inciuired a friend a couple of days before 
that fixed for the opening. "I don't know," said 
Mr. Murray, "but I'm sure of seven at" 

"Seven!" exclaimed the other — it was the late Mr. 
Sanuiel Burge — "luiw can .\'ou be suri- of them?" 
"Tiiey're m.v own children." was the c-imvincing 

Success crowned .Mr .Jluira.x's elforls. thanks 
mainly to the genius of the man and to his abilit.v 
to inspire others with like enthusiasm. He was cold- 
shouldered and blocked at the outset. Thus, he 
Utiturall.v wanted civic approval of his effort, but 
this was refused liim by the then JIa,v;)r. ilr. (after- 
wards the Hon.) James B.vrnes. who ol)iected on the 
ground that he did not approve of a National School. 
as the National Board wanted to grab everything. 
This notwitlistanding. the o|)eiiinu' of the scht)ol was 
a successful function, and .Mr. .Murray continued his 
good work for sonu? eight .vears. when he went to 
take charge of a Sydney scliool. It is noteworthy 
that the chairman of the farewell banrpu^ in his 
honor was Jlaynr C. J. B.vrnes. the sdu of the man 
who had refused oflieial recognition to .Mr. .Miiii-ay's 
elforts in 186-'i 

The Two State Schools. 

To-(biy. Ihei'e are two great State schools in I'ai'- 
ramatta. <)ue of these is the District School, which 
was establisheil in 1873, and which was formerl,v the 
Presbyterian School under the Board of Denomina- 
tional Education. It is a first-class school, covering 
about two acres of ground, and it has accommodation 
for 39() bo.vs, -too girls, and 352 infants of l):)th sexes, 
the staff of 27 teachers being considered sufficient. 
The Parramatta North Superior Public School, cov- 
ering an area of under a couple of acres, is a second- 
class school, and has, according to the official figures, 
seven teachers to 440 pupils in the boys', girls' aiul 
infants' departments. 

(ireat improvements have lieen made at the Parra- 
matta District School, where 1201) of our boys and 
girls are being fashioned into men and women, well- 
ecpiipped in knowledge and character, for the duties 
and responsibilities of life in front of them. The 
money figures in connection with the contract for 
alterations and repairs have run into between £2000 
and £3000; and the school has been made one of the 
finest estaldislunents. in respect of comfort from good 
lighting and proper ventilation, in the State. A num- 
ber of the old windows have been enlarged, and the 
old walls have been pulled down, and light glass par- 
titions provided, which will go to help to make it 
possible for the staff to do even better work in the 
future than has been accomjilished in the ])ast. Prac- 
tically three new class-rooms — commodiou.s, airy 



jind s|ili'ii(li(lly lighted — luive lircii in-ovidi'd. A]\ 
ol'ticc. a room wanted l)adly in all sueh establish- 
ments, is beini;' provided; also, that great boon to 
any district, a convenient and pro])erly-fittcd kinder- 
garten room. The playground, in wet weather too 
often in a boggy condition, is receiving attention : l)ut 
a-simple and cheap and wisely thought-out sy.stem of 
sulwoil drainage, with the aid of pipes, ashes, sand 
and i-ubble. max- lie necessarv l»efore a u'ood result is 

secured. Tlic lower slopes of a cla\' hill, even 
asphalted, give but poor results in v\-et weather from 
attempts to shift sloiijjy spots. Now such spots are 
Iteing removed from one place to another. A little 
simple science needs to be devoted to the task of 
getting the water away naturally iiilu the street 
gutters or storm-water drains at llu- lowest con- 
venient point. 

The Executive Committee of the Parramatta District Progress Association. 
Standing: Jas. Dennis, Chas. E. Rawlinson. S. M. Dennis. Sitting: John H. Murray, W. F. Jago, J. W. Hill, J. Arundel, T. R. Barber. 

This organisation is the legitimate successor of tlie old Parramatta Progress Association, and was established in 
1906. Under its present President, Alderman .F. W. Hill, J. P., much solid work has been done by the Association, which 
aims at co-operating as far as possible with the Municipal Council, 




THE military establishment of the First Fleet 
eonsisted (if four eomp<inies of niMrines (160 
men) nnder a commandant, ^lajor Robert 
Ross, two eajitains eommandiiii;' eomi)anies, two cap- 
tain lieutenants, nine first and four second lieuten- 
ants. Then there was an adjutant aiul a i|uarter- 
master. Of all these officers only twt) made their 
mark in the history of Australia — 1st Lieutenant 
(afterward.s Major and Colonel) (ieorfjfe Johnston, 
who placed Governor Bligh under arrest in 1808. and 

Dr. Walter Brown. 
First Captain of the Parramatta Volunteer Rifles. 

^iid Liculcnant Willi;im Dawes, who knew somethinsi' 
alxiiit astronomy as well as of engineerin,u- and artil- 
lery, and wlio christened the point in Sydney Harbor 
\\\uvh still bears his name. The marines were under 
lluee years' engagement, and, when this term was 
(h'awing to an end. all but nine officers and men 
ilcclincfl to prolong their stay. Fortunately for the 
( liivcnioi-. part of the New South Wales Corps, after- 

wards 102nd Regiment, arrived in the middle of 
1790, and the balance, under Lieut.-Goveruor Francis 
Grose, in December. 17'.)"_*. From this time on to 1870 
Australia was garrisoned by Imi)erial troops, main- 
tained by the Imi>erial Government. In 18o0 Dow- 
ling-street suggested to .Macipiarie-street that the 
cost should be borne iiy the eoliiny ; but the sugges- 
tion was coldly received. Twenty years later the 
troops were withdrawn. 

But long before this tlie colonists hail shown that 
they were ready, if need arose, to protect their 
country or to help in protecting it. The 18th century 
had closed in (h'cp luiresl. A learned Fellow of 
Trinity College, Duljlin — stronghold of conservatism 
and of Protestant ascendancy in Ireland — could 
bravely in(|uire years later, "Who fears to speak of 
'98?" hut, at the time, people spoke of it with the 
utmost precaution; and in this colony, to which ))cr- 
sons who had or had not been implicated in the rising 
had been trans])ortctl in numbers, there was a very 
real feeling that the "reljels" had presei-ved their 
disloyalty intact whilst ei-ossing the world of waters. 
Added to this, thei-e was the bogey of Napoleonic 
conquest. Obviously, it there were any rising 
amongst the discontenteil in the settlement or any 
invasion in force, the militar\- would be luiable to 
cope with this new danger. i)esides attending to their 
oidiiuu'.v dut.v of |)reserving order amongst the eoi\- 
victs and the rrimiinil popnlalinn. and of i)rotecting 
the lives and pr(i|'ert.\- dl tlie people. For. it will be 
rememljered, there was not a policeman in Australia 
until 1833, when an act was passed establishing such 
M force for S.vdne.\-. In this emergenc.v. (jovernor 
llnnter appealetl to the patriotism of the people, and 
"The Loyal Sydne.\- and Pari'amatta Association" 
was formed in ISdd "to protect public and private 
property and to assist the militar\- in the presei'va- 

tion of order.' 


ere were 

50 men in tlie Sxilnev 

corps — all properl.N' eipiipped and clothed in regi- 
mentals — under the eoniniainl of Captain Thomas 
Rowle.v; and the same niimlier in I'arramatta. simi- 
larl.v trained. ei|uiii|)eil ami habited, under the 
command of ^Ir. James Thoiiijison ; the officer com- 
manding both bodies being Captain William Balmain. 
The Loyal S.vdney and I'arramatta Association 
maintained its useful existence until, the immediate 
necessit.v for its aid having disa]ipearcd, it was 
disbanded in 1810. 

The volunteer mo\i'nieiit lalignished now until the 
time of the earliest Russian scarc--that created by 
the Crimean War. in 1S.")4 i'arliaiiient passed the 
^'^ohlnteer Corps .\ct, and, some modifii'atinns having 



been found necessary in the enrolment and so forth, 
companies were formed in 1860 in the various 
centres. Amongst these was the "Parramatta 
Volunteer Rifles," which was enrolled, on September 
28, I860, in the old School of Arts, at the corner of 
Marsden and Phillip streets, opposite the Hospital. 
The Captain was Dr. W. Brown, father of Dr. Sigis- 
mund and Alderman E. J. Brown ; ]\Ir. Neil Stewart, 
whose portrait in all the glory of his 95 vigorous and 
useful years appears elsewhere, was 1st Lieutenant, 
and Mr. T. A. M. White was Ensign. Amongst the 
72 members of the rank and file one recognises such 
names as F. Armitage, H. and C. J. Byrnes, J. C. 
Barker, J. Brogden, R. and C. R. Blaxland, C. 

Captain J. E. Cuyot. 

Cawood (the volunteer of longest continuous service 
in Ansti-alia. whose portrait api)ears elsewhere). 
P. Faithful. I). I). Henderson. Dr. Andrew Ilouison, 
four Neales (J. R., G. W., W. H., and J. T.). S. 
Payten, Dr. Pringle, W. and R. A. Ritchie, Gilbert 
Smith. E. H. Statham, George Suttor, J. Taylor, L. 
J. Trollope (Acting Headmaster of The King's 
School before the interregnum). F. T. Watkins. aiul 
R. Waddy (father of the present Head-master of The 
King's School. ^Members provided Ihcii' own 
uniform, and the (ioverumeut provided tlu'Ui witli 
Henry rifles and bayonets. Whilst there seemed any 
necessitv. thev drilled twice a (bn- in the Militarv 

Buildings in George-street, and on the site of the 
District School. They tackled their duty manfully, 
and that their efforts were highly ajipreciated by the 
townsjieople is shown, amongst other ways, by the 
presentation of camp colors, by the ladies. Captain 
(now Major) Brown retired before long and was 
succeeded by Captain H. Byrnes, Mr. John Taylor 
became Lieutenant in the room of Mr. Stewart and 
j\Ir. Gilbert Smith Ensign when Mr. White resigned. 
The uniform was deservedly popular in Parramatta. 
especially after its change from the ilark blue serge 
coat, white trousers and peaked cap of 1860, to the 
pepper-and-salt tweed .jacket and trousers, with 
green facings, and a shako. The corps became adepts 
at rifle-shooting, the names of C. Crouch. F. Drink- 
water. R. ilacdonald, sen., A. Newling and P. Tersoke 
being especially distinguished. Besides the shooting 
on the old Rifle Range, members engaged in rifle 
matches with other companies, and displayed their 
prowess in Dubbo, Goulburn, Orange and other 
towns. All the time they kept themselves in good 
military order, and when, in 1885, New South Wales 
despatched a contingent to the Soudan, Parramatta 
volunteers were to the fore. The members actually 
selected were : Corporal G. Watt, Lance-Corporal W, 
Breeknoldt, and Privates S. Adams, Berry, W. Cox, 
E. W. Ilerrington. G. Caisserley, W. J. Williamson, I, 
Tyler, and G. Boulton, and an ex-member, E, Coates. 
When Captain Byrnes resigned on his appointment to 
a police magistracy, he was succeeded by Lieut. T. 
Barnett. who. however, soon had to retire for a 
similar reason, when Captain W. J. Ferris took com- 
manil. In 1S96 he retired with the rank of ilajor — 
he is now Lieut. -Colonel Ferris, V.D. — and was suc- 
ceeded b.v Captain T. J. O'Reilly, who retained his 
position till his untimelx- and regretted death in 1900. 
when Captain J. P]. (iuxnt. still in command, w:is 
promoted to his office. When volunteers were called 
for in the Boer War. Parramatta sent: Privates G. 
Boulton. L. C. Hill, and E, E. llines with the first 
N.S.W. contingent; and Sergeant R. W. Spurwa.w 
and Privates A. Peek. F. Bathie and H. G. Crisp wilii 
"draft contingents." Of these, few but flt. all 
returned safe and siumd with the (^xceptiim ol' 
Private L. C. Hill, who succumbed to enteric fever 
the scourge of our troops in the S'luth African war. 

Till' fdllnwin!: liave lieeii the officers of the 
company duiiug tlie 51 years of its existence. 
ColiHiels llolliorow, Farrell. Guest and Lann-ock 
being the O's.C. of the two regiments to wliieli it has 
at various tinu's lieeii attached: — 

Captains, — Walter Brown. II. -1. l>\i'nes. 
Ferris. T. J. O'Reillv. .1, Iv (iuvc'it. 

W. J. 

Lieutenants. — Neil Stewart. John Taylor, E. 
(ireenup. Gilbert Smith, W. J. Stephenson, T. 
Ibirnett. J. Ritchie, A. G. Christian. 

Ensii-ns and 2nd Lieutenants.— T. A. :\I. White, C. 
i. Watt. Dowell O'Reilly, J. Creagh, E. 
Docker, G. N. Roche. J. Hughes, A. R. Avres, 
R. Rowe, E, H, S. Guyot. 




Parraniatta is the lieachiuartcrs of the New South 
Wales Cavalry — famous as Laueers. to be celebrated 
henceforth as the 1st Australian Lig-ht Horse Regi- 

Famous as Lancers. — Witness, three expeditions to 
England, luidertaken at the sole expense of the 
Regiment ; offer of troops for service in India ; des- 
patch of the first contingent to South Africa, at regi- 
mental expense ; supplying horses from New South 
Wales to mount the Lancer detachment in South 

Brigadier-Col. Burns. 

Africa, free of cost to tlie Government: mounting 
Imperial Cavalry while in New South Wales at tho 
inauguration of the Commonwealth, and nniintaining 
the finest monnteil band in Australia. 

Famous as Lancers on foreign service. — Witness, 
the Si general engagements and the 12 min(n- engage- 
ments in which they took part in the Uoer War 
during the year. November, LSOf), to October, 1900. 
They idayed tlieir part like men in the gloomy days 
called to tile iiii'iiiiiry b,y the repetition of the names 

of Modder River and Magersfontein. They helped 
to relieve Kimberley, they were present when Cronje 
was forced to surrender at Paardeberg, and they 
marched with Roberts into Bloemfontein. When 
they released the prisoners at Waterval they were 
doubly rewarded, for amongst the soldiers whom 
they set free were comrades in arms reported 
"missing"' from previous engagements. Nor did the 
I'arramatta half-squadron pass through the campaign 
without loss, amongst the 41 casualties occurring the 
names of Corporal Kili)atrick, died of wounds; (Cor- 
poral R. E. Harkus and Trooper L. D. Tunks, died 
of enteric ; Trooper G. E. L. Doudney, taken prisoner, 
and several who were near death's door through 
enteric. Here are the names of the ofificers and men 
com[>osing the Parraniatta half-s(|uadron : Captain C. 
F. Cox; Sergeants E. A. Houston, E. Luke and S. R. 
Fallick; Cori)orals P. Kil[>atrick and R. E. Harl<us: 
Trumpeter A. Harnett; Troopers W. II. Ilillis, J. \V. 
Watts, B. H. Harrison, II. J. Skipper, N. Milling, A. 
Fitzsimmons, J. A. Weston, J. Bvrne, G, Doudney, 
A. J. Slattery, A. G. P>alv. D. "t. Ilolborrow, A. 
McManis, A. E. Mvers. A. Whitnev, L. 1). Tunks, H. 
A. Artlett, 0. L. Milling. S. Baly. G. C. Ilillis and E. 
A. Withers; and Batmen E. Wilson. .\. \. liurgin and 
C. Lamli. 

The history of the Lancers does not go further 
hack than 1885, when the "Sydney Light Horse" 
was enrolled, to be converted before the end of the 
year into Lancers at the instance of JIajor-General 
Richardson on his return from the Soudan. The 
only volunteer lancer corjis in the world, the soldiers 
hacl to pay for their uniform — £60 for officers' full 
dress, and £10 for men — and, in the absence of lances, 
they drilled with bamboo fishing rods, with pennants 
tied to the ends. In 1886 they were placed on the 
partially-paid establishment, and five years later tin:; 
splendid band was organised. The officers taxed 
themselves for this, however, they finding horses, 
saddles, instruments, and nuisic. etc 

In the early part of 1891 a pnldic meeting was 
called in Parraniatta by ^Ir. J. Sulman (the jn-ime 
iiKiver) with the object of forming a trooji of 
mounted men in <'oniiec1 ion with the N.S.W. Lancer 
Regiment. About 100 names were handed in, and, 
after correspondence with the military authoi-itics. 
permission was obtained to form a half squadron of 
.■)() strong — or troop as it was then called — the men 
giving their voluntary services for the first six 
months until the neeessarv estimates were passed by 
Parliament. A mounted parade was held in the 
Parraniatta Park on Saturday, June 6, 1891, of all 
who had submitted their names, for the purpose of 
having their horses passed by Captain ilcNeil. the 
then Adjutant of the Regiment, and also the medii-al 
examination of the volunteers. In the evening tlie 
majority attended the School of Arts. Parraniatta, 
when they were sworn in, after having the cimditious 
of service explained by Ca])t. ]\lc\eil. Colonel d. 
Burns became the first Captain, and iMr. J. Sulman 
1st Lieutenant. 

The Parraniatta S(piadi'<in was known as "K"' 
Troop N.S.W, Lancers, then as No. 1 Parramatta 



Half Squadron, having been joined with the Sydney 
Half Squadron to complete a full squadron. In 1899- 
1900, durinu; the Boer war, the regiment increased 
its estahlislnneiit of s'luadrons, Sydney becoming No. 
1 Squadron and Parramatta No. 2 Squadron, each 
100 strong. The llawkesbury and Newcastle Scjuad- 
rons were also raised about this time, making tlie 
regiment over 600 .strong. After the Commonwealth 
took over the military all regiments were reorgan- 
ised. The N.S.W. Lancer Regiment was divided 
into three— viz., 1st xV.L.H. Regt. (N.S.W. Lancers) — 
consisting of four squadrons. 72 strong, located at 
Sydney. I'arramatta. RoliiTtson-lJerry, and Rich- 
mondAvindsor; 4th A.L.Il. (Hunter River), and r)tli 
A.L.H. (Richmond River). 

The following are the nantes of the Pai-ranuitta 
men who were sworn in on June (J. ISHl, m- within 
a few davs of that date : — 

E. Atidns, F. J. AUsop, T. 11. Anlezaik. E. II. 
Acres. T. H. Burrell. P. II. Brown, S. M. C. Black, 
H. A. Black, S. J. Black. J. Burns. 0. E. Cox, W. 

note that the first instructor of Parramatta Lancers 
is still attached to the regiment, in the person of 
Staff Sergeant-Major Morris. 

In 1893 tin? Lancers, at their own expense, despatch- 
ed a contingent to represent Austi-alia at the military 
tournaments at Islington and Dulilin; and Parramat- 
ta 's representatives in this team were Sergt. -Major 
Weston and Trooper 'Grady. The former secured 
1st prize at Islington for riding and jumping, and 
2nd at Dublin for the V.C. race ; whilst Trooper 
'Grady came 6th for sword v. sword, and 5th for 
sword V. lance at Islington. In 1897, on the occasion 
of Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee, a detachment 
of 33 officers. in)n-eoms. ami troopers was sent to 
participate in the toiu-nament and other trials of 
skill. Captain W. L. Vernon was in connnand, and 
witli him were First Lieutenants C. F. Cox and F. H. 
King, and 2nd Lieutenant F. C. Timothy; Squadron 
Sergt.-Major R. C. :McKenzie, Staif-Sergt. G. E. 
Morris. Sergeants J. McMahon, P. F. 'Grady, R. 
Waugh. C. J. Williams, J. C. JIcKenzie, Corporals 


The Military Barracks, Parramatta, showing Recruits. 

Crew, C. F. Cox. IT. Fishl)nrn. J. J. (bn-land. J. A. 
Greenwood, W. II. Gornnm. J. Houison. G. H. 
Hughes, W. Ives, A. J. James, L. Kentwell. T. H. 
Kingscote, C. J. Lamb, C. V. Lamb, C. H. Langdou. 
R. C. ^Mackenzie. A. E. IMarsden. W. Muston. J. 11. 
Muir, J. 0. jMiller. J. E. A. Nobbs, C. S. Oakes, A. 
Oakes, P. F. O 'Grady. G. K. Paton. E. Y. Purser, 
H. Rowlinson. J. W. B. Robison. G. T. Ronghlev. G. 
J. Stahl. W. Shield.s. W. R. Salter. J. Sulman, 
J. E. Sparks, A. E. Thorne, A. 11. Tuckwell, 
C. II. C. Tuckwell, 1. J. Tuckwell. E. II. Tliiele. F. 
Weston, J. R. Wood. C. J. Watt. 

In connection witii this list it is notewnrtliy that it 
contains the names of the three succeeding command- 
ing officers of the reaiment : Lt.-Cohnn^l Burns (1897- 
1906), Lt.-Col. Cox. C.B. (1906-1911). and Lt.-Col. 
Mackenzie (just gazetted). It is also interesting to 

E. II. Houston. IT. E. Sparke. A. G. Brady. Trumpeter 
K. D. Mackenzie, and Troopers J. J. Anderson. J. W\ 
Campbell. J. Daly. J. S. Dooley. R. E. Harkus, W. H. 
Hillis, W. Lumsden. F. S. T)".\. Maccjueen, A. J. 
Morton. P. Pritchard. W. Moftitt, J. J. Riley. H. A. 
Robinson. A. T. Sharpe. P. Sexton, F. W. Todhiuiter, 
S. Watts and J. Wilson. The number of Parramatta 
men in this specially selected team speaks volumes 
for the efficiency of the sijuadron up here. Indeed 
the hero of the contingent was Trooper Hai'kns, who 
won the cup and two medals (mu' the Empire ]\Iedal) 
for lemon-cntting, the cup and a prize for tent- 
pegging, trophies for sword v. sword and tilting at 
the ring, and a prize for the Victoria Cross compe- 
titiiin. Sergt. C. J. AVilliams won the Empire medal 
for tent-jiegging. while Sei-gt. O 'Grady came within 
one point of winning the sword v. sword contest. 



'riic cDiitiiij^ciil. like the I'onner. was tinanei'd by the 
reffiinent and l)y private subscript ions. Major Burns 
heading the list" with £250. 

This yeai'. 1SI)7. also saw Major liurns promoted 
to tlu^ coiiuiiand of the regiment, with thi' rank of 
Lieut. -Colonel. Like most busy uien. the ('ol:)nel 
always found tinu^ to do everythiufi' well, and tile 
Laneers owe nuieh of theii' deserved reputation to 
him. With a desire to subjeet them to the training 
whieh active service alone can ensure. Colonel Burns 
offered a sipiadron for India in the Afridi campaiun. 
The then Prcniiei'. Mr. Reid. poured cold water ou 
the proposal, which he did not even submit to the 
Im])erial authorities. Nor did the ( iovei'nuient show 

iirst botly of colonial troojis to visit England for 
educational purposes. 

And now we come back to the record witli which 
this notice opens. Of the Kit) uuni who sailed under 
Cajitain Cox for PLigland 71 undertook active service 
in South Africa and bore their part with honor to 
themselves, their regiment and to Australia. Of the 
-'.) men who did not go on service, eight were medi- 
cally unfit, eight were minors w'ho volunteered but 
weie persuaded by the then Premier. Mr. Lyue. and 
their fi'iends. to lelui'ii. and the othei- l:i satisfac- 
liirily accounted for their return to Sydney. With 
later contingents from New South Wales, the regi- 
ment had seven officers and ]()."> non-eonnnissioned 

Ik- ' 

' ^ 

Dancing the Lancers on Horseback. 

a moi-e enlightened spirit when, in the following 
year, the regiment entered eagerly into their 
Colonel's plan for securing si.\ nujnths' training with 
Imperial cavalry. The idea was for the Regiment 
and the Government to divide the cost, and Colonel 
Burns gave the nu)vement a great fillip by himself 
going to London and obtaining from the authorities 
a promise to horse and quarter a full squadron foi- 
a six months' course at Aldershot. Now the Govern- 
nu'nt here backed out of its understanding to provide 
half the cost, and so the Colonel had to fall back 
on his reginu?nt ami his other friends. Tlu^ regiment 
raised £2()()(), subscribers in Enghmd added i;iO(K), 
and the public of New South Wales found the 
remaining €l!()ll() necessary. All that our (iovernment 
would do wiis to let the luen go, provided that the 
country had to pay nothing for their transport and 
nuiinteuance. This was one way of encouraging men 
who were going to train themselves for the better 
discharge of their duty towards the country — the 

officers and men engaged; some of the Parramalta 
men being amongst the "Fighting Twenty-eight" of 
Lord Methuen'.s force, others distinguishing them- 
selves like Sergeant E. A. JMorris (specially men- 
tioned by Lord Roberts), or Corporal Harkus, wdio 
fought at Paardeberg, Poplar Grove atul Abrah.uu's 
Kraal, and wht) entered Bloemfontein with the eon- 
quering army, to die there of enteric. Indeed all 
the Lancers, who fought alongside the Inuiskilliugs 
all through, covered themselves with glory, from 
Major Lee, the O.C, and Captain Cox, down to the 
rawest recruit. 

At the conclusion of the big Ilarrismith drive on 
February 27. 1!)()2. Lt.-Col. Cox was sent for and 
jiersonally congratulated by Lord Kitchener on the 
field. The particular piece of work which earned 
"Fighting Charlie" this distinction occurred on the 
night of February 23-24, and is thus described in the 
"Official History' of the Boer War": "Garratt's line 
from the river to the summit had been cut to pieces, 



Ix'Sibie's pom-pom jammed and its commander 
killed, but Cox. on Remington's left, realising the 
sitnation. swung round his nearest pie(|uets. and 
faced the Roer.s — who had suffered somewhat severe- 
ly themselves — with a s:|uare front, the issiie of the 
tight being now in the balance." Suffice it to add 
that C'ox. wh'.i was in command of lOUO men. saved 
Ihr jiosition and drove back tlu^ enemy. 

And now the Xew South Wales Lancers as a regi- 
ment are gone. They are the Australian Light Horse, 
and the Ist Brigade is. as is titting. in Parramatta. 
where also the headquarters are in the old barracks 
that held the regulars a centur\- ago. ('olonel Burns 
— whose interesting and well-timed article on "The 
]\Iounted Forces of Australia" shows that he still 
maintains his interest in the cause which he has done 
so much to advance — retired from the command five 
years ago. Lieut.-Colonel Cox. C.B.. was appointed 
in his stead in 1906 and remained in (•(ininiand till 
October of this year, when he was succeeded by 
Ma.ior (now Lt.-Col.) Jlackenzie. The Ad.jutant is 
Captain A. (J. O'Donndl. 

Special interest attaches to the subjoined 
article by Colonel Cox. in view of the state- 
ment made at the recent iledical Congress that the 
average Australian does not make a good soldifr. 
This is diametrically opposed to the opinion of such 
judges as Lord Roberts. Lord Kitchener and General 
French, end Colonel Cox is in excellent company 
when he modestly testifies to the res!)urcefulness and 
other militarv virtues of Australians in the tield. 


By Brigadier-Colonel Earns, late O. C, 1st Brigade, Australian 
Light Horse Regiment. Parramatta. 

There is usually a tendency in matters of Defence 
for lunv ideas, like new fashions, to become prevalent, 
and we fintl this more pronounced in new ciiunti'ies 
like Australia. 

The enrolment of 120.000 cadets, if thoroughly 
and efficiently carried out. must be a great boon to 
the lads themselves, physically and mentally, and at 
the same time will provide a strong backbone and 
safeguard to the country. All military men will. 
however, agree that it would be better to havr 
Ctl.ODO thoroughly disci|)lined and drilled, than 
]2(i.000 partially or imperfectly trained, nu-n or boys. 
Then, if too nuudi attention and expenditure are de- 
voted to this new enrolment, the partially paid forces 
of the Commonwealth may be nu>re or less neglected. 
And all will agree that, after the great cost of 
bringing the militia forces up to their present 
standard, it would be simply Tuacbiess not to continue 
this fighting force, which for the defence of Aus- 
tralia is unecpudled. and which could meet and fight 

successfully with double the number of any imported 
invaders from any other part of the world. The 
Australian should, and undoubtedly would, have a 
very great superiority over other troops unaccus- 
tomed to Australian climatic and other conditions. 

Notwithstanding all that has been said about 
aci'oplanes. cycle and motor corps, and other recent 
l)roposed auxiliaries, we nuist still look largely to 
the chief military organisations of infantry, artillery, 
and ca\;dry; and a suudl liighly trained and mobile 
force, wliich can be ([uickly brought to any given 
point in Australia, is absolutely essential for thor- 
ough safety. 

A good niiuiy years ago a' proposition was mooted 
that, as Australia was a country of horsemen and 
horses, the Imperial (iovernment should have the 
call of. say. one-half the mounted men for foreign 
service, they to subsidise these regiments in time of 
peace, any man who was open for foreign service to 
receive an extra amount of pay from the Imperial 
Government. In this way the Imperial Government 
would be paying Australians for the right of call in 
time of v\-ar. just as the Common v\-ealth (loverument 
are now paying sailor men extia on li;)ard British 
u'.en-of-war for training purposes. 

The Imjierial scheme never came off. but under 
any conditions the mounted forces of Australia 
should be kejjt up to a very high stamlard. In any 
warfare which may happen the conilitions wotdd be 
to a large extent similar to the South African eam- 
I)aign. and without horsemen skilled in scouting, 
attacking, and protecting front, rear, and tianks, no 
body of infantry or artillery would be safe. Roads 
may present the means of ipiicd^er travid for motors, 
cycles or other conveyances, but it would be extreme- 
ly hazardous to use any road which could be 
aiid)usheil at almost any |)oint by an enemy. 

At all hazards the six In-igades, comprising IS 
regiments of Australian cavalry, should be maintain- 
ed and improved, so as to be able to take the field 
([uickly and rely upon their own transport and 

With the extension of the railways along the 
eastern Australian coast, men and horses coidd be 
entrained to any point nearest to a threatened 
attack, and so keep the enemy's operations in check, 
])ending the concentration of tlie Coiinnouwealth 

The whole of the militia of the Continent should 
be retained as the first line of defence of the Com- 
monwealth ; and with the tlevelopment of the compul- 
sory training scheme Australia will gradually in- 
crease her defenders, both, it is hoped, in numbers 
and in efficiency. 




By Lieut. -Colonel Charles F. Cox, C.B., late O. C, 1st Australian 
Light Horse Regiment, Parramatta. 

.SuiJic i'cntiu'i'.s ill llie behaviour of Australians 
when they were engaged in active war in Sonth 
Africa led military critics to believe that these devil- 
maj'-care "I'oloiiials" had in them the makings of 
excellent cavalry. Foi' instance, they were si)lennid 
horsemen — they ami their horses acted iu unison, 

and there was no ques- 
tion of which was mas- 
ter, the horse or the 
man. It stands to rea- 
son that a lancer or a 
dragoon, who is worry- 
ing whether he or his 
horse is boss, cannot do 
fh(> work required of 
him. whether this be pa- 
trolling, or scouting, or 
picketing, or charging. 
Tiie Australian cavalry- 
man and his horse were 
one. Again, Austra- 
lians take care of their 
horses, seeing to it that 
Lieut.-Coio„ei Cox, c.B. ^j^^, aiiimals which serve 

them so well in the field or on the march shall have 
the best available care when tiiey are off duty. And 
that, probably, is sufficient reason for the fact that 
the Australian cavalryman is able to get out of his 
horse every ounce of work that is in him. Nor is 
that all. If there's a horse to l)e had in the neigh- 
bourhood, he is Ijound to be corralled by Australians. 
In South Africa, at the time of the Boer war, horses 
ran wild, and the timid "regtUar, " used to the 
funereal mokes of the regimental training-schools, 
would as soon have thought of mounting one of 
them as he would have thought of getting into an 
aviator's machine. And, indeed, he could not have 
mounted the beast, for it was running wild and he 
had no idea of capturing him. The Australians' 
method of dealing with such horses was a revelation 
to their British coini'ades — who. of course, for their 
part, had excellencies whicii our men did not possess. 
On many occasions I have seen Australians in South 
Africa run a mob of wild horses into a kraal. ])ick 
out the best, saddle them up, mount them, oi)en the 
gates and give the surprised brutes the open veldt. 
In two or three days these horses had thoroughly 
learnt that they were mastered; they would settle 
dowTi and become valuable remount.s — and any one 
who could stick on a horse at all could ride them 

Apart from the direct and the indirect value of the 
Australians' services in regard to horses, there was 

no question as to their usefulness iu regard to rations 
and the procuring of them. An army, as we know, 
marches on its belly ; and we also know that the com- 
missariat department of the Imperial forces in South 
Africa was not always as successful in its arrange- 
ments as it might have been. Very often, indeed, 
supplies ran quite out. and our soldiers found them- 
selves, after a day's hard and tiring and dangerous 
work, without a bit to ])ut into their mouths. Then 
the Australian jiroved himself to be a man of great 
resource. In the barrenest of country, when the 
enemy withheld or cut otif supplies, the Australian 
had a marvellous knark- of ])i(dving up, somewhere 
and somehow, something for himself and his mates 
to eat. When he did get this something, he showed 
himself capable of putting it to the very best use 
in the shortest ])ossible 
time. Often, at the 
close t)f a harassing 
and tiring march — 
when, to all ajipearanci'. 
there wasn't the slighl 
est hope of having an\ 
thing to eat — one woulil 
see the Australian 
troopers after they Inul 
fed their horses, gettiipj 
round the camp-fires, 
with their mess-tiiis, 
and cooking meat or 
l)oiling water in them, 
whilst they used the lids 
of their tins for cook- 
ing johnny cakes and 
things like that. So long as tliey could get a bit 
of fat and some tlour, salt and water, the Australians 
were all right. The general conviction, founded on 
exiierience. was that it would have to be a very poor 
piece of country indeed into which an officer could 
not safely take a regiment of Australians on a Hying 
expedition, with half rations for man and horse, for 
a couple of weeks. And then the regiment came 
back, having done its work, and with its half-rations 

When it comes to fighting. I am Ihoroiighly satis- 
fied that Australians will bear themselves under fire 
at least as well as the next best men. On many occa- 
sions have I had the honor of seeing them in very 
tight corners. Never have I seen them flinch. Every 
time they were ordered to advance, they obeyed the 
order — and obeved it well. 

Warrant Officer C. Cawood. 



GOVEKNOK I'lIlLLll" mack' lus lirst efforts at 
husbandry on 9 acres of laud adjoining what 
was therefore caUod "Farm Cove." They 
were a faihire. So were liis atteiiii)ls to establisli 
vegetable-growing- on (jardeii Island, the onee 
beautiful spot in the Harboiu- which is now disligured 
by ugly Admiralty buildings. Then he turned his 
attention to Parramatta. and found to his joy that 
the country was in some parts as fine as any he had 
seen in England. Probably he was prejudiced by 
a comparison with the rocky ground at Sidney, l)ut 
people nowadays are not enamored of Parramatta 
as a general agricultural area. Phillip was haudi- 
capiied Ijy the tact that, in the amazing assortment 
of people that Lord Sydney had sent to found a new 
colony, there was only one person who understood 
farming. Hut this person ilid Avonders. As Collins 
says, he ■"joined to much agricultural knowledge a 
perfect idea of the hdior to be required from, and 
that miglit be jx'rfoi-nied by, the convicts; and whose 
figure was calculated to make the idle and the worth- 
less shrink if he came near them." From which it 
may be gathered that the first Australian agricul- 
turist was strenuous in his methods. This was 
Superintendent Henry Edward Uodd, who died in 
ITyl, ami was buried' with public honors — the first 
person to whose remains a public funeral was given 
in Australia — in what is now Si, John's Cemetery. 

The First Settler. 

The first settler, James Ruse, was given liis farm, 
11/2 acres, on November 21, 1789, and the area was 
in a few months increased to 30 acres on the score 
of the settler's good behaviour. Indeed, Ruse would 
seem to have been a most patriotic farmer, not like 
some of whom we have heard in later days; for he 
actually declined assistance from tlie pnl)lic stores 
early in 1791 on the absurd ground that he did not 
stand in need of it and coidd live on the j)roduce of 
his holding! It was fitting that to so honest a man 
should have been issued the first grant of land made 
in Australia. Unfortunately for Ruse, however, the 
seasons were not so propitious to him as he deserved. 
In 179:i, his crop having failed, he sold his "Experi- 
ment Farm" to Dr, John Harris, the godfather of 
Harris Park, and in the following year took up fann- 
ing on a 30-acre grant on the Ilawkeshury. He sold 
this too, but after many years; and when he died, in 
1837, it was in Campbelltown. His epitaph is more 
remarkable for the originality of its spelling than 
for the beauty of the poetry. It runs: — 

Gloria in K.xcelsis. 

Saorod to tlic Memory of 


^vlio departed this life, Spt. 0, 

ia tlie yeare of houre Lord, 1837. 

Xativ of Cornvvell, 

and arrived in tliis coloney by tlie foursT fleet, 

Aged 77. 

My mother reread me tenderly. 

With me she took much paines. 
And when I arived in this coloney 

I sowed the forst grain and now 
\Vifli my heavenly Father 

I lio]i8 for ever to remain. 

I '1 he statement that Ruse arri\'eil in the colony, 
aged 77, icmiruls of the inscription on a portrait in a 
certain Town Hall, to the etfeet that the citizen thus 
commemorated was "lioru and died in the town in 
his 75th year. "I 

I'ossihly it Avas in the not very well founded hope 
that others would enudatc; Ruse's patriotic example 
that Governor Phillip set to work to extend the base 
of settlement beyond Rosehill proper. Ruse's farm 
ran from Clay's Cliff Creek, near Hassall-street, to 
Duck Creek; but in 1791 the Governor ventured 
further into the wilds and selected farms in North 
Parramatta. about a mile beyond Lennox Bridge, for 
five settlers, two of whom had their wives with them. 
As showing that agriculture was carried on in those 
days under considerable dilticidties, it nuiy be men- 
tioned that a corjioral and a couple of privates had 
to be stationed amongst these farms — which varied 
from 30 to 50 acres in area — to protect the settlers 
against the natives. 

At the end of this year, 1791, the settlenu'nt show- 
ed as follows: — 351 acres in maize, 44 in wheat, six in 
l)arley, one in oats, two in potatoes, four not cidti- 
vated liut cleared for cultivation, four on the Cres- 
cent planted with vines: six acres Governor's garden. 
partl\- nuiize and wheat; SO aci-es garih^ns cultivated 
liy individuals, 17 cultivated li\ the N'.S.W. Corps, 
150 cleared, to be sowed with lurni[)s; 91 cultivated 
liy settlers; 28 cultivatecl by dfticers, civil and mili- 
tary: and 134 acres enclosed for feeding cattle. This 
was not so bad for a population whicli had not 
reached 190(1, including women and c-liildren. at the 
end of tile fidlowing yeai', 

lint, thougii it is ti-ue that the first harvest gather- 
ed in Ansti-alia was reaped in Parramatta. 1789, it is 
not to be preteiuied that tin" district eviM- was. or is 
evei- likely to be, distinguished for wheat-growing. 
We migld luive done better at tobacco, in which 
Pliilij) Schaefi'er, the first free immigrant settler, as 



well as Christopher Magoe and otliers, did a good 
business. But the Governor was not much of a 
smoker himself, and, lool<;ing' upon tobacco as a 
luxury rather than a necessity of life, he prohibited 
its cultivation. In this he Avas doubtless intlueneed 
by the information on which his secretary, Collins, 
based his statement, that "so great a desire for 
tobacco prevailed among these people that a man 
was known to have given the greater part of his 
week's provisions for a small quantity of that article, 
and it was sold, the produce of the place (Parra- 

Vineyards and Orchards. 

But in one direction — vincyartls and orangeries, 
and so forth, for the growth of table fruit and for 
grapes to be manufactured into wine — the Parra- 
matta district early put forth special efforts which 
have all along been crowned with a certain amount 
of success. The first grapes that ever ripened in 
Australia were gathered in Parranuitta. That was 
in January, 1791, and it is recorded of them that 
"the bunches were handsome, the fruit of a moderate 
size and well filled out. and the flavor high and 

Parramatta Park. Showing part of Old Government House Orchard. 

matta) for 10 and even 15 shillings per pound." 
Tobacco, indeed, was more highly valued than even 
rum ; for. whereas the man who wanted to drinli 
rum would gladly give 10 pounds of flour for a 
Ijottle. the man who w'anted to smoke tobacco often 
parted with 'M) pounds of flour tm- a jiound of the 
herb wliich is alleged to soothe and not ineliriatc 
The wily (iovernor countered this tendency and 
spoiled the market, l)y offering a reward of 30 poiuids 
of flour tor the discovery of the abandoned pei'son 
who bartered liis provisions in this way. 

delicious." These grapes grew in the (l;iveiMior's 
garden, and it is safe to say that theii- tbi\'or would 
have goni' even "higher" — a term. Iiy tlie way. uuire 
appropriate to game tluin to grapes — if li:e vines 
had not IVeen planted in such a position as to secure 
for them tile operation of tlie most malignant winds. 
They weiv i)art of the product of tlu' four acres of 
tlu' Governor's garden which, as we have seen, were 
planted with vines — 8000 of them all told, from cut- 
tings collected at the Cape of Good Hope on the 
vovage out. 



From that day to this, however, the Parraniatta 
district has been famous for its fruit of all kiuds, 
and its wines have gained commendation from a very- 
early date. In the year 1S2:?. for instance, Mr. 
Gregory Blaxland — hearer of an honored name in 
these parts — was awarded a large silver medal by the 
London Society of Arts for "Imported wine, the 
produce of his vineyards in New South Wales." This 
was the produce of grapes grown on his "Vineyard 
E.state" (Subiaco) — the same jdace on which 
Sehaeflfer had tried to establish tobacco cultivation 
in circumstances to which reference has .just been 
made. Following up his success, Mr. Blaxland — who 
has been styled the Father of Australian Agriculture, 
and who died at Parraniatta in 1853 — gained the 
"Ceres" gold medal given by the same Society in 
1S2S "for wine from New South Wales." These 
trophies, which are of intrinsic value, as they are the 
work of the great artist, W. Wyon, are still in the 
possession of Mr. Blaxland 's family. This, it should 
he mentioned in passing, is the same Blaxland whose 
name will ever be remembered in connection with 
his discovery, in ]8]8. in company of Lawson and 
Weutworth. of a route across the IMue ^Mountains. 

If we tuni to the official figures for the year in 
which Parraniatta was incorporated, we find that 
there were 1179 occupiers of 145,469 acres, of whicli 
11,722 were cultivated; that the crojis produced were 
wheat, maize, barley, oats, rye, niilli^t, potatoes, 
sorghum and sour grasses; that there were SSYj 
acres of vines and 4()!)0 acres of gardens and 
orchards. The wheat and maize i)rodueed — 8424 
bushels and 5439 bushels. I'espeetively — was a fair 
contribution to the wealth of the colony. Then of 
the land devoted to viticulture. 27 acres, used in 
wine-making, produced 2200 gallons of wine anCi HO 
gallons of brandy, whilst 70li; tons of table fruit 
were gathered from the 60 odd acres cultivated for 
this i)urpose. Now, tifty x-ears later, the production 
of wine goes into the iiiiilinn gallons, and there are 
some 8000 acres devoted to the production of fruit 
of all kinds, "the soil," as the official statement goes, 
"being suitable for nearly cnitv kind of fruit.' In- 
deed, it may well be said tiiat the fruit tliat cannot 
be grown in Parraniatta is not worth eating, or other- 
wise considering. Oranges were first grown in this 
district, and the ajiples which our orchards produce 
■ — "as big as nutmegs," says a sniggering critic a 
hundred years ago — can hold their own in any 
market in the world, {"oncerning oranges, it is not 
so many weeks ago that those indefatigable anti- 
(piaiians. Dr. Tlouison and Mr. F. Walker, discovered 
the identical spot on which oranges were first grown 
in Australia. It is near the roatl bridge on the way 
from ]\Ieadowbank to Ryde ; and here a tomb-like 
structure of stone is the last remnant of the orangery 
which the successful enter])rise of the Rev. Richard 
Johnson rendered famous in the agricultural history 
of tile continent. 

The Agricultural Society. 

It was in Parraniatta tiiat liie lirst .\grii-ujt ural 
Society of New Soutli Wales was born. The pre- 

liminary meeting indeed had been held in Sydney, 
when, according to contemporary newspaper report, 
Sir John Jamison (who was later to employ one 
Henry Parkes as a laborer on his station), and, 
according to the Society's prospectus. Mr. Justice 
Baron Field (Charles Lamb's friend and correspond- 
ent*) was appointed President. Both authorities 
agr(>e that amongst the vice-presidents were the Rev. 
Samuel Marsdeti, ]\Ir. W^illiam Cox. and i\lr. Hannibal 
]\Iacartliur. and that the secretaries were Mr. Alex, 
ander Berry and Mr. George T. Palmer. In those 
days nothing could be done without the stimulus of 
a good dinner, and, shortly after this meeting in 
Sydney — in July, 1822 — this stimulus was duly 
supi)lied at Walker's Inn, P;irramatta (the famous 
"Red Cow"), inuler the inspiring jiatronage of 
Governor Brisbane and Colonial Secretary (Jonlburn. 
President .himisoii — there's no doubt about him now 
— gladdened the hearts of the 80 gentlemen who were 
doing .jn.stice to the fine dinner provided by the 
announcement that the Governoi- had offered to 
grant land to the Society, together with free printing 
and stationery. And. indeed, it was to the colony's 
interest to promote its agricultural and pastoral 
industries, seeing that about this time good prices 
for Wool were commanded in the British market. 
No \\(in<ier the 80 gentlemen could afford good 
dinner at Walker's Inn when such figures as these 
coiihi be (juoted: — Rather heavy and badly bred, 
fniiii Is 8d to Is lOd per lb.; heavy and badl\' bred. 
Is Dd |.er lb.; light and well bred. Is 9d to Is lid 
pel 111.; very heavy <iiid wasteful. 2s per lb.; very 
light and well lired, 3s 7d to 3s 9d pei- lb. In the 
circumstances it is not surprising to find that the 
Society felt it could stand another stimulus, and this 
was duly forthcoming at Nash's Inn. Parraniatta, on 
January 30, 1823. when a sp'-cial feature was the 
dessert, comprising 18 kinds of fresh fruit and f<nir 
of dried fruit, all from the gardens of two members 
of the Society. 

.Nash's Inn — better known as the ^Voolpa(■k — stood 
(111 till' site now occupied by the ('(iiii't House. Its 
proprietor. Bill Nash, as he was uni\('rsall\- called, 
is the hei-o of a legend which may be ])erfectly true. 
He made a deal of money in Parraniatta and went to 
England to s]iend it there. Amongst other devices 
for the liipiidatioii of coin he is said to have set up 
a fine coach, drawn by eight horses — a regal e((uip- 
age which naturally attracted a lot of attention. The 
ignorant jieople of England knew not Bill Xash. and 
when tliey had made imiuiries they in\itiMl him to 
take himself and his eight horses back to Pai-ramatta. 

-' Dr. Lang, wlio (lid not love Barron I'icid, pillnrics liira as 
tlic writer of some verses wliicli hr cnllcd "liotany Bay 
Flowers." The.y are no worse, mid mi tietter, tlian tlie 
average "poetry" of the day. But Dr. Dang conld not resist 
laiigliing at tlie judge's 

' ' Kangaroo, T\ang;ir<in, 

Spirit of Australia. . . . ' ' 
.\iul lie found further ground for nierriment in the tmfor 
lunate att(nipt to inal<e "Australia" rhyme with "failure." 
It Field has been a better .\ustraliaii than he was poet. In? 
would never h.ave made the iiri|iatriotic as well as eaeophouoiis 
atlem|it to couneet the two. 



He pleaded hard to be allowed to reniaiu, even offer- 
ing to present the nation with a warship if his re(iuest 
were granted. But in those days warships were at 
a discount — and Bill Nash was ordered to return to 
a country where his many good qualities were more 
highly ap[)i'eciated. 

Successive Societies. 

A few months later it was announced that four 
acres had been set apart for gardens and so forth on 
the north side of the Parramatta River, adjoining 
the Government Domain, now Parramatta Parlv. The 
result of the successive applications of the dinner 
stimulus was to be seen in the Parramatta Fair, 
October, 1824 — the public show or exhibition of 

for horses and sheep in October, and honied cattle, 
pigs, etc., in May, Bad seasons and droughts, how- 
ever, were getting too iiuu'h for the Society. In 1833 
the first trees and plants on the Parramatta ground 
were sold, and in the following year a stimulus pro- 
vided at Walker's Inn jiroved ineffective, nobody 
turning up to be prodded into enthusiasm. For 20 
odd years we hear no more of the first Society, but 
in 1843 a successor arose in the Cumberland Agri- 
cultural Society, whose excellent intention it was to 
hold meetings twice a year. The intention was soon 
converted to paving-stones, and it was not until 1857 
that a continuous movement was started. 

This was called the Cumberland Agricultural 
Society until, a couple of years ago, the promoters 
felt justified in taking a larger view and reverted to 

Modern Agriculture in Parramatta.— Irrigating an Orangery. 

tlir kind in Austi':ili:i. Amongst other exhibits ^xfvr 
horses, dairy cows, cross-bred sheep and live stock 
of all kinds — and strong beer and tobacco. There 
can be no doubt as to the strength of the beer, the 
interesting sketch which i\[r. II. M. Somer. tlie able 
secretary of the Royal Agricultural Society, con- 
tributed to the first number of the Society's 
"Annual." containing a melancholy Irihiile In its 
potency from the pen of a gifted luil nameless 
reporter. "Reason," wrote the worthy gentleman, 
"was dethroned, and madness and folly reigned in 
its stead." The Society doubtless de|)reeated this 
result, but the good old stimulus was regularly 
applied at every opportunity, now at Nash's, now at 
Walker's. Shows were held in Parranuitfa \viili 
almost (Hiual regularity, two in 1826. In this \-ear, 
indeed, it was decided to have two shows annually: 

the old name, 'ilial was in IS.'ifl, when 22 acres were 
granted on leasehold in Parramatta. Some names 
well known in this district were amongst the pro- 
moters — such as .Tanu's ^lacarthur and James Pye — 
but the main inHuence was undoubtedly metropoli- 
tan. The result was that, whilst the land at Parra- 
matta was used for jiloughing nuitches and trials 
(if implements, the main show was transferred to 
Sydney in 1870. A feeble efi'ort was made to bring it 
back in 1880, but the fascinations of the metropolis 
were too jiowerfni. To-day. if Parramattans want 
to see the exliibitiim nC llie old Society which their 
town did so nuu'h to help along in its struggling days 
they must go down to Sydney. But we bear no 
nuiiice, and, as the Show is invarial)ly good and ccm- 
stantly imju-oving, we put money in our pockets an*! 
visit our fransplaiiled offspring every Easter, 




By Mr. J. Arundel, J.P. 

JOHN MACARTIU'R was the first definitely 
authorised politician Farramatta supplied to 
New South Wales. His appointment came 
about this way. Tlu'ie was a nominee Council ap- 
pointed in l^'i'i. and when the number of members 
of this advisory board was increased from seven to 
fifteen John ]\Iacarthnrwas made a member. 

And the legislative connection of the ]Maearthur 
familv with Farramatta. thus beuun. continued for a 

long period. In lS4:i a Li'i;islativc Cinuicil of :Vo 
members. 24 elected on tlu' then ortiiodox jn-operty 
qualification, and T2 nominated by the (fovernor, 
was granted to Xcw Sontii Wab's. aiul Hannibal 
Hawkins INIacartliur, a neplicw nf .lolui Maearthur, 
aud then residing at Snbiacn. (ui the Farramatta 
River, was elected as the first member for Farra- 
matta. And, anticipating somewhat, when the 

present constitution eouferring full responsible gov- 
ernment on New South Wales was proclaimed in 
1855. Henry Watson Farker. a son-in-law of John 
JIacarthur. was elected as one of the two members 
for Farramatta — the other being George Oakes. a 
native of the town. 

Henry Watson Farker. who was born at Lewisham, 
Kent, and who was afterwards knighted, had been a 
nominee member of the old Legislative Council antl 
Cliairnuin of its Committees for some years up to 
1855. In October. 1856. following the short-lived 
first and second ministries (the Donaldson and the 
Cowi)er). ^Ir. Farker. whilst still nu^mber for Farra- 
matta. Ijccanie Fremier of the third ministry formed 
under responsible government, remaining in office 
for the then comparatively long period of over 11 
iiionllis. Sii' Henry Farkes. in his "Fift.v Years of 
Australian History"" (some say it should be c;dled 
"Fitt.\- Years of Ilenr.v Farkes"") sa.vs of this thiid 
ministry that "from its advent eonnuenced the eon- 
riicts of polic.v. from time to time assuming more 
distinct features, which divided tiu' early Farlia- 
inimt."" and furthermore he described ;\ir. I'ai-ker as 
■" .•iniiiiiL;' the best men the colDuy has at any time 
po.sscssed. " 

Tiu' fatiier (if George Oakes was tliat Francis 
Oakes. of whom later, it was said, sneli a plentiful 
ci'op of aeoriis was to spring. Francis Oakes was 
one iif a band of missionaries sent nut froiu England 
til thi' Faeific in 1796 in the famous missionary ship 
the "Duff."' Some of them were killed aud eaten 
hy their dusky Faeific lirethren. ami after sevei'al 
years of extreme privation and dangei' the survivors 
came to New South Wales: and amongst them was 
Francis Oakes. In his new home he received a not 
unacceptable land grant, sundry offieiad [lositions, 
and won for liis wife the first woman of Enro|iean 
parents boi'u in Australia. Tlieii son. (ieorge Oai'Ces. 
a lifelong resident of Farrannstta [described as "ex- 
tensively associated with pastoi-al pursuits") was 
evich'utiy Mdt without honor in bis nwn rountrv. 
bi'iug. as already seen. Farramalla's ch'cted member 
in tlie (lid Legislative ('(luncil in ISIS, ;i position he 
hebl until the Council was dissilved in Decemlier. 
1S55. In March. lS5(i. he was elidseu ;is nue of Far- 
lamatta's two rejiresentatives in the new Legislative 
Assembly, holding the seat during thr-ee Farlianients. 
until December. 1860. when he was defeated by Mr. 
— afterwards Sir — John Lackey. .Mr. Oakes repre- 
sented Farramatta altogether foi- almut 111 years. 
uyiwards of seven in the old Council, and iiearl.\- five 
in the Assembly. From -June. 1872. until November, 



is74. he w;is ii.riiil)er for East Sydney, and in 187!) 
liccanic a nieni!)er of tlie Legislative Conneil. where 
he did fJiood work until his regrettable death in 1881. 
lie was the second president, from 1850 to 18.')(). of 
the Parramatta District Hospital (Jonnnittee. His 
1)rother Francis (father of .Mi's. J. K. ]Manton. C'anip- 
l)ell-strcet. Paiarnuitia) was also at one time a mem- 
ber of the Legislative (..'ouncil. 

On page 120 will lie found a list of the represen- 
tatives of Parramatta in the New S )nth ^yales Legis- 
lative Assembly iluring tlie neaiiy .36 years since 
responsible government v:;\y inaugurated. .\lto- 
gether the electorate has in this [leriod had Iwelve 
diffei'ent ])ersons as mend:ei;-;. not an extravagant 
number, if we remembei' that uji to ISSO it returned 
two members; since then only one; and that up to 

Arthur T. Holroyd, Master in Equity, 
Parramatta, 1861-4. 

Member for 

11)07 tin; whole State in tlu' same period had appro.xi- 
niately enabled 750 citizeii.s to add the coveted letters 
M.L.A. to their names. Within the same years 
about 250 appointments to the Legislative Council 

were also made. Whatever "shortage of labor" 
may sometimes occur there is apparently nevfer any 
serious shortage of law-makers. It is to be remem- 
bered that the electorate boundaries have been alter- 
ed several times. 

During the time that New South Wales controlled 
its own tariff most of the members were Liberals and 
Freetraders, IMessrs. Charles J. Byrnes and W._ J. 
Ferris, however, forming exceptions, both beuag 
avowed Protectionists. In the much wider Parra- 
matta Federal Electorate the choice has also been 
made and repeated of a Liberal (the Hon. Joseph 
Cook) at each of the four elections to the Common- 
wealth House of Representatives, since 1901, the 
Liberal candidates for the Senate likewise ol)tamuig 
ma.jorities in the Parramatta electoiate on each 

In Parramatta. as everywhere else, local questions 
and personal rivalries always played a large part. 
The town has had a long era— happily now closed— 
of its own political and municipal rival Montagues 
and Capnlets. Moreover, it has generally shown a 
strong preference to members either born or residing 
in or near the town— a preference not unjustified 
when we consider the positions attained by some of 
them. To have supplied, out of its Pi rein-esentatives. 
two Premiers— Parker and J. S. Farnell. the latter 
born in Parramatta— and three other Ministers (one 
of Parramatta birth), as well as another town-born 
member who was offered a portfolio ; is certainly not 
a bad record. 

In addition, however, to its direct representatives, 
the number of past and present politicians more or 



Thomas R. Moxham. Member for Parramatta bince 1901. 
Mayor of Parramatta 1897-1901. 

less assoeiatuil with Parramatta is li'^iou. For in- 
stance, in the days of the mixed Conncil. which in 
1855 gave way to responsible goverumcnt. and also 

in the early years of the latter, especially whilst Par' 
ramatta was the western terminns of the railway, 
the old town was the natural and oeographical centre 
of a very much larger district than it is now. Conse* 
quently meeting's in reference to other electorates 
further out — such as the Cumberland Boroughs, 
which included AYindsor and Richmond. Penrith. Liv- 
erpool and Campbelltown : and Cumberland. South 
and Xoith Ridings — were lu'lil in Parramatta. A 
letter trom ^Ir. James C. Martin (afterwards Chief 
Justice Sir James JMartin 1 to his friend. .Mr. 
]\IcQuade. of Windsor, shows this tendency of poli- 
tical effort towards Parramatta as its centre. It also 
throws an interesting sidelight on the mode of 
managing elections in the "good old days." Writing 
on ilareh 27, 1849. Martin observes to his friend: 
"Accompanying this you will receive the marked list 
of dead, absent and unqnali.^ed voters. Those ticked 
off are our Sydney men. Have the (piestions i)ut to 
every man you don't know, as well as to those noted. 
l>ring up all our men at whatever cost. We shall lick 
them gloriously here and everywhere else. Let a mes- 
senger be ready at 4 precisely to come to Parramatta 
with the state of the poll. We all meet there." 

It must be remembered that those were the days of 
open voting and property ipialitication. when oppo- 
nents fought in such deadly earnest that it was quite 
a common thing for long dead men to vote both 
early and often. Such miracles as that happened, 
some would have us believe, even in Parramatta. 
Indeed, it is actually said that one of the political 
enthusiasts of the seventies boasted in later days that 
he had often managed to poll three dead men in one 
morning by the same convenient spirituous spook, 
until he became too drunk to safely impersonate any 



Total Period. 

Member's Name. 


When Member. 
Mar. 29, lcS.JG, to Dee. 19, 

(approximate ) 

Parker, Henry Watson (af- 

Li'xvisliaui, Kent. 

1 year 9 months. 

terwards K.r.Jt.G.) 


Oakes, Hon. George 


Mar. 2!), IS.oG, to Nov. 10, 


4 years 7'.; months 

Byrnes, Hon. James 


Jan. 19, 18.'38, to Mar. 26, 
1861; and Nov. 24, 1864, 
to Feb. 3, 1872. 


10 years 4 months. 

Lackey, Hon. John (after 


Dec. 8, 1860, to Nov. 10, 


3 years 1 1 montlis. K.r..\l.(;.) 


Hclroyd, Hon. A. T. 


Apr. 10, PSOl, til Nov. 10, 

3 years 7 months. 

Fr.rncll, Hon. J. S. 


Nov. 24, 1864, to Nov. 2S, 


10 years. 

Tr.jlor, Hugh 


Feb. 20, 1872, to Nov. 9, 
1880; and Dee. 2, 1882, 
to June 25, 1894. 


20 years 4 monlbs. 

Byrnes, Chas. Joseph 


Dec. 10, 1874, to Oct. 12, 
1887, and Nov, 18, 1880, 
■ Nov, 23, 1882, 


4 years 10 montlis. 

Long, Hen. W. A. 


1877, to Nov. 9, 


2 years. 

O'Reilly, Do well Philip 


„.,.^ to Jiilv 8, 
1898, ' 


4 years. 

Ferris, Wm. J. 


Julv 27, 1898, to June 11, 


2 years 11 months. 

Moxham, Thos. R. 


July 3, 1901, to the pre- 
sent day. 



10 years 3 months. 



linoro tliat day. That Parramatta was respectable 
wc have the testimony of J. B. Darvall, one of the 
brilliant .uron]! of able men (including Wentworth. 
Robei-t Lowe, .Martin and Parker) who made the 
later years of the old Council a memorable age in 
New South Wales politics, for in his final si)eech 
against Wentworth 's Constitution Bill — which he 
opposed as not being sufficiently democratic — Dar- 
vall. commenting on the marked absence of any 
popular petitions in its favor, owned that from Par- 
ramatta "a tiny S(iueak had been heard in its sup- 
port, as one petition signed by 31 persons had come 
from there — all of them being either clergymen, 
magistrates or other highl.y respectabh' |>i'(i|ilc," 

(ilancing along the extensive and interesting 
jiicture galh'ry Parramatta can furnish of the jxili- 
tieians who through the years have occasionally 
made it their home, the most striking of these is un- 
doulitedl.\- Sir Ilenrv Parkes. Fairly familiar in our 
streets ])efo)'e from his lifelong friendship with his 
faithful Parranuitta supporters, James Byrnes and 
Hugh Taylor, Parkes for about two years in the later 
"eighties" resided in Parramatta in .Mr. .). J. .Miller's 
present home at the corner of Jlacijuarie and Jlars- 
den streets. It was whilst there that he was sent for 
by Governor Carrington. the result being the fi)rnia- 
tion of what ]n-oved to lie the last of all the five 
Parkes .Ministi-ies. One of its ablest members. Sir 

AVilliam .Mcilillan. Ihc Colonial Treasurer, also then 
resided at Wentworth ville. near Parramatta. 
Parramatta and Federal Politics. 

Federation was very nnu-li ■"in the air"" in Parra- 
matta for many years prior to its legislative accom- 
plishment. Parramatta "s tirst and only representa- 
tive in the Federal Pai-liament was the Hon. Joseph 
Cook, then Liberal niembei- for Hartley in the X.S.W. 
Assemblv, ex-Postmaster-(Teneral and ^Minister for 
ilines ill the Reid Ministry 1894-1899. Mr. Cook at 
once attained one of the foremost positions in the 
Federal House of Representatives, a position that has 
lieen strengthened in each successive Parliament, and 
in 1904, wlien ;\lr. (!. II. Reid resigned the leadership 
of the Lil)(>ral Opposition. .Mr. Cook was unanimously 
elected as his successor. In 1909. on a coalition being 
effected between the Ilmi. .Vlfred Deakin"s followers 
and the Federal Liberal Opposition, a Deakiu-Cook 
iLnistry was formed. Mr. Deakin becoming Premier 
and Mr. Cook Jlinister of Defence, where, as in the 
Reid Cabinet, he again proved himself to be a thor- 
oughly capable and bold administrator. Many of 
Mr. Cook's constituents ho])e for him even still 
higher posit inn in .\iistraliim |)olitics. 

' ^^ff-^^-^^^lM^ 

Parramatta District Hospital. 






By Mr. T. D. Little, Secretary (1889 to date). 

PAKRA.AIATTA District Hospital has an honor- 
able record, and both medical ofiHcers and 
committeemen consider it an honor to be asso- 
ciated with the old institution. 

The original hospital was built by (iovcrmir ,Ma:-- 
quarie, in the year 1817. and was known as the 
Colonial Hospital, afterwards as the Civil and ?ilili- 

tary Hospital. It was built to accommodate about 
titty j);itients. hut in the year 1819. during an out- 
break of typhus fever, as many as ninety-five initients 
were admitted. In the old Imilding strong iron bars 
were let into the window sills, so that jirisoner 
patients could not escape, and these bars reuuiiued 
ill place till the old biiildinu was demolished. The 
old brick's Ijoic the mark of the broad arrow, and 
throughout it was reminiscent of the convict days. 
Time and again there have come similar reminders, 
even iieai'ly a centur>- later, when, on sL»veral occa- 
sions, whilst cultivating the garden plot, the gard- 


Reading' tiuiii Left to liiglil — Standing: Mr. I'ctcr Moig.aii, Xmse D. WcMnic, Mr. IL A\'. Mcggitl, \'ory Kcv. T. O'Reilly, 
P.P., Messrs. T. D. Little, 0. T. Erby, .1. Arundel, ('. Summons, Nurses 1. I)awson, E. Emmott and E. Samuels. 
Sitting: Dr. W. S. Brown, Dr. .T. Kearney, Mr. ('. .1. Pyrnes, Mr. H. B. Cowper (President), Miss E. Fuller (Matron), 
Mr. \V. W, Bodenbam, Dr. E. Cuthbcrt Ilall. Front Row: Nurses M. Brown, L. Kidd, P. Trayhurn and L, Alkin. 



ener has unearthi'd here and there a pair of leg- 

Grim iron days, these, my readers — days when a 
man with a gmi stood beside the bed of the pai;i- 
racked patient. No gentle nnrse, of wliom the 
patient could say — 

Oh! let but once ;i pan"; prevail, 

A limb be rack 'd, or elioek grow pale; 

Let the wild torture ot disease 

Deny to heart and head their ease; 

Let Sorrow once her frown i]7ipress 

On Life's uncertain happiness, — 

Then, seorncr of the stx! Advance, 

And learn llie power of Pity's glance, 

The tender might of woman's gaze, 

Unweaken 'd by tormented days! 

Through hours of blackness, when the mind 

Seems prostrate, wreck 'd, and unresign'd. 

How potent is her pleading eye, 

How siiasive her devoted sigh! 

One look does more than man could say, 

And each word wafts a pang away! 

The hospital remained a Government institution 
till the year lS4(i. and in that year, in response to a 
memorial from the people of Parramatla, it was 

l.-Dr. K. Whiting 

3.— Dr. R. Pbipps Wauih 

2. Mr. A. E. Marsden 
4.— Mr. Henry Mason 

handed over to the inhabitants of the town and dis- 
trict, and, from the 6th of April of that yeai-. when 
the first committee was elected, it has been luiowsi 
as the I'arramatta and District Hosjiilal. 

Followinu- are the names of the first cDminit fee : — 
H. II. Macarthur. ■M.L.C. G. Elliott. .1.1'.. Or. Ander- 
son. J. IMaxland. J. P., (J. 15. Suttm-, 
son. J. P.. and Messrs. -I. Edro|>. 
Bvrnes. G. Oakes. J. Hamilton, -1. 

.1.1'.. X. S. Law- 
.1. Ilouison. .T. 

McKav, and S. 

We note that even in those days there was a 
liberal sprinkling of J's.P. on the committee. To- 
day the sprinkling is the other way, for the majority 
of the members of the committee are magistrates — 
nine out of fifteen. 

When one glances at the names of the first com- 
mittee he looks for links to connect the past with 
the present. J. Byrnes was the father of one of the 
present trustees — !Mr. C. J. Byrnes, .J.P. H. II. 
IMacarthur was the grandfather of ^Irs. W. S. Brown, 
wife of one of the [)resent medical officers. Dr. W. S. 
Brown. These are the only two direct links that we 
know of. but still there are other links worth men- 
tioning. In the year 18.512 Dr. Iv. C. Rutfer. grand- 
father of iMatron Rutter, was elected medical officer. 
In the year 1850 ilr. (ieorge Oakes was elected pi'csi- 
dent. and in the year 1896 his grandson. Mr. A. I. 
Oalves, was one of the architects for the new hos[)ital, 
llii' present structure. In flic yeai- IS(ii) Air. Edmund 
Alason was on the committee aiul acted for '28 years. 
His son. Mr. Harry Mason, is now acting. Dr. Isaac 
Waugh first joined the medical staff in 187-1, and 
acted either as medical officer or honorary consulting 
medical officer for al)ont 35 years. His son. Dr. R. 
I'liipps Waugh. is now a member of the honorary 
medical staif. Dr. Walter Brown was associ;ited with 
the liosjiital for about 4f) years, and Archdeacon 
Gunther from 1868 to 1911 — a period of :}3 years. 
The latter gentleman occupied the position of jiresi- 
dent. off and on. for 20 years. These are honorable 
and lengthy associations, and only lately did the ^'en. 
Archdeacon pay a trilnite to tiie management, when 
iie resigiH^d. by saying that he knew of no institution 
that was Ijetter conducted, and where greater har- 
mony prevailed. 

The hos|)ital still boasts of conunitteemen who m;iy 
be liiojced upon as antiquities. Dr. Bowman, and 
.Messrs. A. E. Marsden and T. D. Little have acted 
on tiie committee for twenty-five years continuDUsly. 
and Drs. W. S. Brown antl Jas. Kearney arg getting 
(.11 towards twenty years. 

Here is another record which, perliaps. is iini<|ue 
in the iiistory of committees: During my '22 yeai's' 
(iccupaiicy of the position of Secretary, not a singh' 
meeting has lapsed for want of a quorum. 

Following is a list of those who lnr.'(» oC('i!i)i:'d the 
position of i'residenl : — 



1S.50 to 1S5(3— GEOKCR 0.\KKS 



ISIil— REV. W. F. CiORE 

1S()2 to 1S(i7— REV. R. L. KING 


lS(i9 to 187.S— T. \V. TiOWDEX 

1874 to 1891— REV. W. .1. GCXTHER 

lSf)2— \V. W. BODEXHAM 

1893— A. E. MARSDEN 

1894— E. .T. LOVE 

189:'), 189(1 and 1897— AR< '11 DEACON' GT'XTIIER 


189!) to 19(i:i— DR. REGIX.M.I) liOWMAN 




190;-), 1906, and 1907— DR. .JAMES KEARNEY 


1909— \V. SWANN 



The Hospital at present has accommodalion for 38 
patients. There are four general wards — male and 
female medical, and male and female surgical, each 
with seven beds. Then there are two small infectious 
wards containing two beds each, four private wards, 
and a semi-private ward with two beds. 

The medical staff consists of Drs. R. Bowman, W. 
S. Brown, Jas. Keanu^v, E. Cuthbert Hall. R. Phipps 
Waugli ant! K. Whiting, the latter at present filling 
the post of outdoor medical officer. 

Last year 328 patients were treated indoors, and 
928 out-patients received attention. 

Miss E. Fuller, who was trained at the Royal 
Prince Alfred Hospital, tills the post of matron, and 
she has a staff of seven nurses to assist her. 

Upkeep of the hospital costs £2400 annually. 

Following is a list of the officers for the year 1911 : 
President. i\Ir. Harington B. C'owper; Vice-presi- 
dents, the Verv Rev." T. O'Reillv, Drs. Bowman. 

Brown, Kearney and Hall, and ]\Ir. P. Morgan ; Com- 
mittee, Ur. R. Phipps Waugh. and ^Messrs. J. 
Arundel. II. Mason, (i. T. Erby, C. Sununons. and 11. 
W. IMeggitt; Hon. Treasurer", Mr. A. E. Ularsden ; 
Secretary, Mr. T. D. Little ; Auditors, ^lessrs. G. 
Coates, jun., and F. A. IMaccpieeu; Hon. Solicitor, 
Mr. J. E. Bowden ; Trustees, Messrs. C. J. Byrnes, 
Alban Gee, W. W. Bodenham. and Drs. Bowman and 


By Mr. Joe Button, Secretary (1889 to present day). 

About the middle of 1889. on a resolution agreed 
to at a meeting of Carrington Tent, I. O.K.. two dele- 
gates were appointed from each Lodge in Parramatta 
for tlu^ purpose of considering the desirability of 
establishing a iledical Institute for the town and dis- 
trict ; and at their first meeting they appointed 
Messrs. R. A. "Withers. J. (i. Fyall and Joe Button as 
executive officers. Consideration of details received 
prompt and close attention, and in a few months a 


Reading from Left to Riglit — Standing: Joe I'ii-lu'iirig. .1, Mi-Cue, .1. Luyaii. II. Bratby, .J. Lowe, W. Gates, L. W. Adams, 
R. .1. Brown, H. Holliday, E. A. McKenzie. Sitting: J. Dnimmoiid, W. O'Brien, P. Morgan, C. J. Board, W. Muston, 
G. Mortimer, W, .1. Airey, J. Button, R. C. Bartlett, AV. R. Goodman. Inset on left: W. Abell. Inset on right: D. 



sfhcme was foriniiliited, siiljinitted to, and approved 
l)y the Lodii'es, aiul on Xovenil)er '22nd, ISS!). the first 
UHM'ting- of the ^ledical Institute Board was held, the 
institute inaugurated, and the first executive elected 
as follows: President, Mr. Geo. Mortimer; Vice- 
President, IMr. J. G. Fyall; Treasurer. ^Ir. Walter 
Gates; Seeretarv. Mr. Joe Button; Trustees. Messrs. 
R. C. Bartlett. A. Gazzard and W. Watters. 
Members: Messrs. J. H. Crisp. Jas. Dellow. J. Diid^- 
son. II. Winn. G. Greenway, J. Saunders, T. C. Smith, 
J. Striugfellow, E. Swane and A. Walker. Auditors: 
Messrs. T. J. Sargent, A. E. Marsden and T. Brien. 

The work entered upon was important, and those 
undertaking- it were stimulated l)y the success of 
those who had estalilished kindred institutions else- 
where, and they were determined to establish an 
organisation which would take the place of and excel 
the old .system, as well as unite the members of the 
various societies into one common brotherln)od. At 
the close of twenty-two years' work, it is safe to say 
that the success achieved in these directions has ex- 
ceeded the anticipations of the most sanguine. 
Arrangements were completed by the end of the year, 
and on June 1st. 1890. business was commenced in 
Mr. Hugh Taylor's premises. Church-street; Dr. R. 
Ferguson and Dr. Wilkinson being the first medical 
officers, and Mr. Hinder the first dispenser. Very 
soon, difficulties both from within and without began 
to manifest themselves ; but the men to whom the 
trust had been given- were afraid neither of work nor 
of opposition. Believing the cause to be a good one, 
and of great benetif to the ma.jority. they never fal- 
tered. an<l during the course of the last twenty-two 
years many of the members, especially the poor and 
afflicted ones, have been thankful for the devotion to 
duty, regardless of consequences, of the early 
pioneers of the movement. 

Some Regular Workers. 

Four of the original workers are still in active 
service, viz.. IMr. Geo. Mortimer, the first President ; 
]\Ir. Walter Gates, the first Treasurer (now one of the 
Trustees); .Mr. Richard C. Bartlett. one of the lirsl 
Trustees (now the Treasurer) ; and Mr. Joe Button, 
the first and only Secretary. To Mr. R. C. Bartlett 
belongs the honor of length of service on the Board 
of Management, he having served for 21 years out of 
the 22. Though it has been found necessary to alter 
and amend some of the original rules, the funda- 
mental principles on which the Institute was estab- 
lished remain intact. 

Since its foundation, 818 Board meetings have l)een 
held and 542. 000 prescriptions disprnscil. The 
membership in -lanuary. 1890. Avas 945; in November. 
1911. 1500. The total income from all sources was 
£32.080, and the jirincipal items of expenditure were 
as follows: IMedical Officers, £15,7-1:9; Dispensers, 
£39(10; Drugs, t;S472 ; Rent to December. 1908. 111239. 

The New Premises. 

In this brief record, it is impossible to refer at 
length to the work done by the Board towards secur- 
ing a suitable building, for the movement was 
inaugurated 20 years ago, with the assistance of th>' 

late Mr. Hugh Taylor. M.L.A. From time to time 
during that long period the Board has been indebted 
for .services rendered, to various Premiers and to 
successive members for the borough. In 1907 ^Ir. 
;\Ioxham. M.L.A.. secured a pnmiise irom Premier 
Cai-ruthers that the sum of £750 would be placed on 
the estimates towards the building fund. However, 
shortly after, the Premier retired from the ^Ministry, 
and left no official record of the promise mad". 
Later. Mr. IMoxham and the Secretary interviewed 
the Hon. T. Waddell, State Treasui'er. with reference 
to the matter, and in the closing hours of the 1907 
session of Parliament the amount was passed. On 
January 24th, 1908, the £750 was placed to the credit 
of the 'Trustees in the Savings Bank. Arrangements 
were at once made to secure the balance of the money 
necessary, and :\Ir. F. E. Stowe, architect and C.E., 
was appointed to prepare the necessary plans. 
^Messrs. L. Shaw and Son. of Marrickville. were the 
lowest tenderers at £1297; the contract was duly 
signed on June 4th. 1908. and on December 2nd of 
that vear the building was officially opened by IMr. T. 
R. jfoxham, M.L.A. 

The Imilding affords ample accommodation for the 
dispensary and w.iiting room, a connnodious resi- 
dence for the dis|)enser. and on the western side is a 
small hall, used foi' Board and Lodge meetings. At 
this important period in the history of the Institute, 
the members of the Board and its officers were: — • 
President. Mr. W. R. Goodman; Senior Vice-Presi- 
dent. Mr. W. O'Brien; Junior Vice-President. IMr. G. 
Chri.stian; Treasurer. IMr. R. C. Bartlett; Secretary, 
I\lr. Joe Button; Past President. IMr. F. S. ; 
Trustees. IMessrs, A. Gillespie, W. Gates and P. 
ilorgan. Also IMessrs. W. J. Airey. II. Bratby. R. J. 
15rown. Jas. Catt. W. II. Carpenter. J. Drunnnond. 
II. ILJliday. J. Logan. J. Lowe. W. C. Ling. G. Mor- 
timer. C. F. IMorlev. Wm. Muston. S. W. Perry. G: A. 
Paul. J. Telfer; Medical Officers. Dr. W. S. Brown. 
Dr. E. Cuthbert Hall; Dispenser. IMr. II. J. Leddin ; 
Boy Assistant. B. Dawes: Auditors, .Messrs. Geo. 
Wati and Gen. Folk-ai'd. 

^ 0^'Z^ lyl>ttvK\ 


Court Pride of Austi'alia, Xo. 2488. A.O.F. . was 
established on Julv 26, 185(i. the first meeting being 
held at Fulton's (iiow TattersaU's) Hotel. The first 
members were Geo. Coates. Joseph Craig. Donald 
IMcGruer, Robt. Craig. Alfred Firth, John Coates, 
Robt. Reid, John Fulton and William IMcLennon. 
Bro. Geo. Coates. P.C.R.. whose name was on the 
i-oll. and who was also the first secretary of the Court, 
is the only present charter member living. During 
the past 55 years. 9:!3 members were admitted. 41 by 



clearance, and 892 by initiation. During the same 
period, 81 members died, 53 left Ijy clearance, and 
435 were in arrears or resigned, or lei't from other 
causes. Tlie present membership is 364. Tlie follow- 
ing disbursements have been made since the year 
1880: Sick payments, £8429 16s lOd: funeral dona- 
tions, £2625 14s 6d ; medical attendance and medicine, 
£8094 2s 9d; management expenses, £3113 2s Id: 
distress gifts, £119 2s 9d. The Court has at present 
5 members of over 45 years' membership, 8 of over 
40 years, and 60 of over 30 years. There are 24 
members and 7 widows participating in the benefits 
under the Subvention of Friendly Societies' Act. 
having received the amount of £77 18s 8d from the 
Government for the year 1910. During the past 12 
months the sum of £518 Is 6d was disbursed for sick 
pay, being participated in by 88 members. £130 was 
paid in funeral donations, and £333 lis Id for 
medical attendance and medicine. The total funds 
amount to £3489 9s lid. an increase of £161 6s 2d for 
the past year. 

The first officers of the Court were: — Chief Ranger. 
Bro. S. Jones; Sub-Chief Ranger, Bro. A. Firth; 
Secretary, Bro. Geo. Coates : Treasurer, Bro. J. W. 
Fulton; Senior AVoodward, Bro. Joseph Craig: 
Junior Woodward. Bro. Robt. Craig: Auditors. Bros. 
J. Craig and W. Harrison. 

The present officers of the Court are: — Chief 

Ranger. Bro. James Pickering; Sub-Chief Ranger, 
Bro. James T. Paul; Secretary. Bro. A. F. Forsyth; 
Assistant Secretary, Bro. R. Dickens ; Treasurer, Bro. 
W. Turlvington : Senior Warden. Pro. A. Lucas; 
Junior Warden. Bro. II. C. Ilandley: Senior Beadle, 
Bro. H. Crouch: Junior Beadle. Bro. T. II. Smith; 
Auditors, Bros. R. C. Bartlett. P.C.R., and R. J. 
Brown. P.C.R. ; Trustees. Bros. W. Gates, P.C.R., G. 
Garland. P.C.R.. and J. Adam.s. P.C.R. 


For years there have been two schools of opinion 
in regard to the Government Institutions in Parra- 
matta. Some have thought, and still think, that their 
existence is a misfortune to the town ; that, of their 
very nature, they detract from its value as a place 
of residence: that the appearan<'e of inmates of the 
Asylums in the streets and the Park has a depressing- 
effect; that, without them, the death-rate would be 
even smaller than it is. On the other hand it i.s 
claimed, from a business point of view, that these 
institutions mean a constant source of revenue: that 
thousands of pounds are annually spent in Parra- 
niatta liy them and the officers employed: tliat there 
is nothing in itself objectionable to the siglit in the 
streets and the Park of nu-n who have in their dav 

The Parramatta Citizens' Band, under Bandmaster A. E. Taylor; with Mr. A. Gillespie (Trustee) on the right, and 

Mr. A. M. Stanton (Hon. Sect on the left. 



tliiiic i^ood work for the State anil who are now pass- 
iiiii' their cieelininy years in peaee ami <|uiet aiivl 
eoiiif'oi-t as ];ensioners of the State. Happily, it does 
iml fall lo our lot to discuss this question from either 
jioint of view. The institutions are here to-day, and 
all that eoneerns us is to describe Iheni lirietly. Hut 
there are two thing's to be said. 

First and foremost, they are ii'overncil llii-oiiuhont 
in the most enlitihtened spirit and with the fullest 
regard to the dicta of the latest authoi'ities. Some 
of the buildinus mav l)e old ; the>' nri' old, as a matter 

was established in New South Wales. In that year 
there were 4] 53 jiersons in the two Parramatta 
Asylums, in the Cottage Homes. Liverpool. Rookwood 
and Xewington. Ten years later, in this present year, 
there were 3097 inmates of these institutions — a 
remarkable decrease, considei inii the growth of popu- 
lation in the decade. 

Or, take another set of fig'ures, confined solely to 
the two Parranmtta As>-lums and the Cottage Homes. 
Twenty years ago. in ISDl. there were 1"_'G."> inmates 
— this \('i\v there are 4li7. These figures are ehupuMit 

Girls' Industrial School, Parramatta ; formerly the Roman Catholic Orphan School. 

ol' fact ; olil lor Australia any way. lUit the iiielhods 
emi)loyed are anything but old. They are, emphati- 
cally, up to date. The old-time methods are gone 
be.yond recall, and ilie officers in charge of the 
various institutions are all imbued — so far as one 
may judge from present indications and from results 
— with a fixed determination to keep abreast, if not 
ahead, of the times. And in the carrying into ju-ac- 
tice of this determinaticn they liave been, and ai'e, 
eminently successful. 

And there is this further thing to lie said, that, 
if the Old Age Pensions system has not — as was 
foolishly foretold of it — abolished asyhnus, it has 
considerably diminished the number of persons who 
are housed by the State in these buildings. The Chief 
Secretary's Department courteously j)repared a 
table for the use of this History, which show.s the 
number of inmates in each asylum, each year from, 
and including, 1890. We are unable, unfortunately, 
to publish this interesting return in tabular form ; 
partl.y because it includes institutions outsich; Parra- 
matta and partly for reasons of space. But a few 
figures from it may be i)laced in .juxtaposition. In 
1901, as readers know, the Old Age Pension system 

both of the [progress of the Stale ami of the uses ot 
the Old Age Pension system. 

To take the institutions in their natural order we 
have, first, 

The Industrial School for Girls. 

Even at this date the hist.)ry of the main building 
is involved in doubt and uncertainty, but it may be 
taken that the block which now includes the adminis- 
trative offices was created in connection with the 
"Factory" hard by. Possibly it w^as the residence 
of the long-suffering superintendent of the Factory — 
a place to which he might retire when the wars of 
contending factions became too hot. Any way, it is 
strong enough now, with its stone steps, to stand a 

For years it was used as a distinctively Ronum 
Catholic Orphanage, but now it is open to the chil- 
dren of parents who are of any creed or of none. 
Ministers of various denominations visit it, and every 
facility seems to be aft'ordcMl to the inculcation of 
])articular religious tenets. 

But the main ob.ject of this institution is the re- 
formation of sjirls in their teens. And nobly is the 



school doiiiii' its work luuli'i- the direction of Mr. A. 
Thnnipson. 15. A.. Sui)erinteiident. assisted by iliss 
Buhh (.Matron), and a line staff of teachers. The 
ob.ject of the institntion is to take in hand the ^irls 
who. throniih defective parental oversight, or from 
other causes. Iwni' focilislily started on the wroni;' 
path. They are pulled hack liere. They are shown 
the error of their ways and are i)i)inted straight. 
In times i)ast there were, unfortunately, mistakes in 
the government of this school. There are none now. 
It is a home for girls who ha\e had no home com- 
forts. It is a school for them, wherein they nuiy 
learn — and do h^arii — the lieanties and the ailvan- 
tages of (dean living and lumest work. The School 
■s doing a nuirvellous work in this respect. There 
are now no attemj'ts at escape from what is really a 
well-eijuipped boarding-scho(]l. governed by some ot 
the best teachers in tin' land. 

The Asylums for the Destitute. 

There are two Asylums for the Destitute in I'arra- 
matta — one in Maeqnarie-street and the other in 
George-street. Both have historic interest. On the 
spot now occupied by the old building of the ilae- 
quarie-street Asylum stood once the first hospital 
erected in Australia; the central block of the Oeorge- 
street institution was once the barra<'ks of the 
Imperial troops quartered here in tlie old days. The 
greatest care and vigilance are used in the manage- 
ment of these two institutions, and it is indeed sur- 
prising to note how old liuildiugs and old ajiijliances 
have been converted into use for the present year id' 
grace. But. whatever the authorities nuiy do in tlu' 
way of modernisation, the days of the Macquarii'- 
street Asylum are uinnl)ered. The arrangement of 
the buildings is hopelessly bail, viewed from a 
twentieth century standjioint, though the nu)st is 
made of every circumstance. The place is scrui>u- 
lously clean, which could not l)e said of it a. decade 
or so ago; but it is absolutely imjiossible fin* officers, 
however capable and enthusiastic, to transform this 
sow"s ear of an institution into a silk purse. The 
arrangements made for thi' comfort of the inmates 
are admirable, and the available op'portunities are 
utilised to the utmost. The mati'on in charge of tliis 
a.sylum is Miss ]\I. Crimes. 

In the George-street Asylum tiicre is also every- 
where to be seen evidences of tiu' most careful atten- 
tion to the reasonable needs of inmates. The 
matron, Mrs. Peake. and her hard-working staff are 
instant all the time in discharging their important 
duty to the fidlest extent. Tlie place is a pictui'e 
of (deaidiness and order. I»ut it too suffers from the 
disease which affects even the youngest of us. It is 
growing old. Originally, as we have seen, the main 
building was erected for the purposes of barracks, 
and it is obvious that the old men w-ho are the objects 
of the State's solicitude here are not likely to be so 
active as the marines in tlie reign of George III. The 
accommodation snpi)lied is of the good, wholesome 
oi'ih'r, and care is taken to supply the literary as 
well as the recreation needs of the inmates. The 
residents vary in number as in character. Amongst 

them are many men who have in their day done the 
State some service, and who are entitled to peaceful 
repose in their old age. JIany, too. use their re- 
maining ]iowers of mind and body iu various ways, 
thus adtliug to their own comfort and to the well- 
lifing of their ciuurades. 

The Cottage Homes. 

An institution which is now on its last legs is the 
Cottage Homes, which was designed ami used for 
years for the benefit of married coui)les who had 
fallen on evil days and who. oltjecting to the 
bai-rack-systeiu of the Asylum. st)ught to spend tinur 
di'clining days in comparative seclusion and iiule- 
pendence. Clustered ne;ir the I'aihvay station arc 
these cottage homes — well built, well furnished, 
each of the sort which a well-to-do artisan would 
like to rent for his family. Each honu' is conq)lete 
in itself. ;iiu\ some of them are marvels of careful 
attention iind simple decoration. There is a gener- 
ous dietary scale — as. indeed, there is in all the 
asylums — and the utmost care is taken to supply 
these aged guests of the State with every reasoiuible 

The Hospital for the Insane. 

The Hospital for the Insane is luiw one (d' thi^ 
show-|)laces of Parramatta ; and tliis not at the 
expense, but to the mati'rial bcuetit. of the patients. 

Dr. W. C. Williamson. 

In an earlier part (d' this History a description was 
given of the "Factory"" and of liow it was built and 
what went on there. This Factory is now a part of 
one of the best managed institutions in the State. 

WlE Jubilee history of parramattA. 


in 1863 a visiting ceelesiastit' bad referred to it as 
"a frio-htfnl old factory-prison." and it was perhaps 
only natural that those responsible for its trans- 
formation into an up-to-date lunatic asylum viewed 
their taslt with alaj-ni and hopelessness. Thus we 
find Dr. Planning writing' of it despairingly in 1868. 
"It needs no special knowledge." he says, "to see 
how completely unfit the old Factory, with its gloomy 
and ill-ventilated cells and their iron-barred doors, 
is as a residence for those meutall.v afflicted." But 
the impossible has been done. In the half century 
which has elapsed since this melancholy report was 
handed in to the Government, .successive superintend- 
ents have brought to l)ear upon the institution 
enlightened ideas of the care and treatment of the 
mentally afflicted. Improvement followed improve- 
ment, and the present superintendent, Dr. W. C. 
Williamson, ma.v honestly claim that he has more 
than fulfilled his jiredecessors' highest amliitions. 
He has turned the giiuuids into beauty-siiots. Know- 
ing well how occui)ation in the prei)aration (if 
attractive landscapes is as beneficial as the contem- 
plation of them, he has achieved a two-fold triumph: 
he has given pleasant emplo.vment to his patients and 
— incidentall.v. as it were — he has made the surround- 
ings of the old Factorv a .joy to the eye. All the 
gloom that Dr. ^Manning noted has gone awa.v for 
ever, and the Parramatta Ilosjiital for the Insane is 
a model to the student in the art and science of treat- 
ing diseases of the mind. Such patients as are 
physicall.v fit take a personal pleasure in forwarding 
the beautification of the Hospital grounds : and they 
thereb.v advance theii- own recovery. And all the 
patients, knowingl,y or unwittingl,v. derive benefit 
from the labor of love in which the Superintendent 
has set them an example. Externally the Hospital is 
a jiicture: iiiternall.v it is admirabl.\' fitted for the 
treatment of mental trouble — and marvellously suc- 
cessful in this ti'eatuient . 

The Gaol. 

Elsewhere has been narrated \]\c history of suc- 
cessive gaols in Parramatta. from the log att'air of 

the 18th century. Then the first word was said in 
the matter of gaol construction ; in the Parramatta 
gaol to-da,v the last word is said about the humane 
.^et regular treatment of pri.soners. The internal 
economy of the prison, which is used for the worst 
class of criminals from all over the State, is elabor- 
ately simple aiul simply complete. Externall.v. the 
gaol is no ornameut to the town and jiresmnabl.v it 
will, louu' licfoi-c the Council celebrates its centenary, 

F. E. Bloxham. 

have lieen shifted liodilx' <iut of the place, llcan- 
while. it is governed after tile most approved modern 
methods, aiul coml)ines the nuiximum of comfort to 
the prisoners with the minimum of necessary res- 
traints. The Governor is Mr. F. E. Bloxham. a man 
who held himself abreast of the reforms of iieiu)logy. 
Just now he is absent from dut.y on leave and his 
place is being taken by Mr. D. G. D'Arcy, of Bath- 

The Searle Monument, Parramatta River. 



SCATTERED through this book ;ul- views of Par- 
niattii Park. They could have been iiuiltiplieil 
indefinitely — and yet the natural charms of the 
Park woukl not have been exhausted. It is a greiit 
civic possession, though it is not governed by civic 
representatives. There the tired citizen may Hiid 
relief from cares and worries, as he wanders at ran- 
dom from scene of beauty to scene of beauty. 
Resting beneath the shade of a grand old tree whose 
historv goes back further than his own, which has 

and weatiiiT long aftci' we who celebrate this jubilee 
iiave gone into the darkness — there are many troups 
lit children who in their turn will grow up and think 
themselves all-powerful. They too will fade away 
into the unseen, having, as one trusts and believes, 
done their honest best to leave the Murld a little 
better, somehow, than it was when they came into it. 
Nowhere else in Au.stralia is one brought face to 
face with the more peaceful beauties of Nature as he 
is brought in Parramatta Park. It is the oldest 


The Lower Drive, by the River, Parramatta Park. 

withstood greater storms than those which have 
beaten on his head, he finds the peace which Nature 
has it in her power to bestow on these strange 
children of hers, who fuss and fret and worry their 
little lives away in supposed rule of the particular 
part of the universe whi(!h belongs to them — for a 
moment. And under the shade of these trees — which 
will bear themselves bravely in the teeth of wind 

liul)lic reserve in Australia of any importance. It is 
full of historical recollections. Men who are mere 
names to us in Australia y)assed many a happy hour 
in its glades and alongside the river which gently 
meanders thr(uigh it. Sad scenes, inseparable from 
the conditions on which the colony was founded, 
surge to the memory as having been enacted here. 
The shadowy figures of old-time Governors flit 



through tlie shades. Phillip walked here, uncon- 
scious of the greatness to which liis "settlement" 
was to reach. (And we, who walk in the Park to- 
day and ruminate on the past, are as unconscious of 
the future as Phillip was.) And all the gallant 
sailor-men that, by strange choice, the British 
Governmejit thought best ecpiipped to ride Australia 
— all strolled through the Park. Hunter and King 
and Bligh, who in turn lived in Old Government 
House, devoted their energies here now to this 
scheme, now to another, for the development of the 
resources of the country. Brisbane devoted hours 
and daj's and weeks to his beloved observatory — 
whose remains may be seen in the picture on p. 77. 
When the naval Governors gave place to the mili- 
tary, the progressive llacquarie meditated here as 
to how he should circumvent Marsden, perhaps, or 
as to what building he should next employ his 
emancipist architect's genius upon. It is not Mac- 
quarie's fault that the 20th century looks askance 
on Greenway's architectural ideas: both good men 
did their best in an age when ideas of any kind were 
both scarce and at a discount. Darling deliberated 
in this park — then Government Domain — on the best 
ways and means for the squashing of a free press, 
and his successor, Bourke, on the enfranchisement of 
the intellect of a rising nation. Gipps, too — a dic- 
tator born to an age which had no use for dictator- 
ship — angrilv paced the Park, goaded to fury by the 
unaccountable o|)position of even a nominee Council 
to his desires and wishes. A merrier i)erson was 
Fitzro.y, who did not care a liuttciii how matters of 
the state progressed so long as he could enjoy his 
menus plaisirs, and in his time Parramatta Park 
might have been the Hyde Park of the da.^'s of his 
ancestor, Charles II. Last of all tlie Governors resi- 
dent in Parramatta Park M'as Sir William Denison 
— who was also the last of the "Governor-Generals" 
until Federation was established. 

It so happened that the last year of Governor 
Denison 's rule coincided with the .year of the incor- 
poration of Parramatta. and the surrender of Old 
Government House and Domain ti) the nation was 
regarded in some quarters in the ligiit of a ])ei-sonaI 
benefaction from the (iovernor to the town. Of 
course it was nothing of the kind. The liomaiu 
wasn't his to give; and it was not then — an.v more 
than it is now — a distinctly Pari'amattan possession. 
It lielongs to the nation, and its government is vested 
in a Hoard of Trustees ai)pointed by the representa- 
tives of the State, not by the ratepayers of the town. 

It cannot truthfully be said that this system has 
been attended with tiie success which was presum- 
abl.y expected of it. Tlie trustees for the last half- 
centurv have been of tlie town, lint they have not 
been representative of the town in the way that a 
person elected to Parliament is a, re]n'esentative of 
his constituency. They were appointed jiractically 
l).y the Board, and nobody now is jirepared to defend 
the i)rincii)le of co-option. Trustees in the past have 
secured the appointment of persons to fill vacancies 
as the.y arose — excellent persons who have done good 
service to the town, liut who were either unable or 

unwilling to do good service to the Park. It has to 
be remembered in their favor that they have had but 
a small vote to administer, and that the.v actuall.y 
had not the mone.y to devote to the origination or the 
maintenance of progressive schemes. Unfortunatel.v, 
however, the trustees did not attempt the doing of 
things that wanted doing. Some of them seem 
to have taken no interest in the work which they 
undertook, and for months at a stretch there was no 
quorum at their meetings. That meant, of course, 
the not-doing of things that ought to have been done, 
and the doing of the things l\v paid servants, more 

Dr. Reginald Bowman, Chairman of the Park Trust. 

or less /.cabins, liut almost inv;ii'i;ilily niiiiitelligent. 
Of late, consiilerable energy has been infused into 
the management of the Park, and the improvements 
that have been made under the regime of the present 
ti'ustees serve to enhance the natural beauties of this 
national possession. To-day the trustees are: — Dr. 
Bowman (chairman), T. \V. Pollock (lion. tr(>asurer), 
Joe Button (lion, secretary). Dr. W. C. Williamson, 
Aldermen Xoller and E. .1, iirown. and .Mr. AY. R. 

But the grossest carelessness could not m;ike the 
Park other than what is is — the natural I'ecreation- 
groinid of the townspeople and of Austr;ili;ins gener- 
;ill.\ . It comprises "J!)') acres of land, admirably adajjt- 
ed for the purpose to wliieli it is now put. in the ohl 
days, whilst it was .vet a Covenimcnt House Domain, 
pai-t was protected b.v Governor Macquarie with a 
I'uhble wall. a>id this in due coui'se was rejilaced b.v 



a stone wall and iron railinss- The next move will 
probably he the I'eniova! of these hindrances to the 
full enjoyment by tiie iieopU' of tlie i>eoi)le's pro- 
perty. The old s|)irit of exclusion and seclusion is 
passinj;' away, and with its de|)aiture may be wel- 
comed the new spirit which will ensure the jealous 
guardianship of public property ; so that every citi- 
zen will regard the lieauties of the Park as things 
that belong partly to himself and to be preserved 
by him from damage just as carefully as his private 
garden is. 

It is on record in the minutes of the Council that 
a couple of aldermen were so impressed with the 
generosity of Governor Denison in granting the 
Domain to Parranuitta. that they desired in com- 
nuMuoration of this no1)le gift of what did not belong- 
to the donor, to eommenuirate our last Governor- 
General by calling the bridge connecting Church- 
street South with Church-street North after his 
luime. The proposal was liappily defeated, and 
Lennox Bridge to-day recalls the builder, not an 
accidental tigure-head wlio had none l)ut an official 
aiul pecuniary interest in tiie welfare of Parramatta, 
or of New South Wales, in' of Australia. 

Athletic sports were held iu-re. in wiiidi mi'n now 

living took part as competitors. Mr. E. !\1. Betts has 
in his possession the jjrogramme of such a nu^eting 
held on New Year's Day. 18G7 — a few years, that is. 
after the incorpcu-ation of the borough. It was under 
the ])atronage of the Hon. James Byrnes, and the 
committee consisted of ^Messrs. J. 8. Farnell. C. 
JlcCrae. Aklermen (ioUedge and Ilarjier. F. Wick- 
ham. A. L. .McDougall. E. M. Betts. John Taylor, 
Captain Fairclough and Dr.Fyffe. All these good citi- 
zens are dead now except Mr. Betts. [The programme 
was printetl in Sydney. Presumably there were at 
the time no printers in Parramatta; or. if there were, 
their tenders for the work were too high. Now- 
adays, of course, the preference, if any, is given to 
business men who employ labor and spend money in 
the district.] The prizes were in coin of the realm, 
aiul varied from three sovereigns downwards. It is 
interesting to note the names of the athletes — ]Mars- 
den. for instance. Abliott. Ferguson. Williams. Wats- 
ford. Garland. Rowling. Payten aiul (iowanlock. 
Several nuMubers of one family com|)eted, and one 
wonders whether Charles Cawood, of the Parramatta 
Volunteer Rifles, won his engagement in the "Volun- 
teer match, in full uniform, 2(10 yards." Sergeant 
Cawood nuiy satisfy us on this point, ten years hence, 
when he is beginning to regard himself as a veteran. 

The Bowling Green, Parramatta Park. 






By Mr. Robert Goldrick (Honorary Secretary, 1906-11). 

RACING the game of bowls 
played under club rules 
back to the source from 
which a continuous and 
connected history can be 
written, we find that Par- 
ramatta is its l)irthplace in 
Australia, a n d 
that I\Ir. Alexan- 
der Johnstone, 
senior, is the man 
wlio introduced 
it uiuler club con- 
ditions of play. 
i\Ir. Johnstone is 
a native of Scot- 
land, one of the 
oldest residents 
of Parramatta, 
Parraniatta Club. 
a.ue. lie was the 
Parramatta: he is 


Alexander Johnstone. 

and a life member of 
He is over ninety years 
first man tit play bowls 
the founder of the d'arramatta Club ; and when 
the first bowling- club was formed in this town in tlie 
year 1870, no other bowling club existed in Australia. 
More than that, the game has been played under club 
rules in this town from then till now. Undoul)tedly 
the man most deserving of the title of "Father of the 
Game of Bowls in Au.stralia" is onr old friend I\Ir. 
Alexander Johnstone; and that witlujut ih^racting 
in the slightest from the great services rendei-ed the 
game by the late IMr. John Young. Unfortunately. 
in past years, the work of the townsmen of Parra- 
matta in this direction was never brought promin- 
ently under public notice. The official history of the 
game has been dated from the year 1880 — the time of 
forming the New South "Wales Bowling Association. 
AVliat liappened between the years 1868 and 1880 — 
the twelve years during which the pioneer work of 
introducing and establishing the game was accom- 
pli.shed — has never been recorded. That worl\ was 
done in Parramatta b>' a band of workei-s led by 
Mr. Johnstone, who alone had any practical know- 
ledge of bowls. During the past five years, as 
Honorary Secretary of the old Club, I liave had th(> 
advantage of possesing the records, and of collecting 
from aidhoritative sources relialde infnrnial inn upon 

this interesting question. For much of the material 
collected I am indebted to my old friends Mr. John- 
stone, Mr. C. J. Byrnes. Mr. F. C. Cox, Mr. Neil 
Stewart. Mr. Edward Ellison. Dr. AV. S. Brown, the 
late Mr. H. A. Richardson, Mr. Harry FuUagar. and 
many other old members of the Woolpack and Parra- 
matta Clubs. Mr. Neil Stewart, who is now within 
measurable distance of completing a life of one 
hundred years, when writing to me a few years ago, 
said: — "Mr. Alexander Johnstone and Mr. Nat. 
Payten are fairly entitled to the honor of having 
introduced the game of bowls with a primitive set of 
wood. When the Woolpack Club was formed, which 
I joined and maintained my connection with until 
very old age compelled me to retire from this 
pleasurable, healthy game, wc did not care about 
keeping records. We thouglit much more of har- 
nu)uy and good-fellowship." 

At this distance of time, in the absence of complete 
records, it is difficult to set down dates with exact- 
ness. But from the information furnished it seems 
clear that it v.-as about 1868 when Mr. Johnstone, 
finding bowls unprocurable here, induced his friend, 
Mr. Thomas Eades. of Pennant-street, Parramatta, to 
turn the set which Mr. Neil Stewart refers to as 
"primitive." Mr. Johnstone used this set on Eliza- 
beth Farm in solitude, and for his own enjoyment 
and recreation, at a tinu^ when others considered his 
action somewhat eccentric and lilcely to be followed 
tiy the filling in of a lunacy certificate. A little later, 
Iwwever, when the townsfolk discovered ilr. John- 
stone had persuaded such a level-headed business 
man as the late Mr. Nat. Payten. of the Woolpack 
Hotel, that the game of bowls was worth playing, 
they began to realise that the pioneer was less of a 
crank than of an enthusiastic advocate of a national 
game of skill. Then the late Mr. W. Nicholl and the 
old Parramatta lawyer, the late ^Ir. Tom Hellyer, 
came in and completed the first rink. At that time 
the only patch of ground approaching bowling green 
requirements was the cricket pitch in the park. But 
this was occupied during the day. and the four 
pioneers named had to liave recourse to paying the 
historical moonliglit night visit to the cricket ground 
to witness ]\Ir. Johnstone's jtractical demonstrations 
of the game of bowls. IVIr. -lohnstone won. iMessrs. 
Nat. Pa^-fen. Tom Hellyer and W. Nicholl were con- 
vinced that the game was Avorth playing, and Mr. 
Nat. Payten then established it. He dug out his 
vegetalde garden at the rear of the Woolpack Hotel 
and set to work forming the first rinlc about the 
year 186!). ]Mr. Harry FuUagar, in after years so 



often the Parramatta Club champion, and then quite 
a youth, put in some of the most streinious work of 
his life M'heelinii' hai-row-lnads of soil tn hi'i]i the old 
gentlemen on with their hol)b\ . 

The AVoolpaek Club was formed in the year ISTO. 
Two years late Judsje Holroyd laid down another 
green at his private house at Sherwood Scrubs, and 
about 1873-4 jMr. Biirkitt completed the tliird green 
at The King's School. Dr. AV. S. Brown, then a 
schoolboy, claims that he also wheeled harrow-loads 
of soil to help matters along there. But whether 
voluntaril.v. like Mr. FuUagar. or as a task, history 
recordeth not, and the popular doctor-President 
smiles in his forgetfulness when taxed at this dis- 

Wickhani, Captain McCrae, Captain Fairclough, 
Captain Chatfield, Chas. Ryan. C. B. Cairnes and II. 
A. KicliardsDU. Other members were Sir. C. J. 
Byrnes. .Mr. F. C. Cox, llr. Neil Stewart. Mr. D. D. 
Henderson and Mr. Arthur Hayes — all of whom, 
with oMr. Alexander Johnstone, are still living, ilr. 
B.vrnes. ^Ir. Cox and ^Mr. Henderson have maintained 
their club connection throughout and are active and 
very skilful pla.vers still. 

The old Woolpack Clul) existed a])out ten years. 
Then the propert.\- changed hands and led to the 
formation of the present club in 1880. At its start it 
was one of the most conservative institutions in this 
State, and the game was restricted to the three greens 

The Committee of the Parramatta Bowling and Recreation Club. 

Reading from left to right—Standing : J. Hellberg. R. Goldrick, G. Coates, jun., J. Finlayson, J. Graham, W. A. Kiraber. 

Sitting: T. O. Stenmark, T. D. Little. A. E. Marsden, Dr. W. S. Brown, D. D. Henderson, R. Straub, L, C. Litton. 

tanee of time upon this (luestion. And it iu;iy he 
said. too. while crediting Mr. Fidlagar with his 
actions, that there is a latent doubt still in the minds 
of a few of the preseut inemliers of the Parrainattii 
Club as to whether or not his laborus were altogether 
spontaneous. The past history of these bowling 
enthusiasts, however, undoubtedly entitles each to 
the credit of voluntar.v ett'ort. which is here conceded 
in its fulness in the absence of direct evidence to the 
contra rv. 

Amongst the original meiubers of the Woolpack" 
C'lub and those who .joined shortly afterwards, we 
find the names of the late Dr. Walter Brown, and 
Messrs. Andrew Pavten. H. R\au. Cajitain Bvi-ncs, 
W, Fullagar. W. f'. Burkitt, J. M. Toohev. Frank 

alread.\- mentioiu'd. as there were then no other 
greens to pla.\' ujion. The meiubers of the Woolpack 
Club were all townsmen of high standing whose lives 
wcic as inseparable in the social, jjolitical and 
inuiiicipal historv of Parramatta as in the game 
of bowls the.v played under most exclusive condi- 
tions. They were men associated as friends, whose 
political views mostl.v agreed. If .\'on were in tiie 
"set" .von could Jila.v bowls: if .\ou were not. you 
stood out. 

Tile game in Australia owes the standing it holds 
lo-day lar.ael.v to its establishment under these condi- 
tions. It lifted the game from the '"up and down 
for drinks"' environment wliich almost strangled 
it in Kiieliind — by grading it amongst skittle-alley 

^BE Jubilee history of parramatta. 


;nul tap-room surroiuidiiiKs — into a popular game of 
skill, jilayed niider (.'lub rules and ethics; ethics 
which stand unvaried after the lapse of forty years, 
allieit the constitution is the patchwork result of 
annual revisions covering the same length of time. 
Although we may advocate more ui)-tn-date methods 
of election we are compelled to a dm ire the ethics of 
the old school. And woe betide the members who 
transgress under the impression that the rules ar(> 
laws and that etliics inconsistent with laws are 
luilawful ! I unconsciously transgressed against the 
code governing the method of conferring the honors 
of the club. I was under the imi)ression that elec- 
tions l)y balliit are usually accompanied by 
wholesome results, and posted six nominations for 
the four offices of Vice-President. I was promptly 
and firmly, but courteously, told that the Parramatt.i 
Bowling Club ahvays gives with both hands anil 
nevei- confers an Imnoi- without the fullest clul) 
distinction beliind it : that Patrons. Presidents, and 
Vice-Presidents are honored^ by their clul) for their 
worth and the services they have rendered in past 
\-ears; that siu-h honoi's are the gifts of the club and 




unanunously confei'red. 
ethics in the old club is as 
laws of the I\ledes and tlu' 

as such nnist 
unvv-ritten coch 
unalterable as 

In the course of thirty-three years the clul) has 
honored but three nu^n with the title of President. 
The late Jlr. R. Harper was President about ten 
years, Mr. F. C. Cox twelve years, icnd Dr. W. S. 
Brown, who is still in office, the only President 
bowlers of the last decade knew as such. JMr. D. D. 
Henderson is still going strong after twenty years 
as Vice-President, Mr. C. J. Byrnes is still Patron. 
He was Patron some quarter of a eentuiy ago, Mr. 
Ellison was treasurer for some eighteen years. The 
jiresent treasurer and secretary have each held office 
about five years, and ilessrs. G. Coates, Henry ^lason, 
and A. E. IMar.sden hope to beat IMr. Henderson's 
"V,-P," record of eighteen years, but D. D. is a long 
way off" being done." In these instances dotted down 
from memory we find the concrete result of the ethics 
of the old school. So there was no election. The 
surplus number withdrew and the Inmors of previous 
years were again bestowed upon the same V.-P"s. 
with both hands, ily earnest wish is that these 
gentlemen may knixdc D. D's. reciu-d into a cocked 
hat. I am as piMnd to-day of the unwritten code of 
the old club as 1 am of the frieudshi]) of the men 
M'ith whom it has been my ju'ivilege to be associated 
so long. My transgressions in this respect at least 
have long since been forgiven. And if kindness, 
help and invarial)le response in meeting my engage- 
ments, covering five years, from all members are 
testing evidences of respect and a[)preciation. 1 
retire from office jiroud indeed of that long and 
happy association. 

Looking back to our boyhood days we can hardly 
realise we are in dail>' association with the same men 
upon such intiuuite. homely terms of friendship. But 
they are not the sanu; men. at least not to us. No 
men opened the gates of the bowling green wider to 

intending bowlers of all classes in later years than 
the self-same men — the remnant of the old school 
who slammed the door in 187(1 to all but friends; 
nor can we shut our eyes to the fruitful influences of 
their worth, their example, their advice, their friend- 
ship, and their club code of hoiuu' upon the younger 

Dr. W. S. Brown, President of tne Parramatta Bowlfng Club, 

generation of bowlers. They are nt)t to us the men 
they were in years gone by. They are our friends. 
A week is a ditt'erent week to us when illness falls 
their way or things don't go just as they usually do — 
a week when the club has a fit of the "blues." We 
are proud of the old school, and glad, glad indeed to 
file their names in the Jubilee History of the old 
town they love, where they fought the upliill battle 
of life in strenuous times; where some of them died 
without a line of praise or recognition of the work 
they did in establishing and fostering the game now 
controlled by a States' Federation throughout Aus- 
tralia. And we are prouder still of the remnant with 
us yet — the connecting link with the past, tlu' living 
evidence of pioneer efi:'ort. 

Observant bowlers notice tlie large nninber of 
players we first met five years ago. who walk, tliiidv, 
talk, dress and enjoy themselves on the mat belter — 
who are more refined, more broadminded, nu)re at 
their ease to-day — than they were before the advan- 
tages of club-life opened the way to this form of 
healthy recreation, the exchange of ideas and the 



emulation of the niceties of life which lift hundreds 
of men, unaccustomed to speak in conference, into 
the position of wise and resourceful councillors at the 

committee rooms of their cluhs throuuhuut Australia 
to-day. Every bowler in Australia knows tlie 
uplifti)i,u- influences of this game. It is too marked to 
be unseen. But how many do know that, were it imt 
established under exclusive social conditions in 
Parramatta over forty years ago. it may still have 
remained the pot-house catch-penny which led to the 
flogging of a convict for playing bowls at Botany in 
the year 1846 " the and to the detriment 
of his master's interests"? Under the presidency of 
the late Dr. Walter Brown, and those presidents who 
came after him under the Woolpack regime up to 
1880, as imder the presidency of his son. Dr. W. S. 
Brown, to-day, the game was lifted into high re])ute 
and kept there. It is popular amongst all classes 
throughout Australia to-day. because a bowler is 
inspired with the idea that the reputation of his 
club stands on top, and 'diil) hiinor is the guiding 
principle in every crisis. 

Commercial reasons led to tlie closing of the old 
Woolpack green, and to the foundation of the 
present club in the vear 1880. The founders were 
jMessrs. R. A. Ritchie. W. FuUagar. S. M. Dennis. R. 
Harper, sen., John Harper. Pemberton, A. Brown, 
Gilbert, Kinchela, W. Brodie. Bennett. Corderoy. 
John Nobbs. Fred. Weston. U. D. Henderson. Sydney 
Wieldiam. P. IMaybury, H. A. Richardson. J. U. 
Toohey. L. IMenser. W. R. Murray, Steiihenson. Dr. 
Isaac Waugh and Thomas Barnett. 

In addition to bowls the club 
caters for tennis, golf and croquet. 
Tennis and croquet are subsidised 
b.y nominal rent charges. There are 
two tennis clubs and a croquet cluli. 
with a combined membership of 

100; a golf club with 40 players, and a liowliug club 
with a niemliership of 130. In all. the club provides 
healthy outdoor recreation for about 270 towus- 

^Ir. F. C. Cox is now the Patron, and Dr. W. 
Sigismund Brown the President. The Vice-Presi- 
dents are Messrs. Henry jMason, A. E. Marsden. D. D. 
Henderson and George Coates. .jun. ; Mr. T. D. Little 
and ]\Ir. R. Goldrick hold the offices of Hon. Treasurer 
aiul Hon. Secretary respectively. The General Com- 
mittee is elected b\' ballnt. and the following 

Grorge Coates. Jun. 

menihcrs hold office: — Messrs. R. Straub. John Fin- 
layson. W. A. Kimlier. W. J. Morey. H. (^uigley, 
and L. C. Litton. The Trustees are Dr. W. S. Brown 
and Mr. A. E. Marsden. ami the Auditors, Messrs. 
Kimber and Megarvey. 



Mr. William Hart. 

Mr. Williiim ILirt, the liead of the firm of lle.s.srs. 
Hart, HitchcoL'k and C'o., has .succeeded in establish- 
ing a large and flourishing business in his native 
town. He is also a champion bowler, and for several 
years has held that honor in the Parramatta Bowling 



Club, wliilc he has also represented the State witli 
distinction in inter-State matches. He is a very 
popular sport and citi.zen and possesses the confid- 
ence and esteem of tliousaiids of clients and friends 
not only for his conspicuous ability, but for high 
business principles. 

Dr. W. S. Brown. 

Dr. W. Sigismuiid Bj-own is certainly one of the 
most distinguished of Parramatta-born celebrities. 
The doctor is jiopularly known as "a good sport." 
and all that that ex[)ressive term conveys for skill 
and straightness. As a good sport in every sense of 
the term. Dr. Brown's record is unique, and, we 
daresay, unequalled by any man in Australia. In 
every line of sport that he engaged in he became a 
champion. As The King's School's representative he 
won the all-schools' championship for 4-tO yards flat 
race, in 1871). The same year, and the year before 
that, he was captain of the cricket and football teams 
at The King's School. One of the cricket achieve- 
ments of T.K.S. in which he played a prominent part 
was quoted in Lillyvvhite's Annual for some years 
as a record. This was the mammoth score of 560 

rims scored by T.K.S. against Southey's School. On 
that occasion the Doctor, C. G. Wade (afterward.s 
Premier of N.S.W.). and Hillas made centuries. Dr. 
Brown was also included in the Next Thirteen which 
played a test match against Evans' Australian Eleven 
previous to its departure for England. He also won 
in 1881 the tennis chamiiionship of Guy's Hospital, 
London, from over ::!0() students, and plaved three- 
(luarter with the Blacklieath Football Club, then the 
leading London club, when Stoddart, the celebrated 
English cricketer and footballer, was one of the team. 
He was captain of Gu.y's Hospital Cricket Club for 
tliree years in succession, when his club won the 
Hospital Cup eacji time. He received a cap of honor 
with Gu.v's football team in 1882-3. Returning to 
Parramatta. he won the championship of the I'arra- 
matta Bowling Club, and tiie championshi|) of the 
Parramatta Golf Club in l!)()!)-](). The Dr. has been 
president of the l?(iwlinu Clul) for many yeai"s. 

Mr. G. Coates, Jun. 

Mv. George Coates, .jun., is best known t i present- 
day Parramattans as an expert bowlei'. bul he has 
covered all varieties of sport with distinction in his 
native town. He has during the last quarter of a 
century engineered successfull.v as secretary the 
Parramatta Football Club, the Parramatta Rowing 
Clul), and the Central Cumberland Electorate Cricket 
Club. He now devotes himself almost exclusivel.y to 
bowls, and has been champion of his club in several 
occasions, as well as for .years one of tlie most for- 
midable of inter-State players. 


By Mr. T. D. Little, J. P. 

The game of cricket has, almost since the fnuiula- 
tion of the colon.v. been one of the foremost 
sports in Parramatta. It was early introduced 
b.v the niilitar.v officers of the Imperial Arm.v. and 
old hands tell of many important matches being 
played on the grounds attached to the Barracks. 
The grounds were extensive, and included the land 
on which now stand the buildings of the Parramatta 
District School. Unfortunatel.v the ul)i(iuitous 
cricket reporter and ''The Argus Corner" were not 
then in existence, so the dought.v deeds of Captiiiii (an enthusiastic militar.v cricketer in the 
fifties), and others of less renown, must go down to 
posterity unsung. The game was fostered b.v these 
military officers, and so it is not surprising that we 
hear in the earl.y da.ys of Parramatta players pitting 
themselves against the cream of S.vdne.v. Important 
matches were pla.ved in the fifties and sixties 
between Parramatta, Maitland, and the Hawkes- 
Ijurv district —all important cricket centres. 

The big matches were i)layed on the! Barracks 
ground, on the Newlands Estate, or on the Old 



Gaol Green (uow Alfred Square). The scene of one 
of these matches was quite imposinp;. tents being 
dotted round the ground. There would be a tent 
for the honu' team, another for the visitors, also one 
for the luncheon booth, to say nothing of those 
erected by pulilicans and |)urveyors of ginger beer. 
cider and watermelons. These matches created a 
deal of interest, and large sums of money were 
freely wagered on the result. Besides this, the 
matches were generally accompanied by a side wager 
of so much per bat — generally £5. and up to i^lO jier 
bat. I remember, as a nipper, seeing one of these 
matches played. It was lietween Parramatta and 
IMaitland. Parramatta won. nmid a scene of great 
excitement. b\" tlie nari'ow margin of one or two runs. 

W. W. Bodenham. 

President, Central Cumberland Electorate 

Cricket Club. 

I')iib Dunn fielded at i)oint, and. as a l)all was 
delivered, he literally threw himself forward and 
took the ball off the bat. The money was on. and the 
risk had to be taken. Some of the prominent players 
of those days were Tom Ashby. Robert Dunn. James 
Folkes. John Booth, and Ted. Lakeman. Later on. 
<mr stars were Bob Rutter. Alf. Brown. Joe Pavten. 
Ted. Belts. Bill Eury. Sam Purchase. Will Parker, 
and Mally Dennis. Later still, in the .seventies, we 
had Burkitt. Griffiths. Vallack, James Tavlor. Dave 
Richardson. W. Parker. T. Barnett. Wally Oakes. T. 
Fleay. and Tom Lackey. 

The Alfreds. 

The chief club was then known as the Alfreds. It 
took tliat name in 1868 in honor of Prince Alfred, 
who visited Parramatta on the lOth of February in 
that year. Mr. E. M. Belts was the secretary. Very 
early in the seventies we find IMr. S. I\l. Dennis and 
Mr. Alliert Rowling closely associated with the man- 
agement of the club; also Dr. Pringle as president, 
and the Rev. G. F. Macarthur vice-president. At about 
this time the club laid down its wicket on the race- 

course (the present site). The pitch was gone over 
witli a scythe on the morning of the match, and that 
was about all the preparation it got — .just the scythe 
and the roller. A number of The King's School 
masters and boys lielonged to the club at that time, 
and the familiar names of Dalmas. Greenup. J. S. 
Leathes. Rutledge. Beard. Bring. Kemp, and others 
occur in the records. Later on we find W. A. Brodie 
making his debut, also W. J. Ferris, A. Hayes, J. J. 
]\Iiller. and F. Langley. The latter was a very fast 
bowler, and was responsible for the In-eaking of 
many a stump. That was in 187:^. 

In the following year the club obtained a lease of 
1he ground and set to work in earnest to make a 
county ground of it — placing a picket fence round 
it. and planting trees. The members of the club 
in 187-1 were ^Messrs. Brodie. Williams. Nicholson. 
Hayes. Tunks. J. J. Miller. Girling. l>urkitt. Rutter. 
Vallack. Ferris. FiiUagar. Eury. Pass. Dr. Waugh, 
Cajitain Fairclough. and the Rev. G. F. Maearthur. 
Xat Xeale .iointed in that year, also C. J. Byrnes. II. 
Taylor. R. Hack, R. P. Bri'en. J. Foster. Peter Brien. 
Fred. Hughes. T. D. Little. Arthur Gregory, and 
Jack Urquhart. and later on came Harry Thorpe, 
George t'oates. Ned ^Miller. R. Goldrick. W. K. Gib- 
bon.s. J. Bergin. W. Thompson. Bill Duify. W. Haw- 
kins, Alf. Power. J. Ilemers. J. \'ivian. J. Sinirway, 
Percy ilaybury. Harry Schwartzkoff. L. C. Rmvling, 
H. Voss. 'b. 'B. O'Cdiior. Dowell O'Reilly, Stan. 
Goodin. A. Anthonv. J. Anthonv, Kittv Lavor. Stan. 
Ferguson. S. R. Walford. Tom Docker. Aiuly Whit- 
worth. J. Whitworth. Judge Docker. E. Bennett, 
Phil. Pearce. J. Pearce. Til Smith. R. S. Richardson, 
J. Gailick. W. Turkington. (i. B. Uavey. ('. E. Fuller, 
J. Tooliey. Gus. Tamsett. (i. Spurway. Wally Lover- 
idge, Frank Douglass. W. S. Forbes. C. Church. G. 
Lalor, L. Gurney. Sam. Jordan. George Jordan, and 
others. After that came Joe Wilson, Frank Iredale, 
Bill Howell, Coombes and Bennett. 

That brings us into the eighties, so we will .just 
go back a few years. Somewhere in the seventies 
Ilenniker Heaton joined the club. We have no 
record of his having played, nor do we remember 
him as a "flannelled fool." but a committeeman of 
the time gives us this little incident, which may now 
be looked upon as history. Mr. Heaton (better 
known then as the Black Prince), because of his coal 
black hair and whiskers, to say nothing of his frock 
coat, bell-topper and dainty buttonhole) had some 
difference with ^Ir. Samuel Purchase, and in com- 
mittee he reported him for insolence, and added, "I 
would sooner report him. gentlemen, than resort to 
the bulldog fashion of knocking him down." Sam 
was a sturdy block in those days. He had been home 
to the University, and had learned, among other 
tilings, to use his fists, so there was some doubt in 
the minds of the committee as to the Prince's ability 
to perform this bulldog feat, so ]\lr. W. Eury .sug- 
gested that the reporter aiul tiie rei>orted should 
retire to tlie rear of the committee room and settle 
the difference. Ilenniker. however, stuck to his 
expressed principle. 

lu the eighties the old club again changed its 



name — to the Parramatta District, 
to Central Cumberland Electorate. 

and afterwards 

Central Cumberland v. England. 

On several occasions the players of the county 
have met the visiting English teams. First they 
played with 22 men, and won. They were afterwards 
limited to 18. I rememljer Tom Docker putting up 

60 ag-ainst the flower of England's bowling, and I also 
remcTuber the memoral)le occasion when Joe Wilson 
bowled the great W. G. for a duck. Grace had the 
ball mounted and inscribed, and afterwards for- 
warded it to Joe. Harry Donnan, of Australian 
fame, played his first big match with the Cumberland 
Count.v, as the Liverpool representative. 

In December, 1880, Shaw and Shrewsbury's All 
England Eleven played 22 -of Central Cumberland, 
and sustained a defeat by five wickets. In the first 
innings the Englishmen made (il (IMidwinter 26, 
Shrewsburv 11). In the secimd innings they scored 

61 (Selby 22, ilidwinter 14. and Ulyett 10)." In the 
first innings Albert Evans (l)rother of Ted.) took 
8 for 27), and Percy ilayl)ury 2 for 34. In the 
second innings Evans took 6 for 35, and ^layburx 
3 for 28. These two bowlers trundled unchanged in 
both innings. The 22 made 78 in the first innings (J. 
Scale 11, Maybury 10) and 48 for 16 wickets (W. A. 
Brodie 19). The 22 consisted of Wetliam, E. Scale, 
W. Sweeney. A. Hayes. J. Scale. P. A. Pearce. S. 
Wearne, T." Smith. R. Putter. Player. 1'. Boon. E. 
Oatley, A. Evans. Dr. Blaxland. P. ilaybury. Prott, 
J. Spurwav. X. Xcalc, II. Donnan. 11. Voss and C. 

In 1884 Cumberland again met the English Eleven, 
but this time with only 18 men. The Englishmen 
won by 10 wickets. Maybury took 9 wickets for 
81. In Ciunberland's first innings J. Docker 24. R. 
Rutter 12, and T. Docker 10. were the princii>:il 
scores. In the second iiuiings J. Docker scored 43. 
and J. Spurwav 20. The Cumberland team consisted 
of W. Thompson. J. Docker, S. R. Walford, Jl. Xagle, 
J. Spurwav. Baird, W. A. Brodie, E. Bennett, R. 
Rutter, T. Boon. W. Duffv. T, D. Little. P. Mavbury. 
H. Sehwartzkoff. C. Rvder, T. Docker, N. \eale and 
T. Shaekleton. 

In Novemlier, 1886, a Cmnherlaiul 18 again met 
the p]nglishmen. when Shaw's team won by 23 riuis. 
The local plavers were Xagle. T. Docker, Copeland. 
Boon. E. B. Docker. J. Docker, T. Powell. W. A. 
Brodie. IMaybury. Dowell O'Reilly. Bennett. Walford. 
Sehwartzkoff. Xobbs. (i. Spurway. J. Cleeve. Thorpe 
and Xeale. Cumberland in the first innings scored 
73 (G. Spurway 23 not out. Walford 15, and Thorpe 
10). In the second innings they were all disposed 
of for 49 (J. Docker 16). Cleeve took 7 wickets for 
20 runs. The Englishmen scored 67 in tin' first 
innings, and 78 in the second. 

In Xovember, 1887, Cumberland met Shrewsbury 
and Lillywhite's team and were defeated. The local 
team, which consisted of T. Docker. Brodie. Rice. 
Bennett. Walford. Thompson. Thorpe. Tamsett. G. 
Si)urwa.v, Garlick. Cleeve, W. Duffy. J. Docker. 
Neale, Powell, Xobbs, Cobcroft and Sehwartzkoff. 

made 72 in the first innings (J. Docker 16, Walford 
11), and in the secoiul innings 241 for 16 wickets 
(Rice 36. Thorpe 32, Spurway 24. Beinu-tt 20. Tam- 
sett 18. Walford 15. Thompson 14. and Brodie 12). 
The Englishmen totted up 272 in their first innings. 

In the same year Cumberland met Vernon's 
English Eleven and won on the first innings. They 
scored 144 in the first innings (Walford 37, Brodie 
30, Rice 10), and lost six wickets for 166 in the 
second innings (Rice 62, Walford 51, and Docker 10). 
The Englishmen scored 116, Thorpe taking 7 wickets 
for 41 runs, aiul S. Wearne 2 for 20. The local team 
consisted of Rice, Brodie. Bennett. Docker, Thorpe, 
G. Spurway. S. Wearne. Thomi)son. Tamsett. Byrnes, 
]\Ia,vo, Copeland, Walford. •!. Spurway. Xeale, 
Garlick. Schwart/.koft' and O'Reilly. After his 
showing in this match Thorpe was picked to play for 
Australia against Vernon's team, and jierformcd well 
with the ball. 

Leslie W. Pye. 

Cumberland Cricket Clul) has competed in the Pre- 
miershij) battles since first they were iiuuigurated. In 
the season 1894-5 the.v were ruinuu-s-up to Padding- 
ton in the Hordern Shield. In 1896-7 they occupied 
a similar position. Glebe being the winners. In 
1899-1900 they were premiers, with Xorth S.ydney 
and South Sydney equal for second jJace. Then 
came the Rawson Cup. In 1909-10 they were 
runners-up to University, and in 1910-11 the ehd) 
stood seventli on the list in the i'l-emiership com- 



petition. They began the 1911-12 season by inflicting 
a crushing defeat on the 1010-11 premiers. 

Amongst the members of the club, past and 
present, a goodly number have played for the State 
on occasions, and Iredale and Howell kept Parra- 
matta to the front Avith the Australian Eleven in 
England. Then we have been represented in the 
inter-State matches by P. Iredale. W. Howell, H. 
Thorpe, J. Wilson, W. Farquhar, tlie Rev. E. F. 
Waddy. E. L. Waddy, L. W. Pye, S. Ayres. H. 
Cranney, S. R. Walford. W. Loveridge; quite a 
goodly array. 

Besides the senior club I'arramatta has had some 
good junior clubs — notably the Alberts, Defensives, 
Britannias, Galateas, Unions, Coates' CO., Inde- 
l)endents. and others, and at the present time Parra- 
nuitta and District are running an interesting junior 
club competition, the "Argus" Office giving gold 
medals to each member of the winning team. 

It would take hundreds of pages to record all the 
great deeds of our players, senior and junior. Suffice 
it to say, the old town has always been looked upon 
as a cricket centre, and it still keeps up its reputa- 
tion, ^lay it long continue to do so. 

The record score for Central Cumlierland groiuul 
stands to the credit of S. R. Walford. It was made 
(luring the eighties on a holiday, against Ryde Elec- 
torate team, when by foi'ceful cricket Walford put 
up 307, going in at 11 a.m. and getting out at 5 p.m. 
lie was batting about five hours. 

Mr. L. W. Pye. 

To be a first-grade cricketer is a record to be proud 
of. This is IMr. L. W\ Pye 's record in 1911. He first 
represented New South Wales when he scored 
1G6 against Queensland. That score stands as a 
record for Australia for a first appearance 
in inter-State contests. He has represented Central 
Cumberland first-grade for a longer period than any 
other first-grade player has done for any other club. 
He holds the record for th(! best all-round perform- 
ance in any first-grade nuitch, viz., against Leich- 
hardt District, when he look 9 wickets for 40 runs 
and scored 244 off his own bat. In this match W. 
Howell, the international bowler, was bowling from 
the other end. His scores against teams, for 
N.S.W., are 80 n.o., 55, 35, 27 n.o., 11 n.o. Scores of 
over 50 in inter-State contests: 166, 117, 80, 66, 56. 
54. Against a 2nd XI of Victoria he scored 97 and 
took 8 wickets for 24 runs. A few of his tit-bits in 
1st grade: 5 wickets for 13 runs, 7 'wickets for 27 
runs, 8 wickets for 87. Going in first against North 
Sydney on a wet wicket he scored 150 ilot out. in a 
total of 220, going right through, the innings. The 

year Central Cumberland won the Premiership he 
won the bowling average with 40 wickets, average 15; 
W. Howell being second, 41 wickets, average 16. He 
was third in batting, average 47. Scores of over 200: 
300 not out, 244, 239. 215 not out. 213, and 41 scores 
of over 100. His cricket has undoubtedly brought 
renown to the Parramatta district. 

Mr. Stan. Wickham. 

]\Ir. Stan. Wickham is the last, if not the greatest, 
of the big footballers that Parramatta has produce>l, 
although some consider that his brother, Mr. L. A. 
Wickham, nnis him very close as the best all-round 
native footballer. Stanley commenced his larger 
football career in 1893-4 as a member of the Parra- 

'^ Stan. Wickham. 

niatta Focilliall Clul). Ihrii |ii-oniinrnt in senior foot- 
ball, lie represented N.S.W. from 1895 to 1S98, and 
from 1901 to 1906. inclusive. He was captain of the 
N.S.W. and Australian team which met England, 
New Zealand and Queensland in 1902-6, inclusive, 
and was sub-manager of the Wallabies, an Austra- 
lian Rugby Union team which visited Great Britain, 
France and America in 1908-9. He is also a very 
good billiardist. breaks of 100 and upwards coming 
from his cue. In 1911 he took himself to bowls, a 
game less strenuous than Rugby football, and that 
year was runner-up for the championship of the 
Parramatta Bowling Club. 




By Mr. G. B. Davey. 

About 40 years ago football began to make its 
influence felt among the games and pastimes of this 
part of the world. Men from the playing grounds 
of the Great Public Schools of England, where the 
Rugby game was followed as a matter of course, and 
most enthusiastically believed in, first began to 
wonder why it should not teach its strenuous lessons 
of pluck, forbearance, endurance and general man- 

fair belles of the town, and who held a position just 
then in the local post and telegraph office, started 
out to see if some of the local lads could not learn 
to form scrums and side-step and tackle. 

A Parramatta club was formed ; and the members, 
in their green and white jerseys, rolled individually 
in, as it were, the heavy sea-way of unaccustomed 
and violent exercise, and limited finesse in respect of 
the strategy and tactics of the new game. The 
Ashbys, the brothers Byrnes, the brothers Griffin, C. 
Morley, Peacock, W. Webb, the late F. Ijovell (one 
of the founders of "The Argus"), G. Tunks, C. and 
(J. Howell, (!. Coates, Thomitson (from Pennant 

Parramatta' s last Representative Rugby Football Team (against New Zealand), in 1893. 

Back: .las. Sorlie, Lcs. Wickham, Guy Til.hctts, .1. A. Fraser, A. G. Fraser, (W. Fairclougli), Mai. TiinUs, (H. Sehwartz- 
koff. Second Bow: !•'. \V. Todhuiitcr, \V. ]'ye. T. Walters, McClutchie. Front Row: Oxby. R. Baiu-liap. .\., Stan. 
Wickham (in his (irst bi^ match), Wilsuii. 

liness in these Snulhcrn climes, anunig scho()ll)u\ s 
and others; then commenced to talk auiong them- 
selves, and to organise. Clubs were formed in con- 
nection with the University. The King's School, and 
the Sydney Grammar School; the old Wallaroos ami 
the Waratahs and a few other fifteens visited Parra- 
matta district occasionally and in matches with 
T.K.S. gave exhibitions of the character of the new- 

The magnet soon drew. "Sir. Ki'cii, Lassen, a 
residi'iit who li;id cai'i'icd nff in marriage one of the 

Hills, and otiicrs — s:)me of tiicm hca > ywriiihts — gave 
u]) their Saturday afternoons to the ordeal of prac- 
tisinu' in Rugbv games, and matches were arranged. 

Thus began in 


atta the acclimatization of 

the grand winter game of England. 

Matches were won and lost, in which Parramatta 's 
weight told, if skill was not always a predominating 
factor in tlie rnek. \V. Coates came from Newington 
College — just tlown the river then (and where 
idi'eaily the game had got a good hold) — and with 
him came along sonn^ strides of science. He was the 



Iriuee Chariiiincr of the dod^y run. Of course, the 
rustics looked askance upon science, expecting men 
like McFarline, of Liverpool, and some of the heavy- 
\\ eights of Parramatta to smash down all opposition 
in the contests in which they took part. But, though 
C. ilorley and the brothers Hicks. G. Stettler, Tom 
Moxham" (now ]\Ir. T. R. Moxham. .M.L.A.), and 
others ran strongly and bumped, it began to dawn 
upon those who went over to the "back of the 
Park" weekly, to see the matches — and noticed the 
present ex-Premier C. G. Wade, the Jlanchees, the 
Whites. Bode, Ted. Brown, "Monty" Arnold and 
others being trained by Raper and Burkitt — and saw 
Ur. W. S. Brown, then a stripling, sending left foot 
drop-kicks from cunning angles over the bar — that 
strength without science was not everything. 

A younger generation afterwards arose. We saw 
the late Jas. Houison's great kieliing from full 
back, and the Frasers ("Jumbo" and A. G.). strong 
doughty players, taking their part in games between 
the new-born Unions and Xomads and C'arltons ; and 
the appearance was hailed of rising stars in the 
brothers Wickham (Edwin and Eru., and Leslie and 
Alf.), in Fred. Weston, the Garlieks, the late Tom 
Auchterlonie, W. Taylor. Wally Suttor (now an 
enthusiastic worlcer in tlu- Salvation Army), 
MacWhirter, Harry Davies (now head official of the 
N.S.W. (iovernment Savinas Bank). Les. Bowden, 
Bennett (of T.K.S.). F. Firth, A. Dunlop. Watt. 
ilint>-ave. the brothers Gi'oolc, II. Sclnvarts'-kotf. 
Xeich.' K. :\Iiller. Ililder. E. .Alason. J. R. 
Thwaite, Harry Davey (a forward, at present 
revelling in unofficial civic stress — if the phrase 
may be [tardoned as being used to describe 
work like that of the local Progress x\sso- 
ciation for the benefit of "The Road." ("arlingford). 
T. Ilellyer. "Jacky" JIartin. Albert Davey, W. 
Davies. and hosts of others. Regular matches were 
instituted with Sydney and suburl)an and schoMJ 
clubs, and the fame of Parramatta players sitread. 
and that not undeservedly. 

A Parramatta pen, not perhaps allogelber uncini- 
nected with some of the sports matter of this 
"Argus" Jubilee volume, called the attention of the 
poweis tluit be to the promise, in Rugby, of Parra- 
matta lads; and Suttor was cliosen tn play for New 
South Wales, lie dhtained his ■Mihie": and in a 
well-remembered, historic match tried (when per- 
haps it was not exactly "the game'") to drop a goal. 
a thing he had never been known before to attempt, 
since he generally was at the heel of the scrum. 
Later on Les. Wickham. ^I. Tuid^s. the Erasers (Jack 
and "Soong"), and others got into the big teams; 
but all the .storj' of that belongs to a later time, as 
too does the tale of how came along in his might 
Stan. Wickham. now only .just retired from the 
game (an ex-international skii)[)er of many years'*, 
and jierhaps the greatest player the town of Parra- 
matta has produced (if we make a complimentary 
reservation with reference to his brother Leslie — in 
deference to the enthusiastic appreciation by his 
compeers of the latter player's phenomenal skill). 

This is not intended to be an article giving parti- 

cular aiialNsis of nicn's pla.y : but the s|)ort was clean 
and good in those golden days of '20 or '.M) years ago, 
when Weston was full back of the fauu)us "Reds," 
and Leslie Wickham (he of the wriggling run), was 
centre half, and his brother was on one wing (with 
Eedy on the other), or played quarter — as the present 
halves were then styled — with Suttor ; and the town 
re.ioiced exceedingly in the quality of the work, as 
F. Bellbridge, formerly a mighty University player, 
led on "Jess" Griffin and Cairns, Fred. Todhunter, 
R. C. Bartlett (Alderman, now, of Parramatta), W. 
Pye, W. Fairelough, and others. So long as good, 
clean sport lives in the memory of the men (and of a 
good many of the fairer sex ) of those days the games 
on the Back Domain will be remembered. And the 
names of men will come crowding up — Shortus, 
Tibbets. Tom Carpenter. S. Fairelough, W. Fair- 
dough, Mai. Tunks. Jack Tunks. Tom Williams, and 
lots more sturdy and strong. 

Visiting teams from Queensland and from New 
Zealand were met : and if the local players did not 
always win they covered themselves with credit. 
Well indeed does the mind go back to that game 
against the Bananalanders on Elizabeth Farm, when 
Lamrock, Corderoy (skipper). Little. H. Hicks, God- 
frey Stettler, Peacock. Jas. Byrnes. Crook, Gill, 
Auchterlonie and others (drawn from the local elnlis) 
did great things, scoring a win. thanks to a inui- 
through by Stettler (one of the local peds. of the 
day) from right back to the Queenslanders' line; and 
also to that Homeric struggle on the Parranuitta 
criclcet ground, when Bauciu)p. as a dancing dervish 
of a "Red" wing-forward, ])uzzled both opponents 
and referee, and stabbed with infinite tricky darts 
the "^laoris" " work al)out their scrum, whilst 
Jim Sorlie. then i-ecently imported from "Soccer," 
brought his marvellous foot P'lay into execution, and 
Heft'ernan (the iioliceman) did great things in bare 
socks. On that day Parramatta rejoicetl with an 
exceeding great exultation. 

In those days Parramatta football reached its 
heiglit. Tile "Reds" furnished skippers for tlie 
intei--State and international teams in J. Frasei- and 
Belll)ridge. and sent to New Zealand and (Queensland 
representatives (piite regularly. Then. too. the Par- 
ranmtta representatives carried off the Premiership 
honors in the same year tliat the King's ScIkhiI won 
their championship. 

The games in Sydney, or at Parramatta. were fol- 
lowed regularly by great ei'owds of supporters — a 
mighty army of men and boys from the historic 
borough. Enthusiasts like E. Gould (now of Goul- 
burn) were fidl of facts and data, and figures of 
record ; and the late H. Tunks and other rising young 
players were the heroes of the hour. 

Then, gradually, came a sort of re-action; and the 
game of Rugby, in "town'' circles, though not in the 
T.K.S. sphere, passed behind a slight mist, as the 
moon pales behind a scudding cloud. The old favor- 
ites took to other, perhaps even grander themes, in 
business, or otherwise ; some took to bowls, to 
"gowf," to tennis, or went abroad; and Ruuby was 
left to younger clubs. 



Now the fiflcciis 1)1' Parraiiijiltii disli'ict ari' Iruidii, 
and tile iioisi' of their stniuglcs makes the welkin 
I'inu' o' Saturdays. 

lint I lie interneeine stru^'jile between League and 
rniitn. 111- some other eause. has cast the mantle of 
comparative quiet over the uiory of Ru^iiy in I'arra- 

For a liitle time llie "■Soccer"" i^anie was |)laye(l : 
1'. Adams, the late Uavid Rea, J. Adam,' R. 
.1. Brown, ("onstahle G. Rawe (who gave his life for 
Em])ire in a \var in South Africa), Ilopkinson. and 
n fcM' other devotees of the gaiue with the 
round liall. giving exhibitions -wilh the rest of 
their team, and playing matches, on tln^ far side of 
the Serpentine creek, Parramatta i'ark, near the 
western lodge. ]^>it to-day there is no "Soccer" 
played, .save b.v schoolboy.s, in Parramatta. 

--^U^r^fV^ ^^^ 


In I'acing, as in )iiost othei things, Parrannitta 
set the pace for Australia, and the first race meeting 
ever held in this part of the world was ludd here on 
April 30, 1810. '1 he first event on the day"s pro- 
gramme was a I'ace between a horse called Parra- 
matta and another called Belfast; and it may be 
presumed that even the warmest supporter of tin' 
Emerald Isle will have gracefully b;)wed to the 
judge's decision that the Australian-named horse 
won, and will not have claimed it ar, anothei- injustice 
to Ireland. In between the racing events the |iro- 
eeedings were enlivened by cock-fighting, wheel- 
barrow-racing, and jumping in sacks. But the cdiief 
of these "side-shows" was a race betwiM'n three 
ladies foi' a pi-i/.e of as much calico as woidd make a 
chemise. The name of the winner of this event has 
not come down in history. 

Parrannitta, however, did not press its (daims 
to be the home of the first racing organiza- 
tion, and was beaten by a nc(dN in this en- 
gagement. The Sydney Tui-f Chdi. nndei' the 
patronage of Governor Brisi)ane, was formed in 
March. 1825, and it had held its second meeting — 
a four days' fixture, too — when the first races of the 
Parranuitta Turf Club came off on October 7 and 8 
of the sanu' year. If Governor Brisbane was to dis- 
tinguish hims(df — and incidentally to provoke Dr. 
Lang to extreme wrath — by encouraging racing in 
Sydney, his successor. Governor Darling, was to help 
the sport along in Parramatta, l)y starting there 
the Governor's Club, which held it.s first meeting 
October 1 and 3, 1828. This was a half-yearly fix- 
ture, the second meeting taking place in April and 
the third in September-October, 1829. Between the 
two dates a match, rising out of Sir John Jamison's 
Bennelong winning the Challenge Cuj) at the April 
meeting, wa,s made between that horse and IMr. 

William Lawson's Spring Cun. £200 to £150. heats. 
This came off on the Parramatta race-course. Benne- 
long winning the first heat by a head and completel.v 
out-distancing the lame Spring Gun in the second. 
Bennelong was evidentl.v a great hoi-se, for next 
year he won the Brisbane Cup of £50 at the S.vdney 
Turf Club meeting; in Jlay, 1831, he was withdrawn 
after having won two heats in the Brisbane Cup and 
tied with Mr. Icely's Counsellor in the third, i)ut in 
October he annexed some of the chief prizes at the 
Parramatta subscrip'tion races. In 1832 Mr. leel.v's 
3-\ear-old Chancellor' lieat him in the Governor 
Bourke's Cup at the Api-il meeting of the Parra- 

Dr. James Kearney. 

matta Turf Club. bi;l he won some of the principal 
events at the October meeting. His old opponent, 
Sjiring Gun, was killed liy lightning in Bathurst "ni 
1835. Tlu^ ViY. Icely who is mentioned above as the 
owner of Counsellor and Chancellor is memorable in 
turf history as a breeder, and the first blood horse 
foaled in Australia — in 1826, that was — was the off- 
spring of a thoroughbred mare imported by him. 
lie also bred Chancellor, which was jjurchased by 
Mr. C. Smith, a noted racing nuni of the day, and 
which died in the (dose of the year which had seen 
him lieating Bennelong for Governor Bourke's Cup. 

Tile Parramatta Turf Club and the Governor's 
Club played their part in encouraging and pronujting 
horse-racing in Australia, and a distinguisheil 





nicmber ol' both of tlirm \v;is A(liiiir;il Rous, who 
wns on the Au.sti-alijin station in coininand of lUI.S. 
Rainbow, 1825-!). He lives in history as the despotic 
ruler ill at'ler years of raeiiiii' in En,i>land. and he is 
held in i;ratet'ul reiiienihranee by Australian sports- 
men ;is tile man who imporled "Emi^'ranl . " liie siiv 
of some of our best racehorses, lioth these clubs and 
their ephemeral successors, includini;- the Parramatta 
Jockey Clul) (1879-1883) have disappeared. Per- 
haps their da.y of usefulness had also vanished, and 
sportsmen here can do better for racing b.y strength- 
ening other clubs. The services of several Parra- 
mattans are keenly appreciated by such clubs — wit- 
ness Mr. E. ^1. Hells, member of the committee of 
the A.J.C. 

But lovers of horse-racing in I'arramatta are not 
driven far afield if the,v wish to en.ioy witnessing 
good horses in closely contested struggles. Close 
hand.y is the Rosehill Kacecourse, one of the 
prettiest and best e(|uipped in Australia. 

So long ago as 18o3 a Hunt (Uub was formed at 
Parramatta. one of whose ob.jects was "to improve 
the breed of horses." and another, presumalily, to 
provide sport for members. This second object was 
not mentioned, but two others wer<': The clulj was 
"to rid the country of native dogs and of bush- 
rangers." Both these vermin are extinct now. at 
least so far as this neighborhood is concerned; 
Donohoe's gang of bushrangers, which terrorised the 
district between 1825 and 183(.), having been dis- 
persed in the latter year, -when the leader was shot 
and some others of the rullians executed. Dingoes 
died out more slowl.v in liu'se ])arts. but on the 
whole the mendjcrs of the club woidd have been 
hard put to it for a ipiarry during their pleasant 
career if they could onl.y have relied on the survivors. 
We do not hear that the.v were fortunate enough to 
have the opportuuit.v of hunting kangaroos or deer. 
as fell to the lot more than once of their brother 
sportsmen at the Nepean and even in S.vdne.v ; l)ut 
there was alwa.ys some good excuse forthcoming for 
a meet and for a more or less exciting gallop after 
the hounds over country which presented ditHculties 
even to good horsemen. This early Hunt Club had 
long since died when the Count.y of Cumberland 
Hunt Club was established in 1885, and it too has 
now foresworn its enmity against dingoes, bush- 
rangers and the elusive kerosene rag. 

Rosehill Racing Club. 

"As prett.v as a pictui'c." This aptly describes the 
popular racecourse of the Rosehill Racing Club, for 
whom the "sport of kings" is nuinaged by the fol- 
lowing gentlenu^n : — Conuiiittee: Hon. W. C. Hill 
(Chairman), Messrs. R. T. Carter, Hy. Harris. 11. 
S. Levy, H. Paterson. Stipendiar\- Stewards: .Mr. 
L. G. Rouse and Mr. J. .Mc.Mahon. 'judge: Mr. J. A. 
K. Shaw. ILindicappe)': Mr. \V. C. C^uinton. 
Starter: .Mi'. 11. L. .Mackellar. Clerk of the Seales: 
Mr. (i. h\ Wilson. Hon. Timekeeper: ilr. John 
Gough. Clerk of the Course: Mr. J. T. Lackey. 
Surgeon : Dr. J. Kearney. Hon. Veterinary Surgeon : 
Mr. F. W. :\Ielliuish. F.R.C.V.S., Lon. "Secretary: 
.Mr. (teo. W. S. Rdwe. The Sydney office of tlie 
Rosehill Racing Club is at 32 ;\loore-street. The 
racecourse is situated on the Parramatta River, 
within a few hundred .\ards of the old homes made 
famous by the first IMacarthurs at Elizabeth Farm 
and Subiaco. It is approachetl by trains from the 
main trunk lines as well as by a liranch line from 
Carlingford ; by trams from Parramatta and llir I'ar- 
ramatta River; and by steamer from Sydney and 
all the places en route to Parramatta. The course 
is luxuriantly laid out with buihlings and gardens. 
The gi'andstand can accommodate 3000 people, and 
there is an amjile stand in the Leger Reserve. Lun- 
cheon ro(uiis on a grand scale and dainty kiosks 
provide for the full enjoyment of patrons. An 
iunovation in the saddling paddock are the poles on 
which are printed the names of the registered book- 
makers of the club. Here the bookmakers take their 
stand and make the air joyous by calling the odds. 
It is a great convenience t(i the public, who know 
exactly where to find the liookmaker with whom 
they wish to do business. The course is I14 miles in 
circumference, and has the great advantage of a 
straight run of two furlongs at the seven furlongs 
and twelve furlongs posts. The Rosehill Racing Club 
is making rapid strides, and is fast ;issumiiig the 
liosition to the A.J.C. that the V.A.T.C. does to the 
V.R.C. At their last Spring meeting the R.R.C. gave 
500 guineas for a race for three-year-olds, and they 
propose in the Autumn to make the added money 
of one race 1000 sovs. Close to the racecourse 
are several large racing stables, including those of 
Mr. J. Siely, who trained Flavinius (winner of the 
Caultield Cup 1910), Aurofodina (who distinguished 
himself in cla.ssic races at the A.J.C. meeting 1911), 
as well as other good performers. 




"The Argus" Printing Works, Parramatta. 




Mr. H. W. Burgin. 

Mr. II. W. Burg'in, the well known watchmaker 
and jeweller, who is one of the oldest hnsiness men 
in I'arramatta. is in his 83rd year. He was horn in 
the house where he now resides, which was built by 
his father on land purchased from the Crown by his 
frraiidfather over a century a?o. 

Mr. Henry Granger. 

iMr. Henry ({ranger is one of the oklest business 
nu'H in Parramatta. He became a resident of Parra- 
matta in 1844, and after a trial at the Turon gold 
diggings he opened a bakery in Parranuitta in 1855. 
That liusiness is still flourishing. Ills son, ex-Alder- 
man James ({ranger, retired from it with a conipet- 

Caithness, Scotland, in the year 1817, and arrived 
in Australia in 1837, and {)roeeeded to Bathurst. 
where he lived for some years with his cousin, IMa.ior- 
General Stewart. He received an appointment in 
1852 as one of the gold commissioners for the Bath- 
urst district. He came to live in Parramatta about 
the year 1856, and he has resided here ever since. 
He was made a magistrate in 1861, and occupied tlu^ 
position of visiting .justice to the Parramatta ({aol, 
succeeding the late iNlr. ({eorge Langley. He vi'as 
also a lieutenant in the old volunteers. 

The Hon. C. A. Lee, M.L.A. 

The Hon. Charles Alfred Lee, M.L.A., the youngest 
sDU of the late Benjamin Lee — a Peninsular veteran, 
who also saw service in America — was born in Parra- 

H. W. Burgin. 

Neil Stewart. 

enc(>, ami handed it over a few years ago to liis son. 
IMr. Albert ({ranger, who is now conducting it. The 
founder of the business, Mr. Henry ({ranger, was 
hale and hearty in the municipal jubilee year of 
Parramatta. although he was then in his 87th year. 

Mr. Neil Stewart. 

"Mr. Xeil Stewart, a resident of Nortli Parranuitta. 
was enjoying his 95th year when this putJication 
went to [iress. He was 

born in \hr highlands of 

nuittii in ]s4l', and cdncatcd in Parramatta. In ISoti 
he entered commercial life in West Maitland: in 18(5!) 
removed to Tentertield. In 1884 he succeeded Sir 
Henry Parkes in the representation of that constitu- 
ency, and has ever siiu-e, upwards of 27 years, 
without a break, continued to rejiresent that district. 
Luring this term he has been Jlinister for Justice, 
and also IMinistei- for Pulilic Woi'ks for the long 
period of six years. Barren Jack Irrigation Works, 
and the Ii'on and Steel Tndusti-y. l)esides the North 
Coast and other railways and public; works, including 



t.lie sewerage of this borough, are amongst the 
achievements with which his name is connected. 

The hon. genth^nian's early recollections of his 
native town include the old Market Square, some- 

The Hon. C. A. Lee, M.L A. 

where ill the virinity of thr present Council Cham- 
bers, and ilr. Iluizh Taylor, the father of the late 
Hugh Taylor, JM.L.A.. who was a ver.y energetic man. 
He also reniemliers the attendance of Governor Sir 
Charles Fitzroy at tlivine service at a little church 
near the Hosiiital, wliile the alterations to St. John's 
were being carried out. The Covernors resided at Old 
Government House in those days. Captain Shorter 
was the commander of the little river steamer trading 
to Sydney, and the Governor was frequently a pas- 
senger. There was a coach running daily between 
Farramatta and Sydney. ^Ir. Lee was present at the 
opening of the railway from Sydney to Parramatta in 
1856, little knowing lie was to become an important 
State railway builder. After the dormant period 
incidental to railway construction the progress has 
been marked and of a character that ensures its 
permanency. Mr. Lee's devotion to his birth])lace 
has never wavered, though his life's prospects have 
been elsewhere — and he forecasts a pi-ospenms future 
for the district. 

Mr. R. C. Goldrick. 

Mr. Robert C. (ioklrick is better known socially as 
the hon. secretary of the Parramatta Howling and 
Recreation Club and delegate to the X.S.W.B.A. In 
the Civil Service he is known as the lay superintend- 
ent of the Charities Department, being next in com- 
mand to Dr. Paton, the very estimable director-chief. 
j\Ir. Goldrick is a native of Parramatta district, and 
has a high name in and out of the service for probity 
and straight-going. His portrait appears on p. 136. 

Mr. J. Garlick. 

Sir. J. Garlick is perhaps the most successful of the 
younger Pai-ramattans. When Sir Joseph Carruthers 
was Premier, Mr. Garlick 's ability on various impor- 
tant commissions brought him favorably under the 
notice of that gentleman, and when the Local Govern- 
ment Act (which rumour states was very consider- 
ably the work of ^Ir. (iailick) became law Sir Joseph 
knew where to put his hand on one who could take 
charge of the new ilepartnient. So now we find the 
al)le young Parramattau practically maiiaying the 

whole of the municiiial and shire councils in New 
South Wales. Ilis principal official designations are: 
Officer-in-charge of Local (ioverninent and lecturer 
on Local Government at the Svdnev Universitv. 



Captain Mance. 

Captain Henry T. Mance, of Parramatta North, 
was in the Parramatta River ferry service for 50 
years, and on his retirement five years ago was pre- 
sented with a purse of 350 sovereigns, and other valu- 

ahh^ ii'ifls, at a hii'^e |)ul)lic meeting at Hunter's Hill. 
Captain Mance was going well, we are pleased to 
state, when we closed down on these pages. The 
genial skipper was another type of the toughness 
of Parramattans, for though he was not born in the 
town, but in Newcastle, he came here when he was 
three years of age — thus making him living in Parra- 
matta about 70 years. 

Mr. Walter Gates. 

^Ir. Waller Gates, of Church-street, Parramatta, 
is (luc 1)1' the oldest liusiiu'ss men in Parramatta. He 

to Parramatta in 1855. His birthplace was Cam- 
bridgeshire. Our respected old townsman, who has 
been a prominent friendl,y society man for many 
years, was hale and hearty and in control of his 
business when this publication went to press. Mr. 
Gates had then celebrated his fiTth birthday. 

Dr. Andrew Houison. 

Born at Macquarie-street, 
January, 1850. Received early 
Mills' "Briar Cottage Academy 
of Phillip and Smith streets. 

Parramatta, 1st 

education at Mr. 

," at the corner 

Then went to 

has been in business 49 years and has resided in 
Parramatta for 56 years. He came with his parents 

Dr. Andrew Houison. 

The King's School, and on liic opening of Newington 
College was the first boy enrolled. In Fel)ruary, 
IStiti. entered the Sydney University, and graduated 
B.A. in December, 1868. Sailed for England in July, 
1869. Studied medicine at University of Edinl)urgh, 
and graduated, M.B., Mast. Surg., in 1873. Returned 
to Sydney in 1874. Elected Hon. Physician to the 
S.vdney Infirmary in Febrnai'v. 1874. in 1877 
appointed secretary to the New South Wales .Medical 
Board. President of the Philatelic Societies of 
Sydney and Australia. President of .\ustraliau 
Historical Society, 1901 and 1908. ilember of the 
Synod of the Diocese of Sydney, representing St. 



Andrew's Cathedral; also member of the Provincial 
.Synod of New South Wah's. Chairman of Trustees 
of Church of Eiiuiand Cemetery. Rookwood. Chair- 
man of Trustees of St. Philijj's glebe lands. Author 
of "History of the Post Office, and of the issue of 
Postage Stamps in .\'ew South Wales." 

Manly. He was educated at the Sydney Grammar 
School, and entered the railway service on the 21st 
March. 1876, Mr. John Rae being at that time Under- 

Mr. John Harper. 
Mr. John Harper, who occupies the high position of 
one of our Railway Commissioners, is an old Parra- 
iiuitta boy, eldest son of the late .Mr. Richard Harper, 
J.P., one of the early IMayors of the town. IMr. 
Harper was educatecl at Xewington College and 
afterwards took on .iouiiialism. a.ssociating himself 
with the staff of "The Cumberland Times." when 
Garnet Walch occupied the editorial chair. John 
used a rpiill i>cn and wrote a flowing hand, which 
miaht be called characteristic, but the ompositors 

John Harper. 

called it by worse luimes than that. He was a smart 
writer, and. had he continued in that line might have 
nmde a name for himself. However, he did better. 
He went into the railway service, and. as we said 
before, he now occupies one of the highest positions 
in the service. 

Mr. James Spencer Spurway. 

IMr. James S. Spurway. Secretary to the Chief Com- 
missioner for Railways and Tramways, was born at 
Ryde, on the Parramatta Rixci'. on the 2nd December, 
!1858, and is the eldest son of 'Slv. James Spurway, 
J.P., the well-known fruitgrower of Dundas. now of 

James Spencer Spurway. 

Secrctai-y tor Public Woi'ks and Couuuissioner for 
Railways. During the first few years of his railway 
career, Mr. Spurway was engaged in the Records and 
Correspondence branches of the head office, but upon 
the reorganisation of the railway and tramway ser- 
vices by the late }.lr. E. ?>I. G. Eddy, in ISSi). was 
appointed chief clerk. He received his appointment 
as Secretary on the 1st A])ril. lillO. ()utside the 
lailways. Mi-. S]mrway (Jim) was widely known in 
iTJckclinL;' cii-cles in the Parramatta disti'ict. and 
was cliiNcly identified with the gaiuc I'or niaii>- years, 
lie was .selected on several occasions lo play for the 
distr'ict against visiting-English ti'ams. and pei'form- 
ed with distinction both with the bat and ball — on 
one occasion straight-hitting ^^". <1. Grace out of the 
Parramatta gi-(uind on the i-iver side. In a match 
between a district eh'ven selected to play the f^nglish 
ci'icketers pitted against the next fifteen of the 
district, he sucoeed'jd. with fifteen men in the field, 
in scoring 97 not out. Jlr. T. 1). Gittle, of "The 
Argus." who was last man in. held his wicket intact 
while .Mr. Spurway raised his seoi-e from 86 to 97, 
and tlu'ii the former, ventuiang on a hit. had his 
sticks dis1nrl)e(l before his companion reached the 
coveted century. .Mr. Spurway also pei-formeil well 
in Senior (irade in the metropolis, bowling with dis- 
tinction, and on two occasions scoring over the cen- 
tury, lie is also credited with the unique ])erfin'm- 
ance of caplnrini;' the whole 10 wiel;i'ls. in one in- 
uines. f(.)i- seven runs, when playing for the .\rgyle 
(Tul) against the Kovers, in Sydiu^'y, in ls7(i. 



Mr. W. P. NoUer. 

One of the best citizens that Pai I'amattii lias ever 
possessed is llr. W. P. Xoller. ex-^Maym- of the town, 
ir.i'niber "f the Parramatta Pai'k Trust, etc. I1 was 

William P. Noller. 
Mayor of Parramalta. 1901, 1903-7, 1907-8. 

on liis initiative that the pretty .uarili'iis which udw 
adorn Church-street, and which are now under muni- 
cipal control, were laid out. He spared neither his 
purse nor time in this labor of love which h;is adver- 
tised Parramatta so successfully. Bnl, this is only 
one instance of his public-spiritedness. On every 
hand there are evidences of such. especi;illy in the 
Park, in connection with the Soldiers' Memorial ;iiid 
other substantial improvements. Mr. Noller is a 
large builder and contractor, and his erected some of 
the principal buildings in Sydney, as well as many 
important Parramatta edifices. 


Thomas Henry Wilkinson, S.M., entered the Public 
Service on ]st September, 1878. He was Clerk of 
Petty Sessions at Albmy and other important towns 
in the State, afterwards Police Magistrate at Mudgee, 
Wagga Wagga, Maitland, then Stipendiary Magis- 
trate at Newcastle, and lately promoted to the posi- 
tion of Senior Stipendiary Jlagistrate at Parramatta. 
Pre(iuently acts as Stipendiary i\lagistrate in the 
metropolitan district. 

Ernest Leslie Maitland, S.M., entered the Public 
Service mi istii ( h-lnlici-. 1>>^>. Was Alining Warden 
at Copeland, afterwards Police ^Magistrate at ^lilpar- 
inka, Braidwood, and Stipendiary Magistrate at 
Broken Hill; then Police Magistrate at Goulburn. 
whence he was promoted to the position of Stipen- 
diary JMagistrate at Parramatta. Frequently acts as 
Stipendiary IMagisI rate in the meti-(ipolitan district. 

Glentworth Addison, C.P.S. and Chamber Magis- 
trate, entered the Public Service on 1st January, 
1882, as Clerk to E.xamine Wills in the Supreme 
Court. Appointed Assistant C.P.S. at Yass in 1883, 
then C.P.S. at Yass in 1884. C.P.S. ^md Crown Lands 
Agent at Yass in 1889. and in 1896 he was appointed 
to the position of C.P.S.. etc.. at Cootamundra. and 
thence to Singleton and Batiiurst successively. He 
was promoted to Pairamatt;i as C.P.S. and Chamber 
.Magistrate in 18U7. Took on interest in military 
matters, Cootamundra F. Company (Yass). then part 
of 1st Infantry Regt., from 1891 to 1896, and was 
Captain of C Company, Singleton, 4th Infantry 
Regt.. from 1900 \n 190:i. 

Thomas William Bedingfeld, born 1854, Kent, Eng- 
land. Inspector of Police, Parramatta. Came to 
Queensland 1873 for (Colonial experience, and joined 
New South Wales police force 1876. He was sta- 

G. Addison. C.P S. 

T. H. Wilkinson, S.M. 

Inspector Bedingfeld. 
E. L. Maitland. S.M. 

lioned in succession ;il Wagga, Uraini. The Rock, 
Corowa. and Junee, and was made Sub-Inspector at 
Narrandera. Over two years ago he was raised to 
the rank of Inspector and promoted to Parramatta. 





By Mr. Harry Richardson, Assistant Commissioner for Tramways. 

IS Si'i)t('iiil)i'r, IS-tS. ilr. t'lias. ("owper called a 
meeting' at the Uas Co's. ofitiec. Kent-street, to 
elect a provisional committee to make arrange- 
ments for the formation of a railway company. Mi-. 
Cowper was elected chairman, and associated with 
him on the committee were Mr. James Byrnes, one 
of the first aldermen of Parramatta. and Mr. (icdri^e 
Oakes. also of Parramatta. 

A Bill to incorporate a company to be ealletl "The 
Sydney Railway Company." was passed through I'ar- 
liament and was assented to on the 10th October. 

]\Ir. Shields, the engineer, siiljmittcd a i-eport I'e- 
commending that the first portion of the railway be 
laid out to serve as a common entrance to Sydney 
from every part of the interior, and designated "The 
Main Trunk Line"; and commenced at the Ilay- 
mar]\et. near the .junction of Elizabeth and Campbell 
sti'cets. and passing through Chippendale. Xewtowii. 
Ashtield and Hojnebush to Ilaslem's Creek, nearl\- 
lOy^ miles from Sydney. The J'arramatta line was to 
be a continuation of the main trunk line at Haslem'-s 
Creek to the junction of the Dog Trap Road with 
the Sydney and Parramatta Road at Beckett's 
Bridge Toll-bar. thence under the Western Road to 
the intended Parranuitta station ii|)on the Govern- 
ment Domain at Pitt Row. ojiposite Argyle-street. 
and al)out 220 yards south of the entrance to (Joveru- 
ment House. The distance was 41,1; miles from 
Ilaslem's Creek. 

On May 28, 18.50. Mr. Cowper advised the Colonial 
Secretary that the company iiad deposited £10,001) 
in the Treasury on the Railway accoiuit. The com- 
jiauy was then authorised to coiiunence work. On 
-July :5. 1S50, the sod was turned in Cleveland 
Paddock by Mrs. Keith Stewart. On September 80. 
1850, Mr, Cowper, on behalf of the company, apjjlied 
for land for the terminal station at Parranuitta ; but 
the site asked for was objected to b\- tile (Jovernmeiit 
as being too near Governiiient House, and as calcu- 
lated to cut up the Domain grounds. 

Difficulties in Starting. 

On March 4, 1851, seven tenders were received for 
the tirst W^ miles of railway, and the tender of iMr. 
Wallis was accepted; but, owing to labor ditticiiltics, 
consequent wpon the gold discovery, little progress 
was made, and the contract was cancelled. On IMay 
9, 1853, Mr. Cowper suggested to the Directors that 
the whole of the works between Sydney and Parra- 
matta be given to Mr, William Randle, but, owing to 

the many financial dif'ticult ics the cDiiipaiiy had to 
contend with, the work was not completed. 

On .June 27. 1854, Parliament appointed a commit- 
tee to inquire into and report as to what measures 
should be adopted to provide for the general intro- 
duction of railways into Ihc colony. The Committee, 
in an exhaustive report, acknowledged that jirivate 
companies could not succeed without (iovernmeut 
aid. and that these important works should be taken 
over by the (Tovernmeiit, On December 2. 1S54, an 
Act of Parliament was assented to giving ixiwci- lo 
the Government to purchase the railways and all 
works belonging to the S\'dney Railway Co,, and 
placing the administration under a Board of three 
commissioners. Under this Act Captain E, W, Ward 
was a]ipointed Chief Commissioner, and .Messrs. 
Barker and Kemp Commissioners, 

Towards the end of September, 1855, the works on 
the Parramatta line weie sufficiently advanced to 
allow of its being opened for traffic. .\ board was 
appointed to test the line, and a trial trip was made 
on September 22, and, two days later, a report was 
submitted to the Colonial Secretary certifying that 
the line was iierfeetly safe for traffic. On Seiitember 
25. 1855. it was oiicned for traffic. On the arrival 
of the tirst train at Parramatta — the station was then 
near where the southern line crosses the Dogtrap 
Road, now known as the Woodville Road, Granville — 
his Excellency the Governor (Sir William Deni.son) 
was invited by the Commissioners to lunch at Wil- 
liams' Hotel, known as the Woolpack, on the site 
where the Parramatta Court House now stands. 

Getting Up to Date. 

Up to 181)1 wood was useil as fuel in the locomo- 
tives, and almost daily complaints were received 
from fiassengers regarding destruction of their 
clothes from sparks. After several expei-iments Mr. 
Whitfon. engineei--in-chief, had alterations made in 
Ihe boiler tubes and exhaust i)ipes, so that coal could 
be used instead of wood, and an entry in his journal, 
dated February 4, 18()1, reads: "Took out the 10 a,m. 
train to Campbelltown with engine No. 9, burning 
coal. Experiment quite successful. Ordered all 
engines to be altered in same manner." 

Cheap horse tramways had been suggested as the 
means of carrying the traffic between Penrith and 
Bathurst, and Caiupbelllown and (ioulbiirn. and the 
projjosals had many sui)porters. On July .'51, 1861, 
Mr. Whitton, in his report in opposition to the tram- 
way proposals, and in favor of steam railways, said : 
"Having carefully considered the advantages of the 



hvo .systems, liorse and steam power, and the g'reat 
i-e(.liK'ti(iii whieli can l)e made in tlie cost of workinii' 
by the adoption of better ^faclients than those on 
the existing roads. I have no liesitation in reeom- 
mending that the lines t<i the sonth and west, as well 
a.s the proposed extension to the north, be constructed 
and worked thronahout by steam power. The result 
to the colony would be greater expedition in trans- 
port, greater economy and regularity, and greater 
safety, than by an.y other means of locomotion." 

The (i(.)vernment approved of the recommendation 
to construct steam railways, but it was nut until 
May '27. 1.SH9, that the railway was opened to (ioui- 

Harry Richafdson. 

burn, (ireater obstacles were met with on the wes- 
tern line, the nu)st difficult being the ascent of Lap- 
stone Mill from Emu Plains, and the descent from 
Dargan's Creek, near i\Iount Victoria, into the Lith- 
gow Valley; and the line was not opened to liatluu'st 
until 4th Ajn-il. ISTli. 

A One-Horse Railway Proposed. 

On l^'ebrnary )!. 1S7(), a select eonniiiltee was ;ip- 
poiuted to iu(piire into the best mode of facilitating 
inland traffic and railway extensions generally. On 
IMarch 25, Mr. McLeay. chairman of the Committee, 
presented the report, which contained recommenda- 
tions to the following effect: Tluit the main trunk 
lines should not for the pi'csent be extended beyond 
(ioulburn. Bathurst and Murrurundi; that horse rail- 
ways to a 3-feet gauge, with rails 251bs. to the yard, 
be laid witht)ut unnecessary delay. In support of 
their recommendations the Committee held that a 

horse railway would be equal to the heaviest demands 
for years to come. They considered the line frcun 
(ioulburn to Yass could not have an annu;il goods 
traffic exceeding 10. ()()() tons, including up and down 
traffic, and this would give, at 3U0 working days in 
the year, about -i-i tons as the daily traffic, or 16'/!; 
tuns each way : and, as a horse could draw 19 tons on 
a level rail the work on the I ioulljurn-Yass line would 
not be beyond the power of one horse. 

Progress, 1861-1911. 

'^1 lie lew figures tliat follow show the pl'ogress 

made in connectinn witli railways since the incor- 
poi-atinn (if Parranuitla in istil. 

1861 1911 

Miles oiicii 7;! 3760 

Number jiassenger:^ carried 'A)7i,')iH. 60,919,628 

Number of tons of j^ootls carried ... 101,130 10,3.5.5,50.5 

Total capital exiicnded £1,536,032 £50,971,894 

Total revenue i;75,004 £6,042,205 

Total expenditure £61,1S7 £3,691,061 

Number of trains d.-iily to I'arraiiiatt;i (i 34 

Number daily fnini l';irrainatta (i 38 

Ordinary single fares from Sydney and I'arramatta — 
1st 2nd 3rd 

1861 .. 3/3 2/8 1/9 

1911 .. 1/- -/8 — 

First-class season tickets. Sydney and Parramatta — 

Monthl.y. Quarterly. Half-yearly. Yearly. 
1S61 .. £3 6 8 £8 15 £15 6 3 £26 5 
1911 ..160 326 5 12 6 10 2 6 

Second-class .season tickets, S.vdncy and Pairam.atta — 

Monthly. Quarterly. Half-yearly. 1'carly. 
1861 .. £2 12 6 £7 £12 5 £21 
1911 .. 17 3 2 16 3 14 6 6 14 S 

\n 1861 pas.sengers paying the above second-class rates 
liad to ride in oi)en cars with hard board scats. 
Train mileage — 

lS(il . . . . 214,881 miles 

191 1 . . . . 17,I1II6,(;!I7 miles 


Mr. Harry Richardson, Assistant Commissioner 
for Tramways. 

.Mr. Kiehar(lson was l)oi-n in Derby, England, in 
18-49. Therefore he is not a Parramattan by birth, 
but he remedied this omissiiui at the earliest possible 
ojiportunity b.y coming to live bere in 1856. His 
father. iMr. Ralph Richardson, became Town Sur- 
veyor in the early .\'ears of the Parramatta Council, 
and reference has alreatly been made (]). Ki ) to his 
work in coniu'ction with the Hunt's Creek Reservoir. 
Very early in his career did the subject of our sketch 



begin a connection witli tiic railwiiys wliich has been 
of so mucli benelit to the State ; for he first went to 
school at a dame's school, kept by a ^Irs. Kemp, in 
a tent on the banks of the Duck River, near where 
the Clyde railway station now stands. He completed 
his education at Newington College, on the Farra- 
matta River, in December, I860. As a youth he was 
employed by Jlessrs. Ilallen and McEvoy. surveyors, 
and assisted Mr. Hallen in the survey and alignment 
of the streets of Parranuitta when the town was 
incorjjorated. He is probably the only one living 
who was employed by the Parramatta Council innue- 
diately after its incorporation. 

Mr. Richardson entered the railway- service as a 
.iunior in the traffic department in ISIiH and was 
transferred to the audit department in lS(i!). Here 
he worked up to the position of insiiector of accounts, 
but he re.joined the traffic department in 1873. and 
served in turn as station-master, chief clerk to traffic 
manager, traffic inspector, and coaching (passenger) 
superintendent, during the time the railways were 

luuler political control. When they weie placed 
inuler a Board of Commissioners Mr. Richardson was 
appointed outdoor superintendent of all lines, and 
was iield responsible for the actual working of the 
Udods iuul ])assenger trains throughout the system, 
and for making recommendations as to the selection 
of the best men required for working the traffic. It 
was his duty to study the development of the exist- 
ing traffic and the creation of new. and to confer with 
district officers with a view to ensure that the great- 
est economy in the wa.y of engine power, staff, 
expenses and stores is exercised throughout the lines. 
He was selected for this position by the late ilr. 
Eddy, and after 12 nu)nths' trial his s;il,-ii'\' was 
iiuu-easetl by £100 per year. After Mr. Edd\"s death 
.Mr. Richardson was appointed by the late Board of 
Commissioners as superintendent of the lines, with 
increased responsibilities, at a further increase of 
£100 per year. In ]!)l)7 he was appointed Assistant 
C;)nnnissiiuu"r f(n- Tr;imways at a salary of £1501). a 

po:,iti:)n he holds t:i-da\". 



R. HARRY RICHARDSON. Assistant Commis- 
sioner for Tramways, has shown in the fore- 
going chapter the nmrvellous advance that 
has been made in the way of i-ailwa\s during the i> 
half-century. We are enabled, by the courtesy, of 
Mr. David ]Mitchell. ^Managing Trustee of the Savings 

Bank of New South Wales, to show h:iv.- Parranuitta 
has advaiu'cd. as proved from another point of view 
— the number of depositors in the Parramatta branch 
of this Bank and the growth of the amount at credit 
of dei)ositors. The evidence goes back 73 years. 

The Parranuitta l)ranch was opened on August 8, 
1838. and the following table tells its own story: — 


Nnmlipr (if 

^Vnitmnt a 



of Depositors. 


s. d. 


17 . 


(1 1) 


8-! . 





1 6.;) 17 

6 7 




1 4 

1 878 



111 11 




1(1 2 




15 I) 




12 6 




15 5 

'I'he large increase in depositors and deposits is 
particularly noticeable in the yeai- lOOS. and is ac- 
counted for by the fact that in the year lilll3 tlie 
bi'anch business was removed to its present position 
in George-street. Parramatta. The office was then 
opened for business daily diu-ing usual banking 
hours, thus increasing the facilities to the public for 

Since the estahlishnunit of the liraueli the lollow- 
inii' u'entlemen have occupied the position of acciunit- 
aiit:-.Mi-. Michael Murphy (1838-1840). Mr. Charles 
Croaker (1840-1844). Mr. M. Pearson (1844-1848). 
.Mr. V. X. Watkins (1848-1861). and I\Ir. John Taylor 
(1861-1003). .Mr. Taylor was succeeded by Mr. 1". 
A. Drewett, who is still in charge. 





By Mr. J. Arundel, J. P., Vice-President. 

BEAHL\(i the less ambitious title 
]ii;itta Jleelianics' Libi-ary 
Room" what is now better 
"Parraniatta School of Arts." l)e<:'aii 

of the "Parra- 
aiid Reading 
known as the 

in 1S5(). and is 

Library Connnittee "the use of the room at the 
west end of the Hospital for a reading room." 
Rather a lame start for a body now 61 years old, yet 
still Koing. The Mr. Statham referred to was the 
President of the Library Committee. He was one of 
the proprietors and publishers of "The Australian," 
in Sydney, in the "forties. '" and was for a oousider- 
alile period one of Parramatta's most intelliixent and 

Parramatta School of Arts Committee. 

Reading from Left to Kiglit— Standing: A. V. B. Dolan, C. E. Dale, T. P. C. Burstall, .1. Wilson, F. W. Todluuiter, E. Lee. 
Sitting: F. .7. Thomas (lion. Treas.), W. F. .lago (Vice-President), .J. \V. Hill (President), .1. .Arnndel, S. Davies (llou. 

the second institution of its kind in .New Smitli 
Wales. In the mist of these 61 years the early 
records altogether vanished. It is recorded, how- 
ever, in the minute books of the Parramalta l)isti-ict 
Hospital for 1850 that the Hospital Comniitlce had, 
on the application of Mr, Statham, granted to the 

public-s])irite(l citizens, lie is identical with the ]\lr. 
E. H. Stathani whose energetic association with All 
Saints' Church Inis heeu already recorded. 

Among the oldin- hooks yet lo lie found on the 
Library shelves (most of them solid both in binding 
and in the letterpress) it is occasionally seen that 



the donor was the Hon. E. Deas Thomson, who, as 
the nominee Colonial Secretary for many years in the 
pre-eonstitutional days of New South Wales was long 
practically its Premier. Whether these books were 
"Government grants" from him, or private gifts, 
there is, however, nothing in the volumes to show. 

After leaving the Hospital, and able ap[)arently 
to walk on its own, the Library for some time had 
its "local habitation and a name" at another bniUl- 
ing in Pliillip-street, where it had a good-sized hall 
used for public, as incidentally mentioned 
in other sections of this History. Possibly the im- 
pecunious condition of the institution is partly 
accounted for by the fact that it had a generous way 
of letting this hall free of rent. In 1SG7 it removed 
to Maetiuarie-street, but not to its present site ; for 
the 1867 building, which was purposely built for it, 
formed the north-western corner (facing Macquarie 
and Taylor streets) of Parramatta's largest public 
school — Parramatta District School, whicli. by the 
way, may in a few months have the yet loftier name 
of Parramatta High School. This 1867 home of the 
School of Arts was opened by the Hon. Jolm Hay, 
then member for Central Cumberland in the Legisla- 
tive Assembly, where he had been the Speaker. 
Afterwards — known now as the Hon. Sir John Hay, 
K.C.M.G. — he, for nearly 20 years, worthily occupied 
the position of President of the Legislative Council. 

In ilay, 1882, the then Parkes ^Ministry resumed 
for public school purposes this School of Arts build- 
ing erected in 1867, and the institution was again 
homeless. Accommodation for its books, etc., was 
found for a considerable time in a house in George- 
street, and later, l)y arrangement with the Town 
Council, ill the .Municiiial Liliraiy at the Council 
Chambers. In August. 1882. in the same chambers, a 
public meeting was held, presided over by Alderman 
Josepli Booth, the then ^layor of Parramatta, at 
which it was resolved that steps should be taken tii 
provide suitable pi'cmises for the School of Arts. 
The ultimate, tlidiiuli somewhat delayed, outcome of 
tliat resolution was the erection, in IS^.') and 1886. of 
Ihe existing commodious building in Maccpiarie- 
street. This was opened by Lord Carrington (now 
an Earl, and Lord Privy Seal) in Jlareh, 1886. on 
his tirst visit to the old town. The occasion was eele- 
In-ated by the iuevitaldi' b;in(|iiet. whilst in the lec- 
ture liall of the new liuilding some approjiriate 
verses, writttm by Mr. R. A. Withers, then of the 
"Cumberland llereury," were sung by 100 members 
of the Parramatta Union (ilee Cluli, conducted by 
their leader, the late j\lr. C. IT. Spier. The Xqu. 
Archdeacon Gnnther. the I hen President of tlie 
School of Ai'ts (a ])osition he held for five years in 
succession) occui)ied the eliaii' at these opening cere- 
monies. With the new building the members obtain- 
ed longer hours in the library and reading-room. 
Previously they had only been opened at night from 
7 o'clock; now the.y were available from 10 a.m.. and 
in otluT ways more progressive conditions and 
metliods were adopted. (!(mse(iuently, whilst the was comparatively slow, yet for a number 

of years a steady increase both in membership and 
in usefulness was annually reported. 

Up to 1893 technical classes, under the Department 
of Public Instruction, were carried on at the Parra- 
matta School of Arts. In that year, however, after 
the banking panic which darkened it, these classes at 
Parramatta were closed under the Dibbs Govern- 
ment's scheme of retrenchment. Ever since, despite 
the offers of successive committees of the Parramatta 
School of Arts to provide, rent free, class rooms for 
technical education, all the local classes for that 
l)urpose have been centred at Gi'anville, where they 
are attended by many students from' Parramatta and 
its western and northern outskirts. 

A debt of tl.'JOO was left on the present building 
after its erection, and at intervals successive com- 
mittees have by various means attempted to, and 
have succeeded in appreciably lessening the debt, 
which now amounts to about £900. In 1901 a billiard 
room, holding one table, was added to the buildings, 
followed in 1902 by a- second talde. This then new 
departure tor some years considerably increased the 
popularity and income of the School of Arts, the 
expenses, of coinse, increasing as well. . 

The library, now comprising nearly 6000 volumes, 
forms the most important and alluring asset of the 
institution, as is shown by the average issue of about 
2l).()()ll volumes during recent years. Thei'e is also 
a valuable reference library, available to the mem- 
bers. The reading room is likewise well suiiplied 
with most of the leading monthly magazines, both 
English and Australasian. With regard to the books, 
whilst in Parramatta, as everywhere, fiction largely 
outnumbers the rest, yet amongst the general litera- 
ture may he found many of tlie best modern works of 
llistoi'y, Piograjihy. Travel, Science, etc., in our lan- 
guage. Put the institution lias (huie more tiian this — 
for it lias introduced to the I'airamatta public 
famous men of flesh and blood, ruder its ausjiiees 
Proctor, the nstroimmer; Charles ('laik. the lu-illiant 
inter|)retcr of Dickens and Macaiila.v: .Vlexander 
Forbes, the unrivalled w<ir cnrrespondent ; and ^lax 
O'Rell. the keen satirist of our national foibles, have 
lectured. Indirectly through it -loiin Foster Eraser 
has visited our town and district and given his 
entertaining talks: whilst some of our own citizens 
have had similar opportunities of proving "the 
mettle of their pasture" as piililic instructors. 
Amongst these we note the names of Dr. Woolls. Dr. 
Harris and the Hev. J. W. Inglis — to name only citi- 
zens who have .joined the great ma.iority. T^niversity 
extension lectures have always been encouraged by 
the successive committees. A standard Australasian 
.school liook, the "Growth of the Bi-itish Empire," 
had its genesis in the School of Arts here, when its 
author, 'Sir. A. W. Jose, first gave the series of 
University extension lectures which sul)se(pient]y 
supplied the title to the hook. 

The personnel of the Coiiiiiiittee has. of course, 
continually changed, Imt for many years it has been 
fortunate in its three executive officers. President, 
Hon. Secretary, and Hon. Treasurer, Amongst the 



prosidents appear one Archrleaeon (Omither), one 
Ileadiiiaster of The Kind's School (the Rev. A. H. 
Champion, M.A.). also one assistant master there 
(Mr. A. B. Keage, B.A.), several bank managers, one 
(loctor (Dr. R. Bowman), who also holds the distinc- 
tion of having occupied the presidential chair for the 
longest recorded term, six years in succession ; one 
editor (Mr. II. Schwartzkoff). one architect (Alder- 
man J. W. Hill, J. P.). scNcral prominent officials in 
the t'ivil Service, leading linsiness men and private 

citizens. Whilst it would be invidious to particu- 
larise individual members of the Comiriittee. it would 
be ungrateful not to place on record the lU years' 
effective work of the present Hon. Treasurer. Alder- 
man P. J. Thomas, and the seven years' service of the 
late Hon. Secretary, Mr. J. A. ilanton. I thankfully 
own that but for the list which Mr. ^lanton made 
of the officers of committees from 1897-1908 this 
record would have been much more difficult to com- 

Front Row (left td i-ight): ( ). Kvaiif 

Hall (Pns.), \V. F. Jago, i<\ A. Macqiiein. Standing: II. .1. 
Carponter, Aid. F. .1. Thomas, L. .1. McKay (linn. Treas.). 


Committee of the Parramatta Horticultural Society. 

P. 11. Wi'st, 11. Oliver. Sitting: .1. A. .Mantoii (Hon. Sec), R. W, 

The Society owes its formation largely to Ihe 
Parranuitta Progress Association. At the invitation 
of that body a meeting was held in the School of 
Arts in February, 1909, when the response of repre- 
sentative townsmen justified the initiative taken. A 
strong society was formed, the following gentlemen 
being elected as the first officers: — Patron. Mr. ("'. 
Beresford Gairnes; President, Dr. t'uthbert Ilall ; 
Vice-Presidents, Alderman W. F. Jago and Mr. Hv. 
F. Emert; Committee. Jlessrs. J. J. Miller, E. J. 
Murray, Alderman F. J. Thomas. .Vhler-man J. 

FiTiiusoii (lion, .riidge), K. .J. Murray 

Harper, Di'. Ciillrliert 
. A. Henderson, W. H. 

Graham. L. J. ^IcKaA'. \V .T. Andi'rson. A. -1. W'ari-rn. 
II. :\l. Todhunter, "f. Meads, (i. Folkard, U. W, 
llarpc)-; Hon. Treasurer, Mr. I'. A. Drewett ; Hon. 
Secretary: Mr, J, A. Manton. 

The first show was held in the autumn of 1901), and 
this has been successfiill.y followed each spring and 
autunni with a show, at which a valuable silver cup, 
donated by Colonel Jas. Burns, IM.L.(!., is comjieted 
for, while each month a meeting is held when exhibits 
are staged, and papers read and discussed. The 
ini'inhership numbers al)out LiOil. 

The following gentlemen are the officers foi' the 
year 1911-12: — Patron, ('olonel James Burns; Presi- 
dent. Dr. E. Cuthbert Hall; Vi<'e-Presidents, Dr. R. 
Bownuin, Dr. J. Kearnev. Dr. W. S. Brown, Dr. R. 



Phipps Waugh, Dr. W. C. Williamson, Aldermen 
John Waugh, W. F. Jago (Mayor), Jas. Graham and 
F. J. Thomas, and Messrs. John Shorter, Hy. F. 
Emert, R. W. Harper. W. W. Bodenham, P. E. 
Bloxham. Alfred Barrv, C. E. Bvrnes, T. D. Little, 
J. W. Hill. W. T. Anderson. Geo. Folkard. A. G. H. 
Durham, Edward Evans. J. Phillips, Geo. Knight, 

P. A. Drewett ; Committee, Messrs. J. J. Miller, E. 
J. Murray, F. H. West, A. J. Warren, A. Henderson, 
J. H. Davies, H. Oliver, O. Evans, 0. Loutit, W. H. 
Carpenter, R. A. Irwin, T. Brien ; Hon. Judge, Mr. 
H. J. Ferguson ; Hon. Treasurer, ]Mr. L. J. McKay ; 
Hon. Secretary, Mr. J. A. ilantou. 

Committee of the Parramatta Choral Society. 

Back Row (loft to right). — E. C. IStroet. II. Crellin, T. (.). Stciiniark, E. A. Liifts, II. h. W'ook-ott. Front Row: I'. Ilarri 
R. M. Ferguson (C'onductov), A. Barry (President), R. Biirgiii, ('. Grossmaiiii. 



By Mr. Alfred Barry. 

THE progress of the musical art dnriiiii- tlic pasi 
fifty years in the Parramatta district is quite in 
keeping with the tremendous strides made by 
the industrial, commercial, and scholastic life of the 
community during the period under review. When 
one bears in mind. too. the remarkable advance in the 
standard of music tuition in Australia — particularly 
during the past twenty years, it is a matter for 
sincere congratulation that this Parraiiiattii district 
has shared to the fidl the raised standard of musical 
culture u'enerallx-. 

To give a simple illustration id' this it may be 
worth.v of mention that 25 years ago a student's 
pianoforte education was considered complete when, 
after several years' tuition, she could negotiate such 
pieces as "The JIaiden's Prayer." or "Silvery 
Waves." Nowadays, however, students are expected 
t(i give artistic interpretations of the classics of Bach, 
Beethoven, Chopin. Liszt, etc. 

In this connection, too, it is noticcalile that con- 
siderably more attention is given to the study of 
liianoforte technic than formerly, thereby gaining 
increased flexibility ami rapidity (if action of the 
fingers, thus enal)ling the studeid to more eifectively 
gi-ap])le with tlu' intricacies of the most elal)orato 
compositions. Another factor, too. in the higher 
staiuhird of cultiU'e referred t<i. is the fact that 
•students iiow frequently inciiidi' tlic study of 



hai'iniiiiy in their musical education, and this iiinst 
certainly assists them to form a higher intellectual 
conceition of any classic they wish to interpret. It 
is pleasing further to note the large proportion of 
hoys whi) are now taught the pianoforte as com- 
pared -with former times. 

In (lealiuL;- with the sub.ieet of tlu> raisrd stniidard 

although really beautiful voices are almost as rare, 
unfortunately, as they were years ago, yet unlike 
years ago there is now no limit to the number of 
persons of both sexes who, even with voices of only 
mediocre quality, can yet give artistic renditions of 
drawing-room songs. And while it cannot be claimed 
fill' our district that it has [)i-oduced a ]Melba or a 

Committee of the Parramatta Orchestral Society. 
Back Row (left to right): J. Teddiman, J. Pinlayson, S. G. Rawlinson, J. Arundel, H. O. Fleming. Front Row: J. W. Hill, 


L. Carpenter, W. P. NoUer (President), V. Watsford, W. F. Jago. 

of music it would be unjust to omit mentioning the 
imi)ortant part which the musical examinations — 
conducted by bona fide musical institutions — have 
played in this connection. Our own district of Parra- 
matta is known as one of the most successful centres 
of music in New South Wales. Year after year 
brings distinction to the district, in the shape of 
nunun-ous medals, scholarships, etc., gained by our 
students, and that, too, in competition against the 
State. Particularly does this apply in the case of the 
pianoforte, violin, and harmony examinations. 

In the study of singing and voice production also 
there has been a big advance in the methods of 
instruction, also a large increase proportionately in 
the number of students who now learn that art, and 

Caruso, it can be safely affirmed that there has been, 
and is now, a large number of artistic singers in our 

Then again, with regard to the violin, one notices 
the large number of students who now learn that 
instrument — and in this district it is further remark- 
able the large number of girls cultivating the art of 
violin playing. The standard of teaching, and 
playing too, is immeasurably in advance of the days 
of long ago. 

The musical life of the district is still further 
added to by the existence of a flourishing Orchestral 
Society and several brass bands, military and other- 
wise. These institutions, or their predecessors, have 
been in existence in our midst for very many years, 



and tdiifther with several effieieiit eluireh ehdirs. they 
unite in the fostering' of a beneficial ninsieal influence 
ill the district. Casting a retrospective glance at the 
past, and an eye on matters musical as they are at 
present, there should be a hriglif future here for the 
divinest of the arts — music. 

The Parramatta and District L'lioral Society was 
just beginning work when this article was lieing 
written. It starts under most favorable auspices, 
with a performing membership of about 100 voices. 
If one ma.v judge from the enthusiasm which has 
marived the beginning of file Society, a flourishing 
existence is assured. 




William Walters. 

It was .Mr. William Walters who lirought under 
notice the idea of forming an Orchestral Society. 
and at a public meeting held in the School of 

Arts on 2nd February, 
1906. the Parramatta ami 
District Amateur Orches- 
tral Societ.v was formed. 
The oljjects of the Society 
were to practice instru- 
mental works and to per- 
form them in public, and to 
give an opportunit.v to our 
local students to show 
their abilit.v on the con- 
cert platform. The Society 
has succeeded in its ob- 
jects; the orchestra has 
I)erformed some delightful 
works, and some very 
brilliant .\oung instrumentalists have been brought 
luider public notice, both locally and in S.vdne.v. 
The Patron. Col. Burns, and the President. Mr.W. P. 
Noller. J. P., have shown a keen and practical 
intei-est in the Societ.v since its formation, and tlie 
conductor and originator of the Societ.\' has devoted 
mVU'h time and energy to bringing the .voung 
orchestra up to its present high Standard. The 
management has alwa.vs had its eyes open for the 
best assisting artists, and it is safe to sa.\ that no 
other- society ever br(uight along such an array of 
talent as has a.ssisted at the eighteen grand concei'ts 
that the Societ.v has arranged. Two years ago the 
Orchestral Society was granted the patronage of 
Governor Lord Chelmsford, a distinction that no 
other local society has received. Already the Society 
has been longer in existence than any former bodies 
of similar character in Parramatta: and the wa.\- the 
(lublic have generousl.v supjioi'ted the efforts of this 
musical organisation during this jieriod should put 
7iew energy into the management for tlie coming year 
and many years after. 

Xo si'ction on nuisic in this publication wo\dd bi- 
complete without some reference to a resident o!' 
Parramatta whose talent and skill as a successful 
teacher are held in high repute right througliout the 

Alfred Barry. 

State. We refer to ;\lr. Alfred Barry. It is some 
fifteen .vears since ilr. Barrv commenced ])ractising 
in his profession — that of a teacher of pianoforte and 
singing — in Parramatta. It did not take long for 
him to prove his abilit.v. for man.v successful students 
were sent forth from his studio within the first few 
.vears. .and in competition against tlu' State his pupils 
distinguished themselves over and over again b.v 
gaining first place and the medal at the higher exam- 
inations of the bona tide examining institutions. In 
addition, many successful recitals, both vocal antl 
pianoforte, were given by advanced students, dis- 
])laying a high standard of artistic merit, and speak- 
ing volumes for the skilful teaching evidenced. 
Pupils began to come under ^Ir. Barrv 's tuition from 
far and near; his success as a teacher attracted so 
iiian.\- students from S.vdne.v and suburbs, that lu' 
found it a matter of necessity to also estal)lish a 
teaching studio in Sydne.v. and for the past five years 
his weekly teaching appointments hav(> been equally 
ilivided between both places. 

It is an open secret among the musical ])rofession 
in S.\dne,v that Jlr. Barr.v has one of the largest 
teaching connections in New South Wales — indeed 
it is also well known that at times his teaching hours 
are so filled that he is unable to accept all the new 



IHipils wishing to ijlaee tlieins(^lvps under his tuition. 
In such cases, however, intending students are gener- 
ally content to wait a short time until a vacancy 
occurs. A matter which speaks volumes for Jlr. 
Barry's remarkalde success as a teacher, lies in the 
fact that some of the pupils, after being under his 
tuition for several years, have themselves set up as 
teachers, and are giving a good account of them- 
selves in that capacity. In our own district, the 
names of Jlisses Gladvs Green (A.T.C.L.), Evelyn 
Valhmee (L.A.B.), Jes.sie Shirdeu (A.T.C.L.). Lilian 
and \'era Haigh, Messrs. Arthur Haigh, Hector 
Fleming and others, are already familiar as teachei-s, 
and they were all pujnls of ilr. Pnirry. Kacli of 
them we feel sure would be only too anxious to 
gratefully aidvuowledge what they owe to his talented 
teaciiing. in fitting them fi)r the pi'iifcssioii tiiey are 

As a pianist and accompanist tin' subject of nui- 
sketch takes high raid-c. ^lusie lovei's in this district 
will recall with jjleasure the num.v dciigiitful con- 
certs which ^Ir. Barry gave in the Town Hall during 
the first few years of his career. In these he was 
associated as pianist and accompanist witli undoubt- 
edl.y the tinest artists this State has ever heard — 
several indeed have since crossed the water and are 
carving out big reputations in England and America. 
In this connection the names of IIett,v Ilolroyd (now 
Madame D'Argo). ^larie Narelle. p]va Mylott. Carrie 
Lancely. Maiul Dalrymple. Phnily Shirks. Rivers 
Allpress and Henri Staell will be recalled with keen 
delight. Mr. Barrv's teaching work increased to 
such an extent, however, that five or six .vears ago 
he had to relincpiLsh these concerts, much to the 
regret of man.y music lovers of the district. 

As a com|)oser jMr. Barr.v has shown distinct 
(d)ilif,v. At the concerts referred to above, several 
of his ])iano compositions were played by him — one 
in particular we remember hearing two or three 
times, "The Waterfall." an exquisite piece — the 
composer pianist being recalled and encored several 
times. Mr. Barry has also written a good deal of 
sacred music. One of his anthems. "Gotl is a Spirit," 
is nnich sung l)oth in this State and Victoria, tlie 
])ublishers, Paling and Co.. having sold about 2(11111 
copies to date. Some time back, indeed, we had 
news of this particular composition being sung l>y the 
Anglican Church choir in Nottingham. England. As 
an organist ]\Ir. Barr,v's artistic pla,ving and fine 
technic are as keenl.v ajjpreciated b.v the regular 
attendants of historic St. John's. Parramatta — where 
he IS organist — as they are b.v the large number of 
persons of all denominations who attend there when 
he is announced to give a recital. .\i]<\ it is a remark- 
idile tribute and worthy of note, that the organists 
of the largest churches in Parramatta and throughout 
the district, are. with very few exceptions, cither 
past or present pupils of Mr. Barry. 

As an ad.iudicator at eisteddfods and competitions, 
the sub.ject of our sketch is nnich in rcc|uest, and is 
regarded as one of the ablest judges of vocal, choral 
and piano music in the State. He has adjudicated 
at all the chief festivals and eisteddfods in Sydney 

and principal country towns for the past five yeai'S. 
His services are so nnich sought after for this kind 
of work — always at verv remunerative fees, too — 
that he has to refuse many of the in 
order that his teaching work might not lie inter- 
rupted. i\Ir. Barry's career is one cif which any innn 
might feel justl.\' proud. 


Miss Kathleen Long, whose i)ortrait is reproduced, 
one of the best violin-pla,\crs Parramatta has 
produced, is a daughter of ex-Alderman and ilrs. 
Long, and a membei' of a famil.v distinguished for 
artistic lu-illiance. ;\Iiss Kathleen Long won two 
gold luedals for vinlin playing for the highest marks 
in the Associated Itoard's examinations, intermedi- 

Miss Kathleen Long. 

ate and advanced. She has also won many medals in 
public competitions. Miss May Long, her sister, won 
the gold medal for nnisic at the LTniversity junior 
examination, for iiighest number of points. She has 
also won medals at pul)lic comjictitions. Jliss Lilian 
Long, another sister, has twice won the gold medal 
at the Commonwealth Eisteddfod in S,vdney for elo- 
cution; and the youngest of the four. Miss Patricia 
Long, won the gold medal for piano pla,ving at the 
Sydney competitions, aa well a;; other prizes for 
violin playing. 


TfiE Jubilee history of parramatta. 


FEW iiii'u luive attained proiiiineiK-e in tlif pro- 
fcssiiin of JInsie as quickly as ilr. Ileetor 
Olden Fleming. He gained his know- 
ledge of Voice-production and Siugiu"- in the studios 
of iMadanie Amy Sherwin (of London), and the 
knowledge thus gained from this very eminent 
teacher is being imparted to many students in Jlr. 
Fleming's studios. As a teacher ]Mr. Fleming has 
shown his ability by the performance of man.\" ot 
hi.s pupils at their recitals, and there were ample 
evidences of careful and artistic training. Madame 
Dolores has also commented very highly on some of 
]\ir. Fleming's pupils. He is organist and choir- 
master at the Glebe Fresbyterian Church ; and con- 
ductor of the St. Cecilia Choir, which consists of 70 
ladies' voices, and has earned very favorable com- 
ment from the Sydney Press for j)erformances at the 
Sydney Town Hall. Students of voice-production 
and singing and pianoforte should interview Mr. 
Hector Olden Fleming. Studios: Nicholson's. 
George-street, Sydney; and at I'lackhurn's. George- 
street. Parranuitta. 


TllK legal i|nartette on tliis ])age is ver\' nuirh 
a home product. Three of them were born in 
Parramatta. and one (although a very young- 
man) has been [iractising in the old town for over 
sixteen years. All young men in this juliilee year. 


Hector Olden Fleming. 

is interesting to record that the Hon. .James Byrnes' 
signature ajijieared on a jietitioii which was antagon- 
istic to Parramatta being created a municipality.; 

p. H. RabiUiard. 

F. W. Todhunter. 

C. E. Byrnes 

-E. K. Bowden. 

they ha\c won their way in their |)rofession by 
ability and into i)ublic confidence by attention and 

Mr. C. E. Byrnes is a grandson of tlie Hon. James 
Byrnes, who was ^layor of Parramatta a few monlhs 
after the date of incorporation, and his father, ^li'. 
C. J. Byrnes, was actively identified with tlu> Muni- 
cipal Council for over a (juarter of a century. (It 

Both gentlemen left a very high record tor consist- 
ency and in the public positions they 
occupied, and their descendant. Mr. C. E. Byrnes, 
has won a toi-emost i)osition in his profession; and 
all hough he jirefers to give more attention to his 
large ])rivate |)ractice, .he has been singularly suc- 
cessful in all the big law cases in which he has 
instructed counsel. 



Mr. E. K. Bowden is the son of Mr. J. E. Bowden, 
a respected Parramatta native who has enjoyed a 
large practice as a solicitor for some fifty years. Mr. 
E. K. Bowden has given a good deal of attention to 
politics, and for some years represented the Nepean 
Electorate in the Commonwealth Parliaiiicnt. His 
firm has always been recognised as authorities on 
inunici[)al law, whichh is not to be wondered at, as 

Mr. J. E. Bowden has been legal adviser to the Par- 
ramatta Council since 1860. 

Mr. P. W. Todhunter was born in Mudgee, but, as 
stated above, he has been practising in Parramatta 
for over sixteen years, and has a large clientele in 
both private and police court work. 

Mr. P. H. Rol)illiard is proud to claim Parramatta 
as his native town. He is a conveyancer by profes- 
sion and also en.ioys a very large practice. 


THE great Australian wool industry has for nuiny 
years l)een M'ell represented in the Parramatta 
district, and mainly by the well-known Parra- 
matta Woollen Mills, which pl\' their useful vocation 
.iust outside the northern liouudary of the town, and 
.iust within the .jurisdiction of the Baulkham Hills 
Sliiro Council. This old-established industry was 
taken over as a going concern at the commencement 
of the present year by the Sydnex' Woollen Mills, 
Ltd., a company with a capitai of 
£100,000, having its town offices at 
40 King-street. ]Mr. A. E. Daking- 
Suiith is the managing director, and 
the mill manager is Mr. C. Miller. 
Under the new regime the works 
have been galvanised into fresh life 
and activity, a quantity of the most 
np-to-date machinery has been pro- 
cured and it is proposed to go on 
extending and improving the plant 
so that by and by operations will 
be carried on (ui a very large scale. 
All classes of woollen piece goods, 
khaki, tweeds, flannels and rugs 
form the staple commodities 
manufactured at the mills, and 
tlu' company contract largely 
for the State and Common- 
wealth Ciovernments for ma- 
terials for uniforms, shirtings, 
and so forth. In years gone 
by — 1898-9 — the mills obtained the gold medal at the 
Royal Society for rugs and blankets. At the Franco- 
British Exhibition in London in 1908 the uniforms 
sent by the Parramatta Woollen ^lilis obtained the 
grand prix, a gold medal. Referring to this exhibit 
the executive secretary of the N.S.W. Commission 
wrote: "The jurors were greatly taken with the 
exhibit of uniforms from the Parramatta Woollen 
Mills and spoke very highly of them. A manufac- 
turer from Bradford, a Mr. Godwin . . . was on 
tlie jury, and he said the cloths were excellent, and 
that he had no idea that cloths of such good (piality 
were made in Australia." 

Most people have probably but little id(>a of the 
intensely interesting and ingenious processes tlir(nigh 
which the material of their everyday clothing must 

pass before it becomes a finished article. The latest 
inventions and patents, as shown to an "Argus" 
representative by Mr. C. Miller, are so wonderful 
that machinery seems almost to do everything and 
exercise a measure of independent judgment, and the 
idea of i)utting in a live sheep at one end and taking 
out an evening dress suit at the other does not seem 
so wildly exaggerated after all. Space will not allow 
us to do more than give a very short and incomplete 




itV^a of the operations. The whole of the complicated 
maehiner.y is driven liy two engines (one steam and 
one suction-gas) whose comliined strength is about 
8(1 h.p. The first scene in the constantly enacted 
drama is the receipt and opening of the bales of wool, 
of which we were shown a large number in the 
capacious shed. This wool is sorted and scoured and 
passed through a centrifugal hydro-extractor and 
then an up-to-date drying machine wherein hot air 
blasts dry it at the rate of about 3000 lbs. in eight 
hours. Thence it is borne to the dyeing house, in the 
huge vats of which it assumes the complexion it is to 
wear for the rest of its existence, whether as khaki, 
navy blue uniform clnth. oi- other material. Then 
again washing and di'ying ai'c preliminaries to the 
teasing, cleansing, and otiier processes which the 



material has to tjo thronsh at the hands, or rather the 
teeth, of first a spilced and rollered eoutrivauee, loolv- 
ing' lilce a fearsome medieval instrument of torture 
and known as a "Willev," A "teazer. " which 

A. E. Daking. Smith. 
Managing Dirtctcr* of the Sydney Woollen Mil's. Ltd., Parramatta. 

seems t" he a similar machine on a sniallei' scale, 
further spreads and se])arates the fibres, and another 
machine frees the wool fi-om burrs. Then, in the 
carding machine, we I'each a wonderftd. almost in- 
telligent, monster which weighs and spreads the wool 
and lias a successor which "sci'ibi)lcs." and ultimate- 
l.v it is f(ii-med into a roj-e called a "sliver." The 
process is carricij lui "da capo" liy an iiitci-i"ediatc 
machine, rrmn which it emerges in tile fonii of a 
broad rilibdii and this via a "Scotch feed" airange- 
ment to a iiiacliine which i)rings it into tube-like form 
for winding on tlie sjiools of the spinning "mules." 
Beautiful meclianism. delicately contrived, spins the 
threads for "warj)" and "woof" of the cloth that is 
to be and tluMi it goes to the marvellous looms, the 
crowning wonder of the whole, where the sliootiug 
shuttle files and the thread is quickl.\- woven into 
cloth. The Company has recently introduced a 
number of new looms of tiie most modern make and 
style with all the latest improvements, and these 
splendid machines, guided b.v male and female 
workers, are quickly turning out beautifully wrought 
fabrics and weaving all the intricate patterns of the 
"Gordon Tartan" and other arti.stie devices for rugs 
and .so forth. I\Iany of the rugs, we observed, were 
double, i.e.. had a different pattern on each side. 

F'urther processes are to be seen in the washing and 
milling room. when, after having been washed, it is 
dried in a i-apidiy revolving hydro-extractor, 
which throws off 70 per cent, of the moisture, and a 
fulling machine shrinks it from (iO to about 50 yards 
in length, and from some 72 inches in width to about 
56, Then it is dried outside on "tenters" (soon to 
be sui>erseded by a modern machine inside 
the l)uiidiiig), and then it is brushed, steamed 
and shrunk until is is alisolutely unslirinkable to any 
further extent, rolled and given a lustre b.v means of 
l)lowing and air suction, or — if its nature so requires 
— given a "pile" by means of a macliine armed with 
"teasles. " These are a sort of thistle-growth mainly 
Ill-ought from the S((uth of France, though tiiey have 
been ol)tained (and will again when possilde) from 
\'ictoria. Indeed the company's policy is to encour- 
age Australian manufacturers as much as po.ssible. 
]\Iore than one of its machines was made at Geelong, 
in Victoria, where others arc under order. One 
WDuld have iieen at work now. but for the shipping 
strike interfering witii its transit. A most ingenious 
iiiacliiue fol<ls tile finished cloth and it is tlien ready 
for file customer. The company employs some SO 
men and women, and is at present paying over .tltjOOO 

C. Miller. Manager at the Woollen Mills. 

a year in \v,-ii;cs. Siieh an enterprise, witli all the 
i)right pros|)ccts before it of increasing Inisiness, 
must, it is ol)vious, constitute a very considerable 
factor in the prosperity of l^irramatta and tlu' sur- 
rounding district. 




ONE of the largest busi- 
nesses ill Parramatta is 
that conducted by Messrs. 
Hart, Ilitehcoclc & Co., near the 
railway station. The business 
was started in 18-56 by the 
father of the present senior 
partner. Old Mr. Hart was 
joinetl in partnership by the 
late i\Ir. Lavor, father of the 
well-known local bowler of that 
name. That was about 1870. 
This jiartnei'ship lasted about 
ten years, .-inil was confined 
]u-iiicipally to buildinji' and con- 
trairting, many of the public 
buildings, churches and the lil^e. 
being' erected by them. The 
business of timber merchants 
was started by Hart & Sons in 
1880, nut that was dissolved in 
1891. and Messrs. W. Hart, jun., 
and W. W. Hitchcock then com- 
menced a highly successful part- 
nerslii]), which continued up to 
liHl, when Mr. Hitchcock retir- 
ed, and sold his interest to his sou, ^Ir. W. Hitchcock, 
and Mr. George Folkard. When the tirst Hart- 
Hitchcock partnership came into existence '25 hands 
and nine horses were employed, the wages being 
about £50 per week, and the stock valued at about 
£3000. At the present time there are employed 103 

bauds and 30 horses, the wages being over £200 per 
week, and the stock valued at £20.000. All foreign 
timliers are imported direct at the rate of about 
half-a-million feet per month. To facilitate the hand- 
ling of this large (luantity of timber the firm have 
extensive wharves and mills on the banks of the 

Parramatta River, 
adjacent to the Rose- 
hill racecourse. The 
slorage yards here 
;ii-e ei|iiipiHnl with 
111!' best machinery 
and lialf-a-mile of 
liMniwaw The joiu- 
eiy mill has liad to 
lie extended several 
tinu's to meet the 
trade, and when this 
l)ook was being pub- 
lished an addition 
was being made 
wliieli would give au 
additional 5000 sq. 
feel of sjiace for new 
niacliinery aliout to 
be fixed. Our illus- 
trations show the 
luain buildings and 
ofTices in Darc.v- 
street and the mills 
on the river side. 




'^ X 7YC0MBE HOUSE is the most up-to-date and 
enterprising business concern in Parramatta. 
It has a shop frontage of 150 feet to Church- 
street, and embraces five principal departments, 
namely, drapery, millinery, dress goods, boots and 
shoes, and mercery and men's and boys' clotliiiig. 
The business has developed with .surprising rapidity 

right up to the latest Sydney improvement. Mr. G. 
T. Er1)y purchased this business twenty-one years 
ago, and liy sterling methods he has forced its 
growth from a stock of £3000 to one of £10,000. The 
bullv of the stock is now ]i\iivliascil direct from Eng- 
lisli and CiintiiiiMital iiianuracturei s, and ilr. Erl)y is 
thus enaliled to i>ive liis customers nut nnlv tlie hiti'st 

Wycombe House, Church Street, Parramatta. 

luiilcr Mr. Ei-l)y's far-sccini;' and energetic manage- 
ment. AVlu'U lie toolv owv tlu- Inisiiiess, 
Wycombe House was confined to one small simp. 
>.'iiw it extends lialf-way down the bluck in ( 'hiii'di- 
street from tiie Bank of X.S.W. cornei-. having tak'cn 
the premises o(M-u])ii'd by other businesses. The 
buildings, too, have Im'ch i-cinddi-lliMl .-unl lironebt 

fashiiiiis iiui at prii-cs wliicli place WycDiiibe Ilmis!' 
(in ail eipial t'dotinu- willi the liest linuses in New 
South Wales. Mr. Erby is a niagistrati' of the tei-ri- 
tm-y. ,-111(1 a citizen who exercises his iiniloiilileil busi- 
ness ability in many a uood cause, ami especinlly on 
the committee of the Parramatta District Ilosiiital, 
(it which he has been a member for many j'cars. 



Some of the Departments at Wycombe House. 

Millinery, Fancy Haberdashery, Household Drapery and Toy Departments. 

Boots and Shoes and Mercery Departments. 




OUR illustration shows an interior of 
.Mr. L. W. Pye's pharuiaey, oppo- 
site the Post Office, Parraraatta. 
The business which Mr. Pye succeeded to 
twenty years ago is the oldest pharmacy 
in Parrainatta. It first had its habitation 
nearly opposite what is now the Masonic 
Hall in Georue-street. The proprietor 
then was Jlr. Whitaker. and the business 
was running early in l^.jO. ]Mr. Wliit- 
aker had opened tlic iiharniacy opposite 
tlie residence of Drs. Pringle and Fife, 
wlio occupied the two-storey building 
facing the Parranuitta saleyards. ^Iv. 
Rowling succeeded I\lr. Whitaker, and he 
moved along to Church-street, next to the 
Bank of New South Wales. JMessrs. 
Parker. Gaud and Virtue followed Mr. 
Rowling, and then came JMr. Pye, who, in 
the parlance of the game of which he is 
still so skilful and popular an exponent, 
is still not out. at 19 years, and apparently 
well set for another decade or two, or for 
just as long as he cares to fill in his time in 
uess. I\Ir. Pye enjoys a large practice, as he 
to do, as his business is certainly one of the 

the liusi- to-date in New Sciutli Wales, and untc^d for the 
deserves i)uri1y of its diugs and t-hemieals, and the ability 
most up- and pi-ciiiii)tiiess of the dispensing department. 


'ihe must famous of all the hotels m Pariainalta. 
the Woolpack. has always attracted a good class of 
tourists to the town. In the fifties and for years 
afterwards it was the popular resort of fashionable 
honey-mooning couples. The first proprietor was 
ilr. William Nash. Then came ^Irs. Xash. ^Ir. Wil- 
liams (first IMayor of Pairamatta). ^Messrs. Xat. 
Paytcn. E. J. "Wehlow. Riehanl Smith. Gray, J. 
Jlance, Edward Marshall and M. Ilavdon. Mr. W. 

Rees. the present (iroprietor, became the laudlnrd in 
the jubilee year, and soon succeeded in establishing 
the confidence of the local and travelling public. The 
first place of worshiii in Australia was erected on the 
site of the Wooli)ack Hotel. It is interesting to 
record, too. in this jubilee year that it also occupies 
Ihe site of the first eouneil chandler in Pai'rainatta. 
The present Woolpack Ildtel has ani]ih' room for 
acconnnodating many guests, ami is well furnished 
and fitted througlnnit. The original site of the 
Woolpack Hotel was where the new courthouse now 
stands, and on what are now rooms for the constables 
was the site of the first clai) bowling green in ,\.S.W. 




THE Australian Gas-liglit Company has the proud 
distinction of being the premier gas company 
in the Southern Hemisphere. The Act of 
Incorporation dates from the 7lh September. 181^7, 
when, thi-ough tlie elforts of Rev. Ralph ^Mansfield, 
the present comjiany was founded, (xreat interest 
was taken in tlu' matter by His Excellency Sir 
George Ciipps. then (Jovernor of the colony, and 
when the works were started, the Directors, in re- 
porting the proceedings to the shareholders, express- 
ed themselves as follows: — "As an hundjle expres- 
sion of llie company's loyalty, the Directors selected 
for the tirst night of lighting. Her ^la.jesty's Birth- 
day. M<mday, 24th of May, 1841. and authorised the 

however, severely taxed the resources, and eventu- 
ally at Mortlake. on the I'arramatta River, tlie Com- 
pany erected two gas holders, one being the largest 
in Aiistralia. having a capacity of .'{.ToO.OOO feet. The 
mains now cover over 101), ()()() acres, with a popula- 
tion of over 6()l).()()() inhalntants, Fi'om the com- 
mencement the Company has secured cajiable Boards 
of Directors, the present Board consisting of the 
following: — Messrs, G. J. Cohen (chairman), lion. 
Henrv Moses. M.L.C, (vice-chairman). A. Wigram 
Allen. C, II, Myles. W. C. Goddard. li. S. Levy, P, T. 
Taylor, A. F, Robinson, A, Consett Stephen, A, G. 
JiilsdH, S, H, Car\-, J. Moir: Secretarv and Trustee, 
Mr. K. .1. Lukey; Engineer, Mr. T. .J, Bush, .M.LC.E.: 

supply of gas for that one night to lie free of 
charge." The private lights in use on that night 
amounted to 181, but by the end of the following 
month they had increased to 685. The population 
of Sydne.y at that time being only 25,000. the Direc- 
tors considered that the storage capacity of 90,000 
cubic feet of gas was more than adequate for numy 
years to come. In 1852 the Company found it neces- 
sary to purchase land at Woolloomooloo Bay as a 
site for another tank and gas holder, and two years 
later land at the Ilaymarket was secured for the 
erection of a gas holder to meet the demand at that 
end of the city. The growth of Sydney and suburbs, 

Treasurer, the Bank of New South Wah's, There 
are 1055 miles of mains laid, 1515 miles of service 
pipes, with 10,911 public lamps. The gas manufac- 
tured during the last twelve mouths was :!,022,80ti,000 
cubic feet, to produce which 212.188 tons of coal and 
l,-'i()0,7()l gallons of oil were usetl. 

In 1890 the Parrauuitfa works were accpiired. and 
the supply of gas taken by a trunk nuiin from the 
(Company's works at ^Mortlake, The old works have 
been demolished, but the Comjiany has an up-to-date 
office in George-street, Parramatta, the representa- 
tive being Mr. John Finlayson, Clerk-in-Charge. 




MES8KS. BKl'XTOX .t ("(). cstHhlishcd them- 
selves as Hour millers in llii' year 1868, and 
I'm- nearl\ twenty years their only plaee of 
business was in Melbourne, Victoria. Tlie founder 
of the firm was the Hon. Thonuis Bruiiton. In the 
year 1887 the business was extemled to Sydney, 
wiien the lari;e mill al (Iraiiville, ll2 miles 

from Sydney, l'{; miles from i'ai'ramatta, at 
the jnnetion of the main Soullicrn and Wes- 
tern lines, wa,s started, wliieh enables the 
company to deal with an output of 10,000 sacks 
weekly. Messrs. Brunton and ('omi)aiiy. however, 
do not confine themselves to the Australian markets, 

Brunton & Co. s Granville Mills. 

but extend tih'ii' oprratinns to t'liosc at a distance, 
their brands being as well known in the inai'I'iets in 
London and the East as they are in Syilney antl Jlel- 
bourne. The Sydney office of the company is at 187 
( 'larence-street. and the .Mclliourne office at Collins- 
street West. Mr. .John S. Brunton, the seidor part- 
ner in the company, is the son of the founder of the 
busiiu'ss. and well known in eonnnercial circles. For 
many years he has been a member of the Sydney 
Chamber of Connnerce. and held the position of Pre- 
sident foi- the vear 1898-9. 

Complete System of 60 in. Break Rolls at 
Brunton & Co,'s Mills. 







Meals at all Hours. 

Afternoon Teas a Speciality. 

Three-Course Dinner, 1; 

The Parramatta Cafe,. 




Head Office: MOORE ST., SYDNEY. 

Parramatta Branch, Corner Church and Phillip Streets. 

J. E. GUYOT, Manager. 


Bank with £16,000,000 to Credit 

with Absolute Government Guarantee, 


1 - to £500. 


CHARGE for Opening 

or Keeping 


gage from 4 "o. 





HIS is a photograpli of a corner of my bakehouse, showing; portion of 
the Up-to-date Macliinery with the dough, which, under my personal 
supervision, and with tlie aid of tlie finest materials, is turned into 
m\' famous bread. 





What's Grand ? 










£7,971, •■545 




General Manager — J. Rl'SSELT. FRKXCH. 
Assistant General Manager and Chief Inspector — TIIOS. HUNT IVEY. 
AfSt. Secretary— R T. HII^DKR. Chief Accountant— W. K. SOUTH ERDEN. 

Solicitors— Messrs. ALLEN, ELLEN & HEMSLEY. 

PARRAMATTA OFFICE— Opened 20th August, 1874. 

W. E. FRAZrOR. :\I:iii:i-ov. WAl.TKi; I'OTTS. Assistant Mana-cr. 



DAVID GEORGE, Manager. H. MELDRUM, Assistant Manager. 






1 in LONDON.) 

in PAPUA; 





Tattersall's Hot(4, on the cDnuT of Church and 
George streets, is one of tlie priiu'ipal and Viest- 
eondueted hotels in Parraiiialta. Years Jieforc it 
catered for ■"nian and hi'ast." the site was a Ijut- 

cher's shop, where Joe Rudder earved tlie lieast. 
Then . lames Fulton opened thereon Fulton's I'^imily 
Hold. ;i \cry popular hotel in the fifties. Later John 
Parker established there a grocer's simp. Still later 
John Creasey made the place famous for good living 
and good drinking, ^lany have followed, and to-day 
.Ml-. W. Fleming, an enterprising and able publican, 
revives the glories and prestige of the past and 
desei-ves to do the good business he is enjoying 
because of his geniality and straight-dealing. The 
old Tattersall's under his energetic management, has 
put on new raiment and has been made one of the 
most comfortable and complete hotels one could wish 
tor. The old hotel has long enjoyed some histcu-ical 
pi-iiiiiinence Ix'cause of the fact that on the fatal day 
in the yi'ar 1S47 (when Lad\- ^lary Fitzroy, wife of 
Sir Charles Fitzroy, the then Governor, and 
Lieutenant ('harles Chester blasters were killed) the 
bolting horses crashed into the bnikling on the corner 
where Tattersall's Hotel now stands. 




Dellow's Coachbuilding Factory, Parramatta, 

As ;ill till' wcirld (if Parrainatta district knows well, iiiKl 
tells truly, fuitlifiilncss, soundness and reliability liavo 
charaeteiised tlie business operations of Dellow's 
coachbuilding factory for close on half a century, and to say 
in any part of Cumberland that a vehicle is "Dellow's" is 
a warranty of high-class value, and of good promise of long 
wear. Mr. ,)as. Dellow (ex-alderman of the historic borough) 
came to this country when liut a lad, in 18.55; and after 
driving over t'.ie Mountains to the "diggings," delving for 
the piecious metal, and what not, his good sense told him that 
]icrmanent prosperity must be associated in the future with 
settled industry. Thereupon he put hiuLself out as ajipren- 
tics to learn the wheelwright and coachbuilding business at 
a renowned old wheelwright's establislunent at Baulkiiam 
Hills. iSooii the young a]i]irentice had become the master- 
builder, and he started for himself in Parramatta. After a 
long and successful career as an honored craft.snian he was 
in a position to ask one of his sons to assist liini in tlio 
management, and now the business is to a large extent, as 
its old name and style explains, carried on under the able 
presidency of the scion — the man of the second generation 
of the reliable Dellows — Jas. R. Dellow. In the factory there 
are three forges, sixteen hands are employed, and even then 
the great ditticulty is to overtake the claims of the orders. 
A new paint shop 4flft. square lias just been completed. It 
has a first-class light, and ample provision for the mainten- 
ance of that cleanliness requisite for the best varnished 
work. During the last few months new machinei'y (includ- 
ing 12 h.p. CroEsley gas engine, one of the latest drilling 
machines, tyre-bender, tongueing machine, felloe-boring 
machine, tyre upsetter and welder, forced-draught forge, and 
belt-driven hammer) has been added to the previously exten 
sive plant, and orders for lorries, timber waggons, bakers' 
carts and sulkies are being attended to as fast as the trained 
hand of skilled assistants can get the work through. Parra- 
matta has always been famed for t-ie excellence of its wag- 
gon building, smiths' and wheelwrights' work, and at 
Dellow's the traditions of Parramatta, the nursery of the 
Australias, is being ett'ectually and honorably maintained. 
The old firm have cu-!toniers at the present day who did 

business with them ."iO years ago. In those days they worked 
sixteen hours a day, and they had to go to the bush to chop 
their own tinrber for putting in the vehicles then being 
turned out. 


TilE Jubilee iiistoUy of PARRAMAttA. 


A Big Business Built up on Energy, Enterprise, and Modern Methods. 

RAWLINSON BROS.' hpadquartcrs at Church-street, 
Parramatta — just ojiposite the Post Office — are well 
known throughout the h>ngth and breadth of Central 
Cumberland as grocery, provision and wine and spirit stores 
— up-to-date, bright, attractive, and controlling a volume of 
buijiness and character such as might be pointed to with pride 
by any firm of young business men in Australia. 

Eighteen j-ears ago the sons of our late respected fellow 
townsman, Mr. Chas. Rawlinson, of Hassall-street, Parra- 
matta, started business for themselves in Station-street, 
Harris Park. The beginning was modest in nature; but 

Colonial wine and spirit license. Twenty hands are cm- 
ployed, and the tentacles of the business reach out all over 
the district, to Prospect, Merrylands, Smithfield, Carling- 
ford, Rookwood, Dural and Rydalmere. The motto of the 
firm is ''We supplv everything for tlie table, ami the best 
of it." 

Rawlinson Bros, have made a numlicr of excellent Ijusiuoss 
hits. They are agents for ' ' Fresh Food ' ' cream, for 
Schweppe's mineral waters, Liudeman 's, Castellina and 
Penfold 's Australian wines, and for the famous "Lilydale" 
butter; Peek, Preane and Co 's. Jjondon biscuits and Pas- 
call's high-class confectionery — both of wliich lines they 

J. P. Rawlinson. 


S. G. Raw): 


behind the seeds of the big business then planted was a fund 
of sound sense and business dash which soon began to make 
its influence felt. Before long the partners decided to leave 
their old stand for a better one in Church-street, next to the 
shop then occupied as "The Argus'' publishing oflice. This 
was soon found to be too small, and when the Hon. T. 
^Vaddell. M.L.A., erected the fine shops in the very centre of 
Parramatta. on the site of the old home of the late Mr. 
Hugh Taylor, M.P.. Messrs. Rawlinson took two of the shops. 
From that time, as indeed from the beginning of their enter- 
prise, they have never looked back. Mr. C. E. Rawlinson 
(after a trip to Europe) disposed of his interest in the 
business, which is now run by Mr. Septimus G. Rawlin- 
son and Mr. .T. P. Rawlinson. 'To-day the enterprise, origin- 
ally started as a grocery, embraces a cooked provision depart- 
ment and one for wines as well as tliat covered by a 

import. The Christmas ham trade is specially attended 
to; over two tons of hams being cooked by them at the 
festive season. Jn the bacon line they make a system of 
selling cheaply and in good style (in a sort of "hot-plate" 
style) large quantities — having disposed of as much as five 
tons of the breakfast rasher, in bulk or otherwise, in four 
weeks. Attention is paid to the quality of the cooked pro- 
vision goods, which, with the butter, cream, etc., are kept — 
when not being served out — in specially prepared refrigerat- 
ing rooms and chambers. Although the pushing young firm 
have extended their jiremises recently we are informed they 
find that they will be forced to go farther back still with 
their additions to their premises in order to find accommo- 
dation adequate for their still rapidly advancing trade. 

Our views show three attractive aspects of Messrs. Raw- 
linson Bros.' business. 


Interior Views of Rawlinson Bros.' Store. 






floated ill :s98 to take over the business of tlie late 
Hudson Bros.. Ltd., have a city office at Martin Place. 
.Sydney, and their main office at The Clyde Works, Gran- 
ville, N.S.W. These work.s, covering at present not less 
than K! acres, have been several times enlarged by the C.E. 
C<)ini>auy, and restocked with machinery of greater capacity 
and latest type, as a means of succ3ssfully coping with the 
contracts for 125 locomotive engine.-^ (pai^senger and goods 
traffic), besides heavy orders for raUway and tramway roll- 
ing stock, truss bridges up to 200 feet span, and full lines 
of mining, general and agricultural enginaering. Some idea 
of the magnitude of these extensions may be conveyed when 
it is mentioned that increased forging facilities are rspro- 
sented by a gradual advance from two to si.x heavy sleam 

more if necessary, in the same time. The works employ 
over 1100 hands, and are lighted by electricity, with an 
auxiliary gas service for emergency. Fire appliances arc 
fitted throughout the works, which are also in direct com- 
munication with the Fire Brigade. 

Ths departments embraced by these works arc: I'attern- 
making shop; foundry for iron and steel, malleable and 
ordinary castings. In addition to the general engineering 
rccpiirements, a large business is done in ploughsliarrs and in 
finished enamelled baths. Castings up to 10 tons each are 
easily handled. Brass foundry, smithy and forge, with large 
and small steam hammers, a hydraulic pres.ving plant, etc.; 
four large machine shojis with English and ( lydeMuadc 
machinery for accurate and rapid work; fitting and erecting 
shops; tinsmiths, plumbing and coppersmiths; boiler shoji. 

The Clyde Engineering Works, Granville. 

hammers, the largest of these being a .'5-ton hamniov, while 
SO smiths' fires are now seen where 50 formerly sufficed. The 
number of individual machine.-s has grown from 100 to 175. 
Some of the most valuable additions to the power plant have 
been designed and made at the works, with results aighly 
gratifying to the Directors. Electric cranes are in course 
of erection in several of the large shops. Electricity, in 
fact, now vies with compressed air and steam in the sujiply 
of motive force throughout the work.s. Hydraulic i)OW(r is 
also largely utilised. The steam power alone accounts for 
not less than 500 H.P. effective. .\t the southern end of 
the works a new foundry with fully double tlic capacity 
of existing shop is nearing completion, and will be supple- 
mented shortly by a large steel foundry. The Company in its 
younger days boldly undertook to deliver, one locomotive 
engine per month. It now engages to deliver two. or even 

w.;ere immense rotary kilns, steel railway waggons, railway 
bridges, etc., are also made; large woodworking machinery 
shops for preparing high-class joinery, railway rolling stock 
and agricultural machinery; carriage and waggon building 
shops, including ]]ainters, uphoLsterers, etc.; store-rooms for 
agricultural machinery and works' requirements. A work- 
men's dining-room, with an attendant and facilities for 
liiating. etc.; a foremen's dining and reading room; a well- 
equipped ambulance room; a splendidly laid out sports 
ground of seven acres, with jiavilion, etc., are in evidence. 
The Clyde Works Ambulance Corps, affiliated to the St. ,Iohn 
Association, deals with over 500 eases yearly. The Sick and 
Accident (Mub, Sports Club, with cricket and football teams. 
Brass Band, also a Rifle Club under the Defence Depart- 
ment, are -Voluntary associations of employees under the 
auspices of the Company. 


The Australian Bank of Commerce, Limited. 

Authorised Capital £2,000,000 

Subscribed Capital £1,198,344 

Paid Up (June 30, 1911) . . . . £1,180,812 

Registered 1909, under the Companies Act. 

^ii' WILLIAM P. MANNING, Kiit., Cliairmuii; (ILdKliK .L SLV, Ks.i., LL.IX; ('HAS. Tl. MYLKS, Esq.; ^L\RK SHEL- 


W1LLLS.M i'KAIC. Esq.. l'.r.l'..\.; (i. MAWJX ALLAKI), E-sc]., E.C.P.A. 

DIRECTORS, Louden Office; 
A. D01)U8 FAIl;li.\ll;N, Esq.. IL E. UUJNNEsy, Esq. 




Head Office — Sydney (Corner of George and King streets). 

General Manager: A. P. STEWART. 

M B'.'RTON FINNEY, Manager; WILLIAM RETD, Secretary; .J. IL WOOD, Aceoiintaiit. WILLIAM A. SH.\W, Sub 


London Office, 2 Kin.g William Street, B.C. 

C. A. 11. C.V.MI'ION. Miniiiger: (IE()R(;E ,1. GKOl'Xi), Accountant. 


Cliicf In.spector: COPLEY HORNE. 
Assistant Inspectors: HECTOR A. DAWES, RICHARD E. MELVILLK. Brandi .\iM-,iuiitaiit ; R. A. THOMAS. 

NEW SOUTH WALES.— City and Suburban: IlM.viiKiiket, ilanly, Randwick. Suiiniicr Hill. Country: 
Aniiidale, Balriuiakl. IJathiirst. Hciiii. Hiiiiilon^-. Ha^iialiri. HDinhala, ('i>ti(l(ihi)liii. Cooina. Coonabara- 
hraii, Coonamble. Cowra, Dcniliqiiiii, Dnbbo, Dunedoo. Fdrbes. (ik-u limes. Goulburn. (h-aftoii, 
(JrcntVll. (Jul^oiii;'. Hay, Hillstoii, iMverell, Kempsey. Lismore, :MaL'leaii, Mcrriwa, Jlolong, ^Nhidgee, 
iLuiulouran, Xarraiulera, Newcastle, Xyngaii, Orange, Painbula, Parkes, Pai'raiiiatta, Qiiiriiuli, Rich- 
mond, Rockley, Rylstcme. Scime. Singleton, Tamworth. Tenterfield, I'lniarra, Wagga Wagga, Wall.s- 
end. Wi'ntwdrth, West .Alaitlaiid. \Vliittiiii. Wickham. Wileannia. Wollongong, Woodburu, 

QUEENSLAND.— Brisbane. Alloia. I'.owcii. ( 'halters Towers. Cliftdii (Darling Downs), Gladstone, 
Ileliddii, Ipswieh. Killaniev, Maeka\-. .Miles. Rieklianiptun. Timwooiiilia. 'I'dwiisville. Warwick. 


Victoria. — The Bank of Victoria. Limited; The E.S. and A. Hank. Biiiiiled; The Xalianal l!;ink (if Aus- 
tralasia, Limited. Tasmania. — The Comniereial Bank of Tasmania, Limited. South Australia. — The 
Xati(mal Bank of Australasia. Limited: The E.S. and A. Bank. Limited. Western Australia.— The 
National Bank of Australasia. Limited. New Zcalond. — The P.ank of New Zealand. Fiji. — The Bank 
of New Zealand. 


London. — Australian Bank of Ciuniiieree. Ltd.. 2 King William St.. H.C: Hanker.s— National Provincial 
Bank of England. Limited. Scotland. — The Royal Bank of Scotland. Ireland. — The Provincial Bank 
of Ireland. Europe. — Agents and eoi-respondents in all the princiiial cities. India, China and Japan. 

i\lereantile Bank of India. Liiiiiled; Chartered Bank of India, Australia and China: Hnngkong 

and Shanghai Banking Corporation; Ciniiptoir National D'Escoinple (h^ I'aris. Honolulu, H. T. — 
The First National Bank of Hawaii. America. — .Messrs. Brown iirotiiers and Co., New York, Phila- 
delphia, and Boston; The JMerchants' Loan ami Trust Company. Chicago; The Standard Bank of 
Sottth Africa, Ltd., New York; The Canadian Bank of Commerce, San Francisco .-iiid Canada; The 
Dominion Bank, Toronto (Ontario) ; The .Vnglo-South American Bank, Ltd. And the principal 
Agencies of Me.ssrs. Thos, Cook and Son. 



MEGGITT, LTD., macquarie street, parramatta. 


Mr. H. W. Meggitt, Managing Director. 

Linseed Oil Mills and Desiccated Cocoa Nut Factory. 

ens ■ 

TIIIJS eompaiiy ooiiiiiieiiced o]j('ratious in U)07 at the above 
address (formerly known as Vallack's Brewery), as 
manufacturers of Linseed Oil and Linseed Oil Cake, 
also of Desiccated Cocoa Nut. Botli industries, altbougli new 
to the Commonwealth, are of consideralilc importance in other 
countries. The manufacture of Linseed Oil and Oil Cake 
especially is one of the primary industries in Kurope, and 
there gives employment to large numliers of people. The local 
establishment has proved these articles can be successfully 
manufactured in .-Vustralia, and the superior qualitj- of the 
local Oil is now admitted by most of the large users and 
painters throughout this and the neighbouring States. The 
Federal Dejiartment for Home Affairs, the State Govern- 
ments of N.S.W. and Victoria, and the Railways of these 
States, are large users of the Parramatta Oil. The works 
already afford employment to a considerable number of 
hands; it is expected before long the operations of the com- 
pany will be largely extended. The managing director, Mr. 
H. W. Meggitt, has had a long experience in this trade both 
in England and Australia. 


THE STAR HOTEL, Piirramatto. is a very difforeiit 
e.staljli.sliment to what it was when we first had 
nuiiiieipal government. Its ])est known proprietors 
of tlie early days were Mr. Watsford (father of the Rev. 

The Star Hotel, 50 Years Ago. 

John~i and John Holland. The jjrescnt proprietress is 
Mr.s. Beers, and it is due to her wis(> management that 

i; '!iiii'!:i ilimil il 

The Star Hotel. 1911. 

the hotel en.joys one of the e.\tensi\'e liusincsses 
of anv hotel in the district. 


The Mother School of Australia ! 




President of the Council and Visitor: 



The Most Ecverend the ARCHBISHOP OP SYDNEY (Chainnau), The Veu. ARCHDEACON GUNTHER, 
M.A., The Rev. H. WALLACE MORT, M.A., The Rev. CANON W. HEY SHARP, M.A., The Rev. W. J. 
(Hon. Treasurer), The Han. C. G. WADE, B.A., Mr. .lOHN A. I. PERRY (Hem. Secretary), Mr. W. \\. 


The Rev. P. STACY WADUY, M.A. (Oxoii). 
Asf:isU'd liv a Staff of Masters, Graduates of English ami .\uslralian I'liiversities. 

THE HidiDul provides a Classical, iriilhiMiialical. Scieutific, and (Iciicfal Edm-atiini ni' lli'' 
highest order on moderate tertns. willi religions teaching in ai-i-ord.-ini-c with the priii- 
eijiles (if I 111' ('hiii'ch of England, nidexs ot iii'r\vis<' di'sired liy the parrots. 
Tlii're are (Jlassical and Jlodern sides, and every facility for Ihc preparation of boys fur 
eitlier a jjrofessional or iiiereantile career. 

'I'liei'c ai'i' a niinihcr of S('li(ilarslii]is allaclii'd In Ihe Sellool. 

A Jnninr School, with resident married iiiaslcr. matron, etc., has been established for the 
special care of boys from 8 to 12 years old. 

A series of technical classes fen- l)oys going "on the land.'" with prai'tical teacliing li\- 
experienced instriietoi-s. is now given in the last year of the School conrse. 

All particnlars may be obtained from the Headmaster, or from Mr. C. S. LEWIS, ('lcrl< In 
the Council, Ocean House, iMoore Street, Sydney. 



50 Years of Progress and Prosperity! 
Well Done Parramatta ! 

WE'IiE all pvdud of J'arramatta, and we've a 
lijilit 1(1 be. Bright as has been lier past 
lier fnture looks still more promising. And 
everybody is plea.sed with Morphett's too — "The Home 
of Real Economy." Cast your mind back ten years 
and you'll remember that it was then that Morphett's 
money-saving prices first saw the light of day. They're Vi'ell 
known now as the best anywliere and receive a warm wel- 
come in every honre. We 've a bigger surprise i^aeket than 
over in stcre for you just now. You see it 's Parramatta 's 
Jubilee — it's the eomplet'on of 10 years' unbroken prosperity 
for Morphett too — and we're going to celebrate the double 
event by making a record display of Spring and Summer 
goods. And aren't we going to be busy just"? We've 
marked the prices so low and are offering such excellent 
quality that we'll hardly have time to turn round. In Juven- 
ile Clothing, Men's and Youths' Clothing, there's a greater 
variety than ever to select from. Tlie fact of the matter is 
we're out to prove that a £ spent at Morphett's is worth 
more than if spent elsewhere. The latest styles — the best 
qualities — the most decided values we've ever offered. Now's 
the time to make a little money go a long way. And, remem- 
ber, this is ONLY a stepping stone to still greater bargain 
events in the fnture. Mind you, we're not asking you to take 
our word for it. We want yon to come in and let us prove 
our statements right to the hilt. Now that's fair, isn't it? 


Men's Clothier, Mercer & Hatter CHURCH ST.. 
and Juvenile Outfitter PARRAMATTA. 



The Central Property Exchange, 

Tel. 175. P.O. Box, 15. PARRAMATTA. 




Of Estates in Subdivision or separately; Live Stock or Household Furniture in any [lart of the Dis- 
trict or at our Sale rooms, adjoining the A.B.C. Bank and Post Office. 


Of Estates; Collect Kents, effect Insurances ami sn|i;'rvisc Repairs. 


We spi'cialisi- in .\rranging Loans in large or small amounts. Iiaviiig sums always avallnlili' for 
IMMEDIATE ADVANCE at Market Rates, subject to our Valuation. 


For Probate, Partition, Deed of Gift. T^oans. and .-ill nt icr purposes elliciently made. 


And invite you to make use of our well e<piipped otlice — which is ri'|ilcte with Maps, Plans of all 
district lands and subdivisions — whenever you are in need of local information. 

T> 1 • JP ¥ .,<• Members cf Real Estate Auctioneers' and 

t\.2lWiinSOn <X J8l§0, P^-operty Specialists, ^tents' Association of New South 'Wales. 

YDe jubilee history of PARRAMATTA. 






Magnificent Resorts 

For all Tastes 

At all Seasons. 




A sseries of l)piuitiful watcM-falls, feru gullies, and ruggcil 
lieadlaiiils ami |iietiiresquo valleys. 



Till' Tdiiiist's h;i|ipy liuiitiiig- ground 


A seenie i) A district of splendid watering 
]ilai'es and Tnajestii panoramas. 


.li-iiol.un. Woinlieyan, Yarrangoliilly, Abercromliie and 


Anstralia 's higliest mountain. Tlie great Winter |ilay- 
ground. I'nrivalled as a Summer sanatorium. 

The Railways reach all the State's Resorts. 
Excursion Fares. Comfortable Train Arrangements. 


l''or full particulars inquire at 



.1. S. SPURWAV, Secretary to the Chief Commissioner for 
Railways and Trarnwavs. 



A Good Record ! F. D. Henderson has been established for Half a Century. 


Agent for Anderson and Go's. Garden Seeds, Penf eld's Celeb] a'.ed Wines, Scliweppe's Mineral Waters, Fresh Food and 

Ice Co., Gee's B.B. Fertiliser. 

McE'.vau 's Ak' ami IJci'k's Lajjer (quarts and pints), Kcscli 's. Jluitlaiid and Tooth's Ale and Stout, and Kcsch's 
Lauer, and all the leading brands of Wines and Spirits alway.s iu stock. 

F. D. HENDERSON, General Grocer, Wine and Spirit Merchant , 

TEL. 16. 

P.O. BOX 1. 

Tel. 27 P. 












(^574 5°ECIAL 


-3 T) 

There still exists as \mv\ of oar jiremises, a small portion of the ohl bakelioiiso, where bread was baked for the 
female immigrants "at the Factory" in William IV. and early Victorian days. 

Conld those old colonists return to life now they would be astonished to see our nicidcrn hvgienic bread factcirv, 
our malt yeast making, flour blending and sifting, dough kneading, nu)ulding and dividing machinery, our up-to-date 
ovens and appliances for the cleanly handling of bread, cake and pastr_v. 

Our carts ply d.-iily in and about a radius of .5 to 1(1 miles. Do we serve you.* If not — buy a sample loaf olf 

onr carter — you'll want more! — We sell 

White Bread. 
Bolls and Buns, 
Self-raiEing Flour, 

Whole-meal Bread. 
Cakes and Pastry. 
Baking Powder (our own) 

Malt Bread. 
Bride Cakes. 
Pure Teas. 

Bran Bread, 
Blended Teas. 

We also cater for Festivals, Picnics, Parties, &c. 



The Commercial Banking 
Company of Sydney, Limited. 






a. J. COHEN, Kkc]., Cliainiuiu. 

The Honorablf II. E. KATKR, M.L.C. Dcputy-Chairm.'ui. 
The Uonoiablo Hi-NKY MO«ES, M.L.C. 
The IToiiorable .lAMlOS BURNS, M.L.C. 
E. S. CAPE, Esq. I''. W. HIXSUN, Esq. 

General Manager: 'I'. .\. 1)|BBS. 
Assistant General Manager and Chief Inspector: 

II. H. MAS!-JE. 
Inspectors: \V, C. B. TFLEY and W. II. PINIIEY. 


A. J. «UUTAlv, Manager. 

V. R. 8AYERS, Aeeountaut. M. S. GRANT, Secrclaiy. 

.1. CLAYTON, Hraiicli Act-oiintant. 


\V. \V. BUDENIIAM, Manager. 


Property Salesmen, General Auctioneers 
and Government Valuators. 

iF YOU WANT TO BUY a I p:4iry. l-i-. tu" i'mi u\ I'.irin, ur chard. Country Resi- 
dence. Hoiiie or Uiisinfss. on L'nsh or Terms, we liave the LARG^EST List of 
Properties in or around the District to choose from. 

IF YOU WANT CASH for your Home, Farm or Business, we can get it, no 
matter wliere your property is located, or what is its value. 


Tel. 44 Parramatta. Church and Argyle Streets, PARRAMATTA. 




OXK of the most iniportaut anil floiirisliiiig of the many 
industries in the I'airamatta district is the Sandown 
Freezing AVorlcs, carried on by Messrs. ,)ohn Cooke 
and Co. Situated at Roseliill, and occupying a position 
practically on the banks of the ['arramatta Eiver, the large 
towering works are clearly discernible for miles round. They, 
together with railway siding, drafting yards and other Ijiiild- 
ings, take up the best part of 14 acres. Right in front of the 
property runs the Sydney Ferries tramway, which is very 
convenient to those of the workman who reside in Granville 
or Parramatta. A branch line of railway also run,< right 
into the works from the Clyde sunting yards. A snmll train 
of insulated trucks loaded with thousands of frozen carcasss 

are killed and frozen for export only, and Australian beef 
and nuitton find their way to almost all corners of the globe, 
the liulk, of course going to the British Isle.^. T'.ie largest 
kill for a fortnight in sheep and lambs has been 47,000. 
Nearly the whole of the stock are brought dircit from the 
grazing areas of the interior of New South Wales, and 
s]iecial care is exercised regarding the condition of the 
animals. They must necessarily be of top quality, and the 
])opnlarity which has been gained for Au.stralian nuitton 
in the Old Country is unmistakable evidence of the thorough- 
ncHK with which the work of selection is carried out. Inune- 
cli.-itely the shei']! arrive in the trucks from the country, they 
aie let out into the drafting yards and counted. Seven 

is made up daily and despatched to Darling Ilarljonr, which 
is reached in a comparatively brief space of time. The 
trucks are run alongside the steamers, and before the car- 
cases have had time to sutler any ill effects from the change 
of temperature in course of tr;insif, they are placed in the 
cool chamber on board ship. 

The present firm coinnienced oj)erations in UlOo, and with 
the exception of the first two seasons, which were somewhat 
intermittent, the works Iiave been kept going up to their 
full capacit}-. In the early part of their career something 
like 2000 sheep were treated daily, but since then the number 
has increased to 4000. Besides sliee]i, bullocks and lambs 
are treated, the works being capable of dealing with 150 of 
the former and over .5000 of the latter in a dav. All stock 

tincks can be unloa<led at the siding at one t = me. In the 
drafting yards water is laid on and the sheep are watered. 
They are afterwards taken to the Conipan.y's grazing area of 
150 acres, across the tramway-line, within a stone's throw 
of tlie drafting yards. This area is dividad into resting pad- 
docks, where the sheep remain from 12 to 24 hours, some- 
times longer. When grass is not available, the stock are 
hand-fed. .-\fter having rested, the sheep are taken back to 
the drafting yards and thence decoyed by pet sheep, wliich 
are continually kept on hand, along a race a few feet wide, 
to the top floor of the works, where they are slaughtered. 
The bullocks are driven along another race, not quite so 
wide, level with the ground. At the end of the race tluy are 
stLinried :ind then hauled up by chains to the top floor, where 



tlicy are butchered. On the killing and dressing floor nearly 
eo butchers are kept busily engaged the whole day long. A 
good man can kill ;uid dress a hundred shoep in S hours, 
which constitute a day's wcnk. ,\s sorm as a sheep is 
dressed it is phiced on liooks and sliil alimg a steel rail to 
the grader. It aiteiwards comes unch'r flic keen eye of a 
veterinary ijispcitor, and if [lassed lis ''().l\., '' it is sent 
along to be weighed and then ticketed according to grade, 
weight and quflity. It is then passed along to the hanging 
ground, wliere it remains till thoroughly cool, wIumi it is 
moved along by gravitation to the freezing chamber. From 
t!ie time tlie carcase leaves the hands of the liuti-lier till it 
arrives in the cold chamlier it is not once h;i lulled, and from 
tlie time a shee[i is butchered till it arrives in the lianging 
ground only a few minutes have elapsed. Tlie whole process 
is carri( d on with the regularity' of clockwork and without 
the slightest hitcli of any kind. The sheep skins are carted 
oif to trucks at the railway siding and forwarded to the 
fellmongers at Botany. The blood from the slauglitered 
stock runs along channels to tanks below, where it is boiled 

and afterwards put through various processes, along with the 
olfal, and finally it is seen in the form of rich manure, 
thorougiily dried, and ready to be bagged and exported. Xot 
a particle of anything is lost. Everything is turned into a 
commercial commodity with tlie day's working hours. The 
fat is converted into tallow of different grades, caul and 
kidney fat being kept separate, for the reason that it makes 
the highest grade tallow. Like the carcases, the by-jiroducts 
are all exported. There are in all nine freezing rooms, with 
a holding capacity of between 1S,0(I0 and 14,000 carcases. In 
three days the carcases are hard frozen. They are then 
bagged in snow white material, which goes by the name of 
stockinette, and removed by the cold-storage hands, suitably 
attired to withstand the cold, to two immens? stores, each 
capable of storing from 4.j,000 to .50,000 carcases. From the 
stores there is a quick and easy means of transferring the 
carcases to the in.siilated trucks on the railway, and once the 
trucks are loaded it is not long before an engine arrives 
from f'lyde and conveys the frozen cargo and l>y-[ir;)ducts 
to the s-iip's side at Darling Harbour. 




Tills firm was originally established over fifty years ago 
l>.y tlie late R. A. Ritchie, in Parramatta, where the 
noted plows bearing his nam? were manufactured, as 
well as other agricultural iniplemoiits, and where he also 
cemmenccd the business of rolling-stock building. After a 
succtbsful period in the historic town, more extensive i)re- 
inises were secured at Auburn, v.-here the business has since 

while the e.xteusions of shops, plant and the installing of 
new machinery are continually being added to meet the 
increasing demands for rcdling stock Ijy the Government of 
New South Wales, coll'cry owmrs. .iiid other departments of 
industry, and for which this firm primarily designed the 
present ]ilant, although at the same time a considerable trade 
is lieiug devehipi'd in almost every- class of agricultural 

been carried on liy the sons, under the style of Ritchie 
Brothers, who by their tact and luisiuess acumen have e.\- 
tended their operations to the present capacity of the works, 
where some oOO employees are constantly engaged in the 
manufacture of all classes of railway cars, carriages, wag- 
gons, waggon buffers, and general engineering, as well .'ts 
agricultural imi)lenients. Tlie accompanying illustration can 
only give, to a limited extent, the cajiacify of these works. 

inipleiiieiits. The whole establishment being under the direct 
control of The Ritchie Brothers, accounts for the steady 
expansion of these works, and iieing situated on the western 
suburban line, close to tlie Auliurn station, it c.-m readily be 
reached liy a regular daily train service, and a special siding 
is made running into the works, for loading and conveying 
by rail, and for shipment, the manufactures of this estab- 





NOTICE !— This is put in for you to Look at, 
Read and Learn. 


It's from Marsden's. 

It's one of the most c-omiilete Saddler's Slinps in the 

It's one of the oldest — going 35 years. 
It's where yon can get anything in the leather lino. 
It's where all Horse Collars ,ire made on the premises. 
It's Marsch'u's for any kind of Good Harness. 
It's the same for anything in Saddles. 
It's always the same — the best article at a reasonable 

It always has been and always will he at Marsden's 

It's not Jubilee with ^Marsden. Init Leathery. 




Telephone 52. 

We Supply Footwear by Post to Residents 
Anywhere in Australia ! 

It iiiiitters not a jot whether you buy personally or by letter — whether you eome yourself or send — we promise 
definitely to supply you witli YOT'R style in Boots or .Shoes at the most reasonable price in the State. 
Es|)eeially we invite you to order by letter from us if you are in the haliit of or would like to try the mail order system. 
We are sufficiently far enough removed from metropolitan high rents to lie able to quote you more economical prices 
than a George or Pitt Street, Sydney, shop can. Also we have no " board of directors" to paj' salaries to, or "share- 
holders'" who are interested in dividends. 

Tiiese are very practical rea.sons why you should forward your order to us and as examples of the values we offer we 
quote two here. 

A remarkably fine Gents' Bal- 
moral Boot in Box Calf or Glace 
Kid. ]t is a most comfortable 
boot and very dressy. We have it 
in many different shapes of toes — 
medium, broad, square, narrow, 
etc. — with wide or narrow welt, 
patent or self toe-cap. Post free 
to anv address in the State — 

1 6 6 

For Ladies — a Stylish Shoe in Patent 
Leather or Glacie Kid. Instep Strap (like 
illustration), .Ankle Strap, or Plain 
Sailor Tie, Welted or Pump Soles, 
Cuban Heels, Most certainly 1 he 
greatest value on the mark?t to 
day. Packed carefully and post 
eii free anvwlure — 


So strongly do we believe that the above Boot and Slioe styles will please that we are i)reiiared to send them to any 
person anywhere on the understanding that if they are not what was expected they can be exchanged for something mor'e 
to the buyer's liking, or money returned. 

SAUNDERS & BROWN, "The big boot stor e, parramatt a. 


Savings Bank of New South Wales. 

Head Office . . . . BARRACK STREET, SYDNEY. 

Established by Act of Coimcil, 1832. 



The Honorable EDMUND FOSBERY, C.M.G., M.L.C. 
Trustees : 






Managing Trustee: 

Total Number of Depositors on 31st December, 1910 130,352 

Total Amount at Credit of Depositors on 31st December, 1910 . . £7,263,103 19s 7d 

Total Reserves £394,021 Os Od 


Open for business daily: lU till -i p.m.; Salui-day. ID a.m. till 1 L' unoi] ; and mi Friday 
evenings for Receiving Deposits only, 7 to 9 o'l-lnck. 


Managing- Trustee. 





As supplied Sydney and Royal Prince Alfred Hospitals, Orient Royal Mail Steamers. 
TUCKER & CO., SYDNEY, Sole Agents. 


The Parramatta Watchmaker and 







Gents* English Himting Lever 55/- 

Ladies' Silver Watches 55 - 

Bangles, Basket Pattern from 32 - 

Gem-set Bracelets „ 30 - 

Presentation Marble Clocks „ 40 - 

Presentation Liqueur Stands „ 30/- 

Presentation Tea and Coffee Service „ 70 - 




SKIES IS . . . 


Sr<^Ti AMn <; 


Sole Agents, The Oldest Wine and Spirit Merchants in Australia. 



Messrs. GOODLET & SMITH, Ltd. 

IN tlic St;iti' of New South Wales Messrs. Goodltt and 
Siuitli, Ltd., have luiiji- lieen recognised as [)ii)neers of 
nianufactiiriiig industry. The firm was ('sta.l)lished in 
IS.")."), when tlio i-ountry was in its infancy, and the liusiuess 
was for many years t Jat of Timlier Merchants and Saw Mill- 
ing exclusively. With the extension of building in the colony, 
the manufacture of Pipes and Bricks was added to the firm's 
operations, and to Messrs. Goodlet and Smith belongs the 
credit of having introduced to New South Wales the 
Hofmanu Kiln, which has been the means of developing so 
enormously the manufacture of bricks and kindred goods. 

The great development of Cement manufacture in Europe 
in the early nineties, suggested to the firm tlie i)ossibility of 
utilising the valuable limestone and shale deposits in this 
country, and the result was the establishment in 1S93, of the 
'■Hock" Brand Cement Works at Granville, which were the 
fi:st to produce in Anstralia a high grade I'ortland cement, 
S-urpassed by none of the imjiorted brands, and superior to 
the ma.jority. The importance to the country of this depar- 
ture will be readily understood when it is known that for 
many years almost the total output was absorlied by the 
\arious Government departments, which liccann^ independent 
of importations. 

The (.'om|>any [los.^esses large dcjjosits of Limestone in close 
proximity to the Mudgee Line, but all the other raw material 
required in the manufactnre of Cement, Bricks and Tiles is 
obtained adjaemt to the works, which are connected, with 
the Main Railway Line by extensive sidings for the rapid 
despatch of the loaded trucks. 

Simultaneously with the m.anufacture of cement the firm 
commenced the nmking of Terra Cotta Roofing Tiles; again 
demonstrating the value of Australian raw materials, and 
entering into successful comi>etiti<m witli the importers of 
Marseilles Tiles, which had then a strong hold on the market. 
Recently, extensive shipments of local Tiles have been made 
to other States, where they have given every satisfaction. 

The machinery required in the production of the various 
articles is the most up-to-date, and includes improved type 
machines, and only this year tlie Power Plant has been again 
increased by the addition of two of the largest suction gas 
engines in Australia. Patent IJilns, which were successfully 
xised from the start of the Cement Works in 1893, were 
replaced in the beginning of 1901 by large Rotary Furnaces, 

which are univi'rsally acknowledged to be the most suitable 
for the production of high-grade Pcrtlanil Cement. 

The Government of Xew South Wales require the cement 
to a higher Standard than in any other part of the world, 
and to meet tliese requirements the Laboratory at the works 
is thoroughly equipjied for the necessary analysis in the 
\arions stag<*s of the manufactnre. 

The establishment of these various branches of nuuuifac- 

Suction Gas Engines at Goodlet and Smith's. 

ture has given employment directly to hundreds of Austra- 
lians, and indirectly provided bu.siness for many others. 

The Cement Works, which now cover about five acres of 
ground, have played a very important part in the develop- 
ment of this district, giving constant employment to hun- 
dreds of hands and inv(dving a large distribution of wages, 
which is spent in the immediate vicinity amongst all classes 
of business people who derive benefit therefrom. 



THE JUBILEE History op parRamatta. 

The Unrivalled Picture Theatre, THE BUTTERFLY 

THE Butterfly wings on its fligiit to Films (Realms) of 
Beauty, Education and Delight. We eater for all — 
the young and old, the serious and bright. The inter- 
est of our patrons never flags, but is held from start to 
flnisli. Like the tiny mustard seed. Photo. Play has grown 
so big that at the present day it takes a huge army of 
experts to control it. Good old Parramatta can boast of 

having one of the best Photo. Play Theatres (the Butterfly) 
in the Commonwealth. Prices are small. Management is of 
the highest order. Comfort of patrons is assured. 

Yours truly, 





^^ sStaii 


to o 

<U x^ 










■ o 


^ ^ ? 
:2 -.•o -th 
















3 03 

o 2 





















S ^ 

"S oi 

d 0) 

^ a. 

2 " 

2 1 

a. rs 














lu <— J DC 
D= &0 LXJ 
















>, o 










tn "d 

O ^ 

c:, ex 

In b£ 

Cl. P 


o 4) 

■S * 

^ c 

o id 

- 3 

ex P 

5^ K 


fl "3 


g O 

.s si 

.w <« pi 

O c = 
CX rt ^ 
w — </ 

a, = 
>> P ■•<; 




j^ Where Parramatta Style comes from. 

Yours truly, 


Church St., 


Tailor ^ ^ 

Nearly Opposite The 
Argus Office. 

Fifty Years Ago 

THE ineu of l'arraiiKitt;i liail licit the oppiutunities 
and conveiiieiice f(ir slici]i|iiiiy; that are presented 
to-day. Tlicic was mi uii-to-date. Specialty 
House like QUIGLEY'S, uiiiih raters entirely for 
Men's trade, and which oti'er.s you siieh a wide range 
in Price, Quality and Style that you scarcely know 
where to begin or where to finish. 

Xi) matter what you require in the Clothing line 
QUIGLEY can satisfy you. This store has an extra- 
ordinary, large and fashionable stock of 









TIBS, BRACES. SOX, Etc., Etc. 


QUIGLEY S, Church Street, The Home of Good Hats. 



The Park Gate Hotel, George and O'Conneli Streets, Parramatta. 


My I Telephone 62 RYDE 

For Reliable Fruit Trees 

For New and Best Roses 



Hillcrest Nursery, Ermington, Parramatta River, N.S.W, 



William Ewart Hart, Firsl Australian Aviator, Born Parramatta, N.S.W., April 20, 1885. 








The Printers and Publishers of this History. 

Telephone 33. 



Index to Illustrations. 

G. Addison, C.P.S.*, 151 

All Saints' Churcli, 4;i 

Till': ARGUS Printing Wurks, 144 

Rev. R Arinitage. 87 

Australian Arms Hotel, 35 

The Baptist Church, 35, 62 

Alderman R. C. IJartlett, 4 

The iJathing House, 35 

Joiin llatnian, 34 

Frank lieanies, ti 

Inspector lledingfeld*, 151 

F. K. Bloxham, 1211 

Kev. H. H. Ituhart, 46 

W. W. Bodenham, 13S 

Joseph Bootli, 6 
Governor Bourke, 30 

E. K. Bowden. 162 

J. K. Bowden, IS) 

Thomas W. Bowden 

The Bowling (_'Iuli Committee, 134 

Tile Bowlini; Green, 132 

Dr. R. Bowman, 131 

Governor Brisbane, 30 

Alderman E. J. Brown, 4 

Dr. Walter Brown, 107 

Dr. W. S. Brown, 134, 135 

Samuel Burse, 6 

H. W. Burgin. 147 

Colonel Burns, 109 

C. E. Byrnes, 162 

C. J. Byrnes, 28 

James Byrnes, 6, 7 

C. Cawood, 113 

The Centennial Fountain, 74 

Rev. A. H. Champion, 92 

Alderman C. .\. B. Cliampion, 4 

Choral Society Committee*, 158 

Church Street Views, !i, 12, 16, 20, 24, 4: 

44, 52, 79 
The Citizens' Band*, 120 
G. Coates. jun., 136 
Dean Coffej', 55 
Alderman A. H. Collett, 4 
The Congregational Church, 60 
Convent of Our Lady of Mercy, 57 
W. Stewart Corr, S9 
The Council*, 4 

The First Coimcil Chamljers, 8 
OfBcers of tlie Council*, 11 
The Court House, IS 
The Old Court House, 32 
Colonel Cox, C.B., 113 
F. C. Cox, 10 

C. E. Dale, 43 

Dancing the Lancers on Horseback, HI 

Governor Darling, 30 

Governor Denison, 30 

District Scliool, 67 

The Lower l>rive in the Park, 130 

Ellison's Hotel, 32 
Experiment Cottage, 39 

Colonel Ferris, 6 

The First Settlement, 31 

Governor Fitzroy, 30 

The Lady Mary Fitzroy Obelisk, 40 

Football Team, 141 

Rev. Robert Forrest, 85 

The Gaol. 51 
John Garlick. 148 
Walter Gates. 148 

Governor Gipps, 30 

The Girls' Industrial School, 12 7 

liobert Goldrick, 136 

John Good, 6, 7 

Rev. W. F. Gore, 50 

Old Government House, 14, 15, 103 

Alderman J. H. Graham, 4 

H. Granger, 147 

Archdeacon Gunther, 47 

Captain Guyot*, 108 

John Harper, Railway Commissioner, 150 

Richard Harper, 6, 7 

Rev. Dr. Harris, 101 

William Hart*, 137 

W. E. Hart, Aviator, 196 

Henry Harvey, 7 

Alderman J. W. Hill, 4 

Judge H. T. Holroyd, 119 

Tlie Horticultural Society Committee, 157 

The Hospital, 26, 121 

The Hospital Committee and Staff, 122, 123 

Dr. Andrew Houisun, 148 

James Houison, 7 

Howell's Mill, 38 

Irrigating an Orangery, 117 

Mayor Jago, 4, 5 
Rev. Richard Johnson, 33 
Alex. Johnstone, 133 
Rev. S. M. Jolinstone, 47 

Dr. .1. Kearney, 143 

Rev. Father Kenj-on, 55 

Archdeacon King', 47 

The King's School, 1861, 86 

The King's School, 1899, 88 

The King's School, 1911, 96 

The King's School Chapel, 97, 98 

C. A. Lee, M.L.A., 148 
Rev. J. B. Leech, 63 

The Leigh Memorial Church, 64 
The Long Avenue in the Park, 82 

George F. Macarthur, 73 

Hannibal H. Macartliur, 118 

John Macarthur, 72 

John Macarthur's old Home, 41 

E. L. Maitland, S.M.*, 151 

Captain H. T. Mance, 148 

The Market Euilding.«!, 32 

A. E. Marsden*, 123 

Samuel Marsden, 68 

Edmund Mason, 80 

H. Mason*, 123 

The Medical Institute, 78 

The Medical Institute Board, 124 

The Military Barracks 

Alderman T. It. Moxham, M.L.A., 120 

John Neale, 7 

Alderman W. P. Xoller 4, 151 
The Nurses, Parramatta District Hos|iital, 

Orchestral .Society Committee*, 159 

D. P. O'Reilly, 119 

Very Rev. T. O'lteilly*, 56 

Park Views, 13, 15, 19, 21, 

103, 115, 130, 132 
Parramatta in 1792, 31 
Parramatta in 1824, 70 
Paj'ramatta in 1911. 71 

23, 40, 82, 91, 

Parramatta X. Public School, 84 

Rev. John Paterson, 5D 

E. P. Pearce, 10 

Rev. G. C. Percival*. 65 

Governor Phillip, 30 

The Post OtHce. 16. 22 

The Post OMice, I'arramatta -N"., 24 

Mr. Justice I'ring, 94 

Progress Association Executive*, 106 

James Pye, 6, 7 

Leslie \V. Pye, 139 

The I'irst Railway Train, 36 

Railway Commissioner H. Rieliardson. 153 

The Railway Station, 25 

Tlie Red Cow Inn, 37 

Monsignor Rigne.v, 55 

Ring's Bridge, 91 

River Views. 17, 26 

P. H. Robilliard*, 162 

St. Andrew's Church, 58 

St. Jolin's Church, 42, 45 

St. John's Park, 74 

St. John's Old Parsonage, 32. 69 

St. Patrick's Church, 51 

John Saunders, 11 

Tlie School of Arts, 61 

Tlie School of Arts Committee*. 155 

The Searle Monument, 129 

Alderman J. B. Smith, 4 

Joseph Smith, 6 

The Soldiers' Memorial, 77 

J. S. Spurway, 150 

Neil Stewart, 147 

Subiaco Cottage, 32 

Hugh Taylor, 28 

John Taylor, 7 

John Taylor's old xMart, 29 

Alderman F. J. Thomas*, 4 

The Three-decker Pulpit, 46 

Toll Bar, 32 

The Town Hall, 9 

L. J. TroUope, 93 

John Trott, 7 

Rev. Stacy Waddy, 90 
Rev. Joseph Walker, 65 
William Walters*. 160 
Rev. John Watsford, 81 
Alderman John Waugh*, 4 
Dr. R. I'hipps AVaugh*, 123 
Dr. K. Whiting*, 123 
Stanley Wickham, 140 
Sydney Wickham, 12 
T. H. Wilkinson, S.M, 
John Williams, 6, 7 
Dr. -n'. C. Williamson, 
J. W. Withers, 6 
Rev. Dr. Woolls, 76 
The Old Woolpack, 35 

, 151 

NOTE. — Tlie a.sterisk (*) signifies that 
the portrait from which illustration was 
made was taken by Mr. P. Creagh. of the 
Olive Studios. Parramatta. The landscapes 
are nearly all the w-ork of Jlr. John Black, 
of THE ARGl'S staff, who is also respon- 
sible for the successful reproduction of 
many of the old and faded prints. Copies 
of any picture appearing in this Jubilee 
History may be obtained in any reasonable 
size at THE ARGUS Office, Church-street, 



General Index. 

Abbott. J. H. M., 100, 101 

Aborigines, 43 

Agricultural Societies, 116, 117 

Agriculture, Parramatta and. 114-7 

Agriculturist of Australia, The first, 116 

Aldermen, The first, 5-7 

Aldermen, The present, 4, 29 

Alfred Square, 26, 138 

Alfreds, The, 138 

Alignment of Parramatta Streets, 154 

All Saints' Church, 47-53 

Anderson, Dr. Matthew, 50, 123 

Anderson Fountain, The, 10 

Annual Value (1862), 21 

Annual Value (1910), Assessed, 21 


80, 81, 84, 140, 140; 
Armitage, Rev. F., 51, 53, 73, 87, 94, 96, 108 
Arndel!, Dr. Thomas, 33 
Arundel, J.. 106, 118, 122, 124, 155, 159 
Astronomers, Parramatta, 77-80 
Athletics in Parramatta, 132, 133-145 
Athletics in The King's School, 98-101 
Atkins, Judge Advocate, 36, 72 
Auditor. The first. 7 
Australian Arms Hotel. The, 35 
Aviator, The First Australian, 196 

Bailiff, The first, 11 

Bank of X.S.W., The, 35, 44 

Banks, Sir Joseph, 82 

Baptist Church, The, 35, 62-3 

Barker, Bishop, 52 

Barker, J. C, 7. 10, 29, 108 

Barracks, The Military, 110 

Barrv, Alfred, 158 

Bartiett, R. C. 9, 124. 125. 126, 142 

Bathing-house, The old, 35 

Batman, John, 81 

Beames, F., 6, 27 

Becher, Rev. R. F., 61, 62 

Bedingfeld, T. W., 151 

Belmore, Governor, 33 

Bettington, J. B., 48, 50, 53 

Betts, E. M., 132, 138, 145 

Bligli. Governor, 72, 73, 131 

Blomfield, Rev. J. R., 51, 53 

Bloxham, F. E., 129, 158 

Bobart, Rev. H. H., 46, 47, 48, 87 

Bodenham, W. W., 122, 123. 124, 138, 158 

Boer War, Parramatta soldiers in the, 108. 

109, 110, 111, 112 
Booth, Joseph, 6, 27, 156 
Bourke, Governor, 30, 39, 86, 95 
Eourke, Mrs., 39 
Bowden, E. K., 162, 163 
Bowden, J. E., 19, 124 
Bowden, T. W., 6, 27, 123 
Bowling, 35, 133-6 
Bowman, Dr. R., 123, 124, 131, 157 
Brennan, Rev. M., 55, 56 
Bri.sbane. Governor, 30, 39, 46, 77, 78, 79, 

SO, 116, 143 
Broughton, Bishop, 47, 48, 50, 51, 75, 85, 86 
Broughton House, 92, 98 
Broughton Scholarship and Exhibition, 89 
Brown, Dr. Walter, 107, 108,, 123, 134, 136 
Brown, Dr. W. S., 100, 10], 108, 122, 123, 

124, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137, 142 
Brown. E. J., 29, 108. 131. 142 
Burge. Samuel, 6, 27, 63, 105 
Burgin. H. W., 147 

Burkitt. W. R., 91, 94. 9t;. 99. 134, 138, 142 
Burns, Colonel, 109, llO. m, 112, 157, 160 
Button. J, 124. 125, 131 

Byrnes, C. E., 158, 162 

Byrnes, C. J., 27, 28. 105, 108, 119, 120, 122, 

123, 124, 133, 134, 135, 138 
Byrnes, H., 108 
Byrnes, James, 5, 6, 7, 12, 15, 27, 83, 105, 

120, 123, 132. 152 

Cabbage-tree Hat Brigade, The, 44 

Cadets. The, 112 

Caley, George, SI, 82 

Camden, 72 

Cameron, Rev. F., 4S, 40, 50, 51 

Capital and Labor, 34-7 

Capital Punishment. 33 

Carey, Rev. W. H.. 63 

Carr, Vince, 63 

Cattle-raising in Church finances, 65 

Cavalry, Parramatta, 109-113 

Cawood, C, 108, 113, 132 

Centenary Church, Parramatta, 66, 67 

Jentenary of Australian Methodism, The 64 

Centennial Fountain, The, 74 

Central Cumberland Electorate C.C, 139 

Central Cumberland v. England. 139 

Champion. C. A. B.. 4, 29 

Champion, Rev. A. H.. 89, 93, 90, 98, 157 

Chaplain, The first, 33 

Chaplain, The second. See Marsden 

Cherry Tree Gardens, 86 

•'Chronicle, The Parramatta," 80 

Churches of Parramatta, The, 45-67 ' 

Clarke, Rev. W. B.. 14, 48, 74, 75, 85, 86, 87 

Coaches, 33, 42 

(^oates, George, 28, 125. 126 

Coates, George, jun., 124, 134. 135, 138 

Coffey, Dean, 32. 55, 56 

Collett, A. H., 29 

Colley, H., 29 

Conference, First Wages, 34 

Congregational Cliurch, The, 59, 60 

Convent of Our Lady of Mercy, 57 

Convict Depot, Female, 37 

Convict Labor, 37 

Cook, Hon. Joseph, 119, 121 

Corr, W. S., 90, 92, 97, 98 

Cottage Homes, 127, 129 

Council, The first, 5, 7 

(^'ouncil Cliambers, The first, 7, 29 

Council Clerk, Tlie first, 7, 29 

Council Clerks, 7, 10, 28, 29 

Council Officers (1911), 11 

Court House. Tlie, 18 

Court House, l'"irst, 36 

Court House, Second, 26, 32 

Court Pride of Australia, 125-6 

Coutts, Rev. T.. 58 

Cow^per, H. B.. 122, 124 

Cowper, Sir Charles. 9, S3, 152 

Cox, Col. C. F., 109, 110. Ill, 112, 113 

Cox. F. C, 10, 27, 133, 134, 135 

Cox. William. 11. 116 

(Cumberland Agricultural Societies, 117 


Cumberland Park, 33 
Cumberland, Duke of, 33 
"Cumberland Times," No. I., 80; No. IL, 81 
Curnow, Rev. W., 66 

Dalmas, W., 91, 94, 95, 138 

D'arcy, D. G.. 129 

Dare, A. R., 7 

Dare, G. E., 43 

Dare's Mill, 43, 83 

Darling, Governor, 30, 55, 131, 143 

Darvall. J. B., 121 

Davey, G. B., 138. 141 

Davies, S., 11, 29, 155 

Davis, J., 75 

Dawes, Lieut,, 31, 34, 107 

Defence, Parramatta and, 107, 113 

Delaney, J. D., 91, 96 

DeLow, R. H., 29 

Denison, Governor, 14, 15, 30, 39. II 131, 

132, 152 
Destitute, Asylums for the, 128 
District School, The, 67, 105 
Dixon. Rev. James. 55 
Done, Rev. John, 51, 53 
Draper, Rev. D. J., 66 
Drewett. P. A., 154 
Druitt, Archdeacon, 87 
Drummond. J.. 124. 125 
Dunlop, James, 77, 78, 79, SO 

Eades, T., 133 
Eddy, E. M. G.. 150 
Edgell, C, 59. 60, 01 
Edrop, J., 123 
Eedy. A., 141 

Elizabeth Farm. 41. 71. 7 2 
EJlliott, George, 123 
Ellis, J., 11 
Ellison's Hotel, 32 
Emancipists, 39 
"Immigrant," 145 
i Erby, G. T., 122, 124 
Experiment Cottage, 39, 114 

Factory, The, 37-9 

Farnell, J. S., 34, S3, 119, 132 

Ferguson, R. M., 67 

Ferris, W. J., 6, 27, 108, 119, 120, 138 

Fifty Years Ago, 43 

Finances, Municipal, 8, 13-21 

Finlayson, J., 59, 134, 159 

First Agriculturist in .Australia, 114 

First Apples in Australia. 116 

First Auditor of Parramatta Council, 7 

First Australian Aviator, 196 

First Bailiff of Parramatta Council, 11 

First Blood Horse foaled in Australia, 143 

First Boy at NewMngton College, 149 

First Boys at The King's School, 86 

First Brewer.v in Parramatta, 34 

First Chaplain, 33 

First Colonial Troops to visit England for 

Training, 111 
First Conference between Capital and 
Labor. 35 

j First Council, 5, 7 

I First Council Chambers. 8, 26 

. First Grapes grown in .Australia, 115 
First Harvest gathered in Australia, 114 

I First Headmaster T.K.S.. 85. S6 
First Hops .grown in Australia, 34 
First Horse Race in .Australia, 143 
First Hospital in Parramatta, 33 
First Land (jrant in .Australia, 114 
First Loan of Parramatta Council, 8 
First "Log" in Australia, 36 
First Magistrate in Parramatta, 32 
First Mass said in Parramatta, 55 
First Mayor of Parramatta, 5, 6 
First Medical Man in Parramatta, 33 
First Member for Parramatta, 118 
First Methodist Missiiwiary, 63 
First Newspaper in Parranuitta, 80 
First Nun professed in .\ustr.alia. 56 



First Old Eoys' Union in Australia, 118 
Fir&t Oranges grown in Australia, 116 
First Parliament umler Itesponsible Go- 
vernment, lis 
First President Australasian Wesleyan 

Conference, 66, SI 
First Printer in Australia, SO 
First Protestant Place of Worship in Par- 

raniatta, 5'.t 
First Railway Commissioners, 152 
First Railway .Station in l^arramatta, 41, 

First Rate levied in I'arramatta, 21 
First R.C. Chapel in I'arramatta, 55, 56 
First Schoolmaster in Parramatta, 34 
First f^ettlement in Parramatta, 36 
First dhop in Parramatta, 33 
First Town Clerk in Parramatta, 7, 29 
First Town .Surveyor in Parramatta, 8 
First \'aluer in Parramatta, 7 
First Volunteers (Infantry), 107 
First Volunteers (Lancersi, 109 
First Wages Roard in Australia, 36 
First Woman of Kuropean Parents born in 

Australia, 118 
Fitzroy, Governor, 30, 311, IS, 131 
Fitzroy, Lady Mary, 39, 40 
Fleming, H. C, 159 
Football, 94, 99, 141 

Forrest, Rev. R., 48, 85, 86, 87, 91, 94, 102 
Forsaith, Rev. T. S., 59, 60, 61, 62 
Forsytli, A. F., 126 
Fruit, Proliibition of, 115, 116 
Fuel for Locomotives, 152 
Fullagar, H., 133, 134, 138 
Fuller. Matron, 122. 124 
Fyall, .1. G.. 124, 125 

Gaol, The Log, 34 

Gaol, The Old, 34 

Gaol, The Present, 34, 129 

GarliclJ, J., 148 

Gas, The Introducer of, 82, 83 

Gates, W., 124, 125, 126, 149 

Gazzard, Noah, 59, 61 

Gillespie, A., 125, 126 

Gipps, Governor, 30, 4S, 131 

Girls' Industrial School, 127 

Gold, 40, 76 

Gold Rush in Parramatta. 4 3 

Goldrick, R., 133, 134, 136, 138, 148 

Good, John. 5, fi, 26, 27. 28 

Goodman. W. R., 124, 123 

Gore, Rev. W. K., 48. 51, 52, 53, 94, 123 

Government House, Xo. I., 14, 39 

Government House, Xo. II., 39, 115, 131 

Government House in 1900, 103 

Government House in 1911, 15, 92, 98 

Government Institutions, Parramatta, 126 

Governor's Club, The, 143 

Governors, Early, 30 

Grammar School in Australia, The Oldest 

— See King's School 
Granger, H., 147 
Gray, Rev. A. St. John, 88, 96 
Greenup, Dr., 123, 138 
Grose. I.,ieut. Governor. 107 
Gunther. Archdeacon. 3. 32, 45, 47, 88, 156 
Guyot, J. K., 108 

Hall, rir. E. C, 122, 124, 157 

Harkus, R. 10., 109, 110, 111 

Harold. Rev. .1., 55 

Harper, J,, 150 

Harper, R., 6, 27. 83, 132, 135, 136 

Harper, R. W., 158 

Harris, John, 39, 114 

Harris. Rev. Dr.. 88, 96, 99, 101, 103, 104 ,156 

Hart, William, 137 

Hassall, Rev. J. S., 86 

Hassall, Rev. R., 59, 72 

Hassall, Rev. T., 48 

Hayes, P., 7, 37 

Healthfulness of I'arramatta, 22-3 

Heaton, J. H., 29, 138 

Hellberg, J., 134 

Hellyer, T., 29, 133, 142 

Henderson, I). D., 59, lOS, 134. 135, 136 

Hill, J. AV., 29, 97, 106, 155, 157, 158, 159 

Holroyd, A. T., 119, 120 

Horse Traction for Railwa\-s, 152, 153 

Hospital, Civil and Military, 122 

Hospital. Colonial, 122 

Hospital, Committee and Staff of the pre- 
sent, 122 

Hospital for Insane, 38, 128-9 

Hospital in Parramatta, The first, 33, 39 

Hospital, Parramatta District, 26, 91, 122-4 

Houison, Dr. A., 1, 57, 75, 85, 87, 108, 116, 

Houison, James, 5, 53, 57, 123 

Howell's Mill, 38, 43 

Hume, Hamilton, 81 

Hunter, Governor, 31, 35, 45, 55, 107 

Hunt's Creek Reservoir, S, 9, 13, 17 

Icely, Tliomas, 41, 143 

Improved Capital Value, I'arramatta, 21 

Industrial School for Girls, 127 

Infantr.N', \'olunteei', 107 

Inglis, Rev. J. W., 58, 156 

Innes, Rev. G. A. C, 51, 52 

Inne.s, Sir Oeorge, 89, 90 

In.sane, Hospital for the, 38, 128-9 

Interre.anum at T.K.S., The, 87, 93-4 

Iredale. F., 138, 140 

Jago, W. F., 5, 27, 29, 106, 155, 157, 158, 159 
Jamison, Sir John, 116, 143 
Johns, J., 62 

Johnson, Rev. R., 33, 34, 45, 69, 116 
Johnston, Colonel, 72, 107 
Jolinstone, A.. 133, 134 
Johnstone, Rev. S. M., 4 7 
Jones, S., 126 
Jose, A. W., 156 

Journalism, The leather of Parramatta, 

Kearney, Ur. J., 123, 124 
Kimber, W. A., 134, 136 
King, Archdeacon R. L., 32, 46, 123 
King, Governor, 45, 55, 72, 73, 81, 82, 131 
! King's Scliool, The, 46, 73, 75, 76, 85-104 
King's School, an Old Boys' School, 90-2 
King's School, Athletics at, 98-101 
King's Scliool, Changes and Alterations, 

King's School Chapel, 94, 95, 96-7. 98 
King's School Commemoration Day, 102 
King's School in the sixties, 93-5 
Kings School, The Interregnum, 87, 93-4 
King's School, The Old Boys' Union, 101-4 
King's Scliool, it stands for. 92 
Kitchener, L..rd, HI, 112 

Labor and Capital, 34 
Labor, Convict, 9, 1 8 
Lackey, Sir John, 34, 83, 118. 120 
Lancers, N.S.W., 109 
Lee, C. A., 147 
Leech, Rev. J. E., 63 
Leigh, Rev. S., 64, 65, 66 
Leigh Memorial Church, The. 63, 64, 66 
Lighting the Town, S, 9, 11, 13 
Lismore. Governor, 30 

Little, T. n., 35, 38, 43, 122, 123, 124, 134, 
l.'',6, 137, 138, 139, 150, 158 

Litton, L. C, 134 
Lloyd, Rev. A., 60, 61 
Loan, The first Municipal, 8 
Long, W. A., 120 
Lovell, F., 141 

Loyal Sydney and Parramatta Association, 

Macarthur, G. F., 32, 73-4, 86, 87, 88, 91. 

94, 95, 96, 99, 102, 138 
Macarthur, Hannibal H., 32, 48, 73, 116, 

118, 123 
Macarthur, James, 40, 72, 117 
Macarthur, John, 33, 41, 71, 72, 118 
Macarthur, Sir K., 41, 71 
Mackenzie, R. C, 110 
Macquarie, Governor, 55, 69, 131 
Maitland, E. L., 151 
Mance, Captain H. T., 149 
Mansfield, Rev. R., 65, 66, 82-3 
Manton, J. A., 66, 157 
Manton, Rev. J. A., 6S 
Manton, William J. K., 66 
Marsden, A. K., 123, 124, 129, 132, ,134, 135. 

Marsden, Rev. Samuel, 32, 34, 45, 46, 47, 

48, 54, 68, 71. 72, 82, 115. 131 
Markets, The, 25, 32 
Martin, C. J., Sir James, 83, 84, 120 
Martin, H. M., 38, 81 
Mason, Edmund, 80-1, 123 
Mason, H., 123, 124, 135, 136 
Masters, C, 40 
Mayoral Deadlock, The, 27 
Mayors of Parramatta (1862-19111, 27 
Medical Institute, 7S. 12 1-5 
Meggitt, H. W., 122, 124 
"Mercury, The Cumberland," 80, 84 
"Mercury, The Parramatta," 80, 84 
Mercy, College of Our Lady of, 56 
"Merinos, Pure," 39 

Methodism, Centenary of Australian, 64 
Methodist Church, The. 63-7 
Methodist Union. 66, 67 
Military Barracks, 43 
Mitchell Library, The, 4 6 
Motntt, W. G., 11 
Mood, Ralph, 11, 18, 29 
Morgan, Peter,- 122, 124, 125 
Morris, E. A., Ill 
Mortimer, G., 124, 12.t 
Moxham, T. R., 27, 120. 125, 142 
Murphy, Michael, 154 
Murray, J. H., 35 
Music in Parramatta, 56-7 
Muston, T., 67 
Muston, W., 124 

Xames of Settlement al Parramatta, 31, 32 

Xash, W., 12, 13, 116, 117 

National School, The, 35, 105 

Nepean, Captain. 71 

Nepean Water Supply. 16, 17 

Newington College, 66, 94, 99, 100, 101, 149. 

Newman, Rev. C. T., 66 
New South W'ales. Bank of, 35, 4 4 
New South Wales Corps, 107 
Nicholl, W., 133 

Noller, W. P., 27, 29, 131, 151, 159. 160 
Numbering Houses in Parramatta, 25 
Nun iirofessed in Australia, First, 56 

Oakes, George, 118. 119, 120, 123, 152 
Oberman, H.. 11 
(>bservator,y, The, 77 
o'Grady, P. F., 110 

Oldest Grammar School in .Australia. 
King's School 




O'Neil, Rev. Peter, 55 
Oranges in Australia, First, 116 
Orclianls in Parramatta, First, 115 
Orchestral Society, Parramatta and Dis- 
trict, IfiO 
OUeilly, IX P., S3, 108, 119, 138, 139 
O'Reilly, Very Rev. Thomas, 56, 122, 124 
Our Men in War Time. 113 

Park. Parramatta, 13. 21, 23, 77, 91, 115, 

117, 129, 130-132 
Parker, Sir H. W., 41, 118, 119, 120, 121 
Parkes, Sir Henry, 80, 83, 118, 121 
Parramatta Pistrict School, 07 
Parramatta Turf Club, 143 
Parramatta, Tlie winner of first horse-race 

in Australia, 143 
Paterson, Rev. .1., 58 
Payten, A., 7, 35. 59, 133. 134 
Payten X., 133 
Pearce. E. P., 10 
Percival. Rev. G. C, 63, 65 
Phillili, Governor. 25, 30, 31, 32, 33, 39, 55, 

114, 115, 131 
Poldins". Arclibishop, 56 
Politics in Parramatta. llS-121 
Pollock, T. W., 131 
Population (1861-1911), 21 
Postage in Parramatta, Penny, 83 
Postal Facilities in Early Days, 42-3 
Power, Rev. D., 55, 56 
Primitive Methodists. 63 
Pring, Mr. .Justice, 94-5. 96, 138 
Prog:ress. as sliown by Railways, 153 
Progress, as sliown hy Tlirift, 154 
"Pure Merinos, Tlie," 39 
Purnell, Rev. O. H., 62 

Pye, James, 5. 6. 12, 14, 1 .-). 16. 17, 27, 53, 117 
Pye, D. W.. 101. 139. 140 

Queen's Wliarf, The, 25 
Quisley, H., 136 

Racing and Hunting. 143 

Railway Commissioners. First. 152 

Railway Opened. First, 40, 152 

Railways, 152-4 

Rate levied in Parramatta, First, 21 

Rawe, G., 143 

Rawlinson, S. G., 159 

"Rebellion" at the Factory, 38 

"Red Cow. The," 26, 37, 116 

Responsible Government, lis 

Richardson. Harry. 152, 153 

Richardson. Ralph. 16, 153 

Richardson, R. S.. 138 

Rifle Shooting, 108 

Rifles. Parramatta Volunteer, 107 

Rigney, Monsignor, 55 

River Transport. 33 

Roberts. E. A., 99 

Roberts. Lord, 112 

Robilliard. P. H.. 162. 163 

"Rose Hill." 31 

Robertson, Sir John, 9, S3 

Rosehill Racing Club and Course, 144, 145 

Rowling, A., 138 

Rowling, IC. L., 67 

Rugby Football in Parramatta. 99, 141 

Rumker. C. L.. 77. 7.S, 79, SO 

Ruse. Jolin, 39. 114 

Rutter. Dr. R. C, 123 

Rutter, Matron, 123 

St. Andrew's Churcli, 57 

St. John's Church. 42, 45-7 

St. John's Park, 74 

St. John's Parsona.ue, 32 
I St. Patrick's Cluirch, 54-6 

Salailine, L. W., 11 

Sargent, T. J., 125 

Saunders, Jolin, 11, 27, 125 

Savings Bank of X.S.AV., 84, 154 

Scliaeffer. Pliilip, 114 

Scholarship Boards at T.K.S., Two, S9 

Scliool of Arts, Parramatta, 155 

Schoolmaster in Parramatta, First, 34 

Sewerage System. Tlie 24, 25 

Slieehy, Archpriest, 56 

Show, First Agricultural, 117 

Siely, J., 145 

Simpson, Rev. W., 86, 87 

Sisters of Mercy, 56 

Smith, Gilbert, 108 

Smitli, J. B., 4, 29 

Smith. Josepli, 6. 27 

Sorlie. J.. 141, 142 

Soudan Contingent, Parramatta memhers 
of. 108 

Spurway, J., 138. 139, 150 

Staff. J. F., 46 

Statham, E. H., 51, 52, 53. 108, 155 

Steam Power for Railways, 152, 153 

Stenmark, T. O., 134 

Stewart, Mrs. Keith, 40, 152 

Stewart, Neil. 59, 108, 133. 134, 147 
I Stiles, Rev. G. E. C, 51 

Straub, R., 134 

Straughen, Rev. J., 63 
! Subiaco Cottage. 32 
I Sulman, J., 109, 110 
! Summons, C, 122, 124 

Sumner, Dean. 56 

Sunday Schools in Australia, Founder of, ,^9 

Superior Public School, I'arramatta X., l"'i 

Suttor, George. 14, 81-2. 108. 123 

Sydney Light Horse. 109 

Sydney Turf Club. 143 

Taylor, Hush, 27, 2S. S3, S4. 120, 125, 13S 
Taylor, Jolin, 5, 7, 12, 2S, 29, 84, 94, 108, 

132, 154 
Therry, Archpriest, 55 
Thomas, D. J., 90, 91, 92 
Tliomas. F. J.. 29, 155, 157, 158 
Thomas, J. H., 8 
Thompson, A.. 128 
Thomson, E. Deas, 156 
Three-decker Pulpit, Tlie. 46 
Tluirston. J., 83, 84 

Todhunter, F. W.. HI. 142. 155, 162, I6J 

Toll Bars, 32 

Town Hall, Tiie, 9, 12, 25-7, 33 

Trams, 41 

Trivett. J. B., 21 

Trollope, L. J., 87. 93 

Trougliton, Rev. Jolm. 48 

Tnuighton. Rev. .lames, 86 

Tull, John, 34 

Tiinks, L. Li., 109 

Veitch, G., 11 

Vineyards in Parramatta, 115-116 

Volunteer Rilles, Tlie I'arramatta, 107, lOS 

Volunteer Lancers. 109 

\'olunteers. The. 43. 94, 107 

"A*o\age. The," 75 

VVaddy, K. L., 140 

Waddy, Rev. E. I-'.. !i2. 140 

Waddy, Rev. P. S., 89, 90-2, 95-6, 100 

Waddy. Richard A., 89. 101, 108 

Wade, C. G., 89, 100, 101, 137, 142 

^^'ages Board in Australia, The first, 36 

Walford, S. R., 101, 138, 139, 140 

Walker, Rev. James, 4S, 51, 73, 87 

Walker, Rev. Joseph, 66 

Wallaroo Football Club, 99 

Walshe, Rev. T., 54 

Watchmen in Parramatta, 34 

Water Commissioners, The, 16 

Water Supply, 8, 9, 13 

Watkins, F. N., 154 

Watsford, Rev. John, 66, 81 

Walters, W., 125 

Watts, Lieut., 39 

Waugh, Dr. Isaac, 123. 136, 138 

Waugh. Dr. R. I'bipps, 123, 124, 158 

Waugh. John. 27, 29, 158 

Westniacott, Captain, 86 

Whiting, Dr. K.. 123 

Whitton, John, 152 

Wickham, L., 141, 142 

Wickham, Stanley, 140. 141. 142 

Wickham, Sydney. 12. 27, 28, 29 

Wilkinson, A. B., 102 

Wilkinson, T. H., 151 

Williams. John, 5, 6, 7, 27, 28 

Williams. Mother F. X., 56 

Williamson. 1 ir, W. C, 121 

Wilson. .).. 13S, 139, 140 

Withers, J. W., 6, 27 

Withers, R. A., 124, 156 

Wood as fuel for Engines, 152 

\\"ooden Churches. 45, 57 

Wool Industry, The, 72 

Wool. Prices of, 116 

Woolls. Rev. Dr., 50. 53. 73, 74, 75, 76, 84, 

86, 156 
"Woolpack, The," 26, 35. 116 
Wool]iack Bowline Chili, 134 

Young, G. E., 16 
Young, Governor. 30 
Young, Rev. P. S., 67 


^ '-^OKunm^ 



=.- -I 

mi im 1^1 1^ 

>OAavaan# ^OAavaains^ 




1^ "^/iajAiNnawv^ 














y/4 ^lOSANCElfj-^ 



ft ■ 




i^ %a3AiNn]WV^ >OAavaaiH^ ^OAavaani^ ^tjudnvsoi^'^ "^/iajAiNn-auv 






io\? '^ojnvjjo'^ 







'%ojnv3jo>' ^<!/ojnvjjo>' ^rjuDNvsoi^"^ 


, -< 


(^ ^OFCAllFOft^ 

i'^^ '^<?Aayaan-^'^^ 

\\« UNIVERJ/;^ .^lOSANCElfj-^ 





>0Aava8ii-i^ >&Aavaaii#^ 














\WEUNIVERy/^ ^lOSvWCElfj, 


















'^ciAavaaiii^ >&AavaaniS^ 

■Q^ ^^^lllBRARY(?/r^ 


% ^OFCAIimo., 








"^/SaiAINd ]WV 










o ■ 


^-;;OFCAllFO% ,^WEUNIVER5'/A ^lOSANCElfj^ 



:% ^vWSANCflfj]^ 





^^V\E^)NlVERS/^ ^lOSANCElfj-^ 

O u- 

_^ I? c? ^ 

<\lllBRARYOr^ ^ILlBKAlnGc^ 

^.yOdllVDJO'^ ^<!/0JllVDJO"^^ 








,^WE•UNIVERy/A. vjclOSANCElfjVj. 



8ii# "^OAUvaan-i^ 










IMi Wl 15^1 i^ 

r<,/^ l\\? *V/1 n -1 ■ivV'V ,.,,j;J,SaJTHERN REGIONAL UOSABVFAairTY 

5 ^ 






O ^^^ ■ 

^ 5 



"^^/sajAiNn-aftv^ '>&AavaaiH'^ >OAavaan-i^ 








j'OAavaaiii'^ >&Aavaaii-^^ 








<,^lllBRARYQ/r^ ^.^tllBRARYQr 







laiiis^'^ '^OAavaaiH^^ 







^(JAavaaiB^ >&Aavaaii#- 



"^/sa^AiNd jwv 


















^^;0F'CA1IF0% ^0FCA1IF0% 

'^^CAavaan#' ^<?Aavaani^' 







^(?Aavaan#- >&Aavaani'*^ 



=0 S 

0-1 -r*^ 




^.f/ojiivjjo^ ^ijaNvsoi^"^ %a3AiN(i-3\\v^ '^.ifojnvjjo'^ 



. ^ o 














^<?Aavaaii3N^ ^isdw-soi^"^ 

v7ia3AINIl 3WV^ 












^JUVDJO"^ '^<!(0JI]V3J0^ 





.-^OFCAL1FO% ^0FCA1IF0% 

:s'::S iisiiia